The Solent is the strait that separates the Isle of Wight from the mainland of England. It is about 20 miles long and varies in width between 2 1⁄2 and 5 mi, although the Hurst Spit which projects 1 1⁄2 mi into the Solent narrows the sea crossing between Hurst Castle and Colwell Bay to just over 1 mi; the Solent is a major shipping lane for passenger and military vessels. It is an important recreational area for water sports yachting, hosting the Cowes Week sailing event annually, it is sheltered by the Isle of Wight and has a complex tidal pattern, which has benefited Southampton's success as a port, providing a "double high tide" that extends the tidal window during which deep-draught ships can be handled. Portsmouth lies on its shores. Spithead, an area off Gilkicker Point near Gosport, is known as the place where the Royal Navy is traditionally reviewed by the monarch of the day; the area is of great ecological and landscape importance because of the coastal and estuarine habitats along its edge.
Much of its coastline is designated as a Special Area of Conservation. It is bordered by and forms a part of the character of a number of nationally important protected landscapes including the New Forest National Park, the Isle of Wight AONB; the word first appears in Saxon records as Solentan, but pre-dates the Saxon languages and is first recorded as Soluente in 731. This original spelling suggests a possible derivation from the Brittonic element -uente, which has endured throughout the history of Hampshire, as in the Roman city of Venta Belgarum, the post-Roman kingdom of Y Went, the modern name of Winchester. A pre-Celtic and Semitic root meaning "free-standing rock" has been suggested as a possible description of the cliffs marking western approach of the strait; this Semitic origin may be a relic of the Phoenician traders who sailed to Britain from the Mediterranean as part of the ancient tin trade. Another suggestion is. A river valley, the Solent has widened and deepened over many thousands of years.
The River Frome was the source of the River Solent, with four other rivers — the Rivers Avon, Hamble and Test — being tributaries of it. Seismic sounding has shown that, when the sea level was lower, the River Solent incised its bed to a depth of at least 46 metres below current Ordnance Datum. Link to map showing former course of Solent River The Purbeck Ball Clay contains kaolinite and mica, showing that in the Lutetian stage of the Eocene water from a granite area Dartmoor, flowed into the River Solent. Seabed survey shows that when the sea level was lower in the Ice Age the River Solent continued the line of the eastern Solent to a point due east of the east end of the Isle of Wight and due south of a point about 3 kilometres west of Selsey Bill, south-south-west for about 30 kilometres, south for about 14 kilometres, joined the main river flowing down the dry bed of the English Channel. During the Ice Age, meanders of the Solent's tributaries became incised: for example, an incised meander of the River Test is buried under reclaimed land under the Westquay shopping centre, near Southampton docks.
Since the retreat of the most recent glaciation the South East of England, like the Netherlands, has been slowly sinking through historic time due to forebulge sinking. A new theory – that the Solent was a lagoon – was reported in the Southern Daily Echo by Garry Momber from the Hampshire and Wight Trust for Maritime Archaeology; the Isle of Wight was contiguous with the Isle of Purbeck in Dorset — the Needles on Wight and Old Harry Rocks on Purbeck are the last remnant of this connection. Ten thousand years ago a band of resistant Chalk rock, part of the Southern England Chalk Formation, ran from the Isle of Purbeck area of south Dorset to the eastern end of Isle of Wight, parallel to the South Downs. Inland behind the Chalk were less resistant sands and gravels. Through these weak soils and rocks ran many rivers, from the Dorset Frome in the west and including the Stour, Beaulieu River, Test and Hamble, which created a large estuary flowing west to east and into the English Channel at the eastern end of the present Solent.
This great estuary is now referred to as the Solent River. When glaciers covering more northern latitudes melted at the end of the last ice age, two things happened to create the Solent. Firstly, a great amount of flood water ran into the Solent River and its tributaries, carving the estuary deeper. Secondly, post-glacial rebound after the removal of the weight of ice over Scotland caused the island of Great Britain to tilt about an east-west axis, because isostatic rebound in Scotland and Scandinavia is pulling mantle rock out from under the Netherlands and south England: this is forebulge sinking. Over thousands of years, the land sank in the south to submerge many valleys creating today's characteristic rias, such as Southampton Water and Poole Harbour, as well as submerging the Solent; the estuary of the Solent River was flooded, the Isle of Wight became separated from the mainland as the chalk ridge between The Needles on the island and Old Harry Rocks on the mainland was eroded. This is thought to have happened about 7,500 years ago.
The process of coastal change is still continuing, with the soft cliffs on some parts of the Solent, such as Fort Victoria eroding, whilst other parts, such as
Newhaven, East Sussex
Newhaven is a channel ferry port in East Sussex in England, with regular passenger services to Dieppe. It lies at the mouth of the River Ouse, which has migrated westward from Seaford, one of the Cinque Ports. After a breakwater was built at the village of Meeching, a new outlet cut through the valley, the railway reached the port in 1847, enabling a train-ferry, which brought great activity; the area became known as the'new haven' recognised as'The Port of Newhaven' in 1882. Newhaven lies at the mouth of the River Ouse, in the valley the river has cut through the South Downs. Over the centuries the river has migrated between Newhaven and Seaford in response to the growth and decay of a shingle spit at its mouth. There was a Bronze Age fort on. In about 480 AD, the Saxon people established a village near where Newhaven now stands, which they named "Meeching". Throughout the Middle Ages, the main outlet and port of the Ouse was at Seaford; the growth of the shingle spit hindered the outflow of the river, which flooded the Levels upstream and hindered access to the port.
Therefore, a channel through the shingle spit was cut in the mid-16th century below Castle Hill, creating access to a sheltered harbour, better than that at Seaford. This was the origin of modern Newhaven. However, shingle continued to accumulate and so the mouth of the Ouse began to migrate eastwards again. Under the Ouse Navigation Act, a western breakwater was constructed to arrest longshore drift and so cut off the supply of shingle to the spit. A new outlet was built below Castle Hill. At that time the settlement began to be known as the "new haven"; the present breakwater was built in 1890. It was part of the Holmstrow hundred until the abolition of hundreds in the 19th century. Although there are some signs of the derelict facilities that serviced the former train ferry operations, the port still sees a great deal of freight and passengers movement. International ferries run to the French port of Dieppe, Seine-Maritime, operated by DFDS Seaways. There are two outbound sailings per day, one in the morning and one in the evening, using the 18,654 GT ro-ro ferry MS Côte D'Albâtre.
Rail passengers wishing to connect with the ferries are advised nationally to travel to Newhaven Town, use the free bus service. The port is the proposed main landside site for E. ON's development of the offshore-Rampion Wind Farm; the village was of little maritime importance until the opening of the railway line to Lewes in 1847. In 1848, the exiled French King Louis Philippe I landed here in disguise after abdicating his throne; the London Brighton and South Coast Railway constructed their own wharf and facilities on the east side of the river, opened the Newhaven harbour railway station. The railway funded the dredging of the channel and other improvements to the harbour between 1850 and 1878, to enable it to be used by cross channel ferries, in 1863 the LB&SCR and the Chemin de Fer de l'Ouest introduced the Newhaven-Dieppe passenger service; the harbour was recognised as'The Port of Newhaven' in 1882. Imports included French farm products and manufactures, timber and slates. Newhaven harbour was designated as the principal port for the movement of men and materiel to the European continent during World War I and was taken over by the military authorities and the ferries requisitioned for the duration of the war.
Between 22 September 1916 and 2 December 1918, the port and town of Newhaven were designated a'Special Military Area' under the'Defence of the Realm Regulations', the Harbour station was closed to the public. The port and harbour facilities, rail sidings and warehousing were enlarged at this time and electric lighting installed to allow for 24-hour operation. During World War II, large numbers of Canadian troops were stationed at Newhaven, the ill-fated Dieppe Raid in 1942 was launched from the harbour; when Lord Lucan vanished in 1974, his car was found in Newhaven, in Norman Road, with two types of blood in it. The Newhaven Lifeboat, the first of, commissioned in 1803, is among the oldest in Britain, was established some 20 years before the Royal National Lifeboat Institution; the town established the rescue lifeboat in response to the wreck of HMS Brazen in January 1800 when only one man of her crew of some 105 men could be saved. The town used a combination of funds raised locally and contributed by Lloyd's of London to purchase a lifeboat built to Henry Greathead's "Original" design.
Newhaven has one of the Watch stations of the National Coastwatch Institution. To the east, in the neighbouring parish of Seaford was the village of Tide Mills, built in 1761, now derelict. Here are the remains of workers' cottages, the tide mill itself, a large saline lagoon, the storage pond for high water to power the mills on the outgoing tide; the Newhaven Marconi Radio Station was established in 1904, started running in 1905. The station was owned and operated by the Marconi Radio Company and achieved regular ship to shore radio communications in 1912. To the east of Newhaven is the 50,000-foot production factory of King and McGaw, the UK's largest online Art provider; the company employs around 70 people and its contribution to the area was recognised in April 2014 with a visit from local MP Norman Baker. The Heritage Marine Hospital was built in 1924 to cater for disabled boys, it became a casualty of wartime defence work during World War II
The River Hamble is a river in Hampshire, England. It rises near Bishop's Waltham and flows for some 7.5 miles through Botley and Swanwick before entering Southampton Water near Hamble-le-Rice and Warsash. The Hamble is tidal for half its length and is navigable in its lower reaches, which have facilitated shipbuilding activities since medieval times. Leisure craft are still built there today. One of these builders was Luke & co Luke Bros, a reputed yard at Hamble from around 1890 to 1945; the river, its shipbuilding yards have been used for military purposes during World War II. Its lower reaches are now popular for boating, being known throughout the sailing world as The Heart of British Yachting From its source near Bishop's Waltham, the river flows in a southerly direction picking up several small tributary streams before reaching Botley, the site of an ancient watermill. Below Botley, the river becomes navigable, it gains strength from adjoining streams, draining the surrounding areas of Hedge End, Curdridge and Burridge.
This section has been extensively used for medieval shipbuilding, using timber grown locally in the neighbouring woods. Nearby Kings Copse Kings Forest, indicates the former importance of this area; the river's west bank can be accessed from Manor Farm Country Park, where it is possible to walk through Dock Copse and Fosters Copse. At extreme low tide, it is just possible to see the remains of the wreck of Henry V's 15th century warship Grace Dieu; this section of the river was home to HMS Cricket during World War II. Some 2 miles south of Botley, the river passes between the villages of Bursledon and Lower Swanwick and is crossed by the M27 motorway, the Portsmouth to Southampton railway line, the A27 road on three substantial bridges. A further 2 miles south of Bursledon, the river flows between the villages of Hamble-le-Rice and Warsash before entering Southampton Water. A passenger ferry crosses the river between Hamble-le-Rice and Warsash, forming an important link in the Solent Way and E9 European Coastal Path.
The river is the location for several large marinas, the largest being the Port Hamble Marina and boat yards, situated on both banks as far upstream as Bursledon. Rivers of the United Kingdom Walks in the Hamble Valley Map sources for River Hamble for the source of the River Hamble. Map sources for River Hamble for the mouth of the River Hamble; the River Hamble Harbour Authority Port Hamble Marina
Withernsea is a seaside resort town and civil parish in the East Riding of Yorkshire and forms the focal point for a wider community of small villages in Holderness. Its most famous landmark is the white inland lighthouse; the lighthouse – no longer active – now houses a museum to 1950s actress Kay Kendall, born in the town. The Prime Meridian crosses the coast to the north-west of Withernsea. According to the 2011 UK census, Withernsea parish had a population of 6,159, an increase on the 2001 UK census figure of 5,980. Like many seaside resorts, Withernsea has a wide promenade which reaches north and south from Pier Towers, the historic entrance to the pier, built in 1877 at a cost of £12,000; the pier was 399 yards long, but was reduced in length through several impacts by local ships, starting with the Saffron in 1880 before the collision by an unnamed ship in 1888, again by a Grimsby fishing boat and again by the Henry Parr in 1893, leaving the once grand pier with a mere 50 feet of damaged wood and steel, removed in 1903.
The Pier Towers have been refurbished. During the mid-19th century the Hull and Holderness Railway was constructed, connecting the nearby city of Hull with Withernsea and making possible cheap and convenient holidays for Victorian workers and their families, as well as boosting Withernsea's economy, it closed in all that remains of it is an overgrown footpath where the track used to be. Withernsea, like many British resorts, has suffered from a decline in the number of visiting holidaymakers. Following an unsuccessful attempt to purchase the Proudfoot Supermarket, Tesco opened a competing store which struggled to attract sales. Tesco resorted to a campaign of price flexing, offering customers £8 off for every £20 spent in their Withernsea branch; this led to an investigation by the Competition Commission. After their market share increased, Tesco prices returned to a level closer to the national average. Subsequently, Aldi took over the former Proudfoot supermarket, are now offering competitive opposition to Tesco.
Meanwhile, the Withernsea Town Council has bought a former pub and nightclub, centrally located opposite Aldi, has renamed it the Meridian Centre. A lottery bid for over £400,000 - Reaching Communities building fund - has been successful, the building is now being refurbished to provide a community centre, including a cinema and performing arts venue. There is a 9-hole golf course and leisure centre complex and a variety of pubs and restaurants are situated around the centre of the town; some of the town's better-known tourist attractions and landmarks include: The lighthouse situated on Hull Road with a museum dedicated to the actress Kay Kendall. The Pier Towers leading onto a Blue Flag beach. Valley Gardens with a large square and outside stage for local events and celebrations. Various amusement arcades that line the road opposite the Valley Gardens. An RNLI lifeboat museum; the parish church of St Nicholas, a Grade II* listed building. The Greenwich Meridian; the area is served by BBC Radio Humberside, Viking FM, Seaside FM, Capital Yorkshire, KCFM & Magic 1161.
Ofcom awarded Seaside FM a community radio licence to broadcast to the town on 105.3 MHz and the station launched on 5 October 2007 from studios at 27 Seaside Road. Weekly newspaper The Holderness Gazette has offices on Seaside Road. There are a number of primary schools located in Withernsea. Withernsea High School is the main secondary provider and includes a sixth form and has a technology college; the high school known was refurbished in 2015. Withernsea has its own hospital owned by the NHS, subject to services cuts and lost its Accident and Emergency Department facility, it is now a community hospital. Withernsea has five emergency service stations located within Yorkshire Ambulance Service. Charles Hotham was vicar of Withernsea from 1640 to 1644. Birthplace of jazz musician Kenny Baker. Actress Kay Kendall was born in Withernsea in 1927. Birthplace of footballer Stuart Gray. Charlotte Garside, one of the tiniest girls worldwide The Ruby Red Performers, a group of dancers who appeared on the 9th series of Britain's Got Talent in 2015, are from Withernsea.
Withernsea Town Council contains 11 councillors. Preceding the Town Council was the Withernsea Parish Council which existed from 1984-1986 and preceding, the Withernsea Urban District Council which existed from 1898-1974; the current Mayor of Withernsea is Cllr. Matthew Lloyd, Mayor since May 2016 and his current term ends in May 2017; the Deputy Mayor is Cllr. Terry Dagnell; the next full council election is due to take place in 2019 when all councillors will be up for election. Here are the results of the last full council election and the subsequent by-elections: For the North Ward the following were elected: Anne Blake, Gordon Mervyn Hodgson, Terry Render, John Windas, Stewart Winters. For the South Ward the following were elected: Brian Michael Cloke, Keith Hardcastle, Michael Kevan Hough, Georgie Owens, Patrick Michael Spicer, Stuart Woodruff. A by-election for the North ward was called following the resignation of Terry Render; the following was elected for the North Ward: Callum Hollingworth.
A by-election was called for the South Ward following the resignation of Stuart Woodruff. The following was elected in the South Ward by-ele
Lymington is a port town on the west bank of the Lymington River on the Solent, in the New Forest district of Hampshire, England. It faces Isle of Wight, to which there is a car ferry service operated by Wightlink, it is within the civil parish of Pennington. The town has a large tourist industry, based on proximity to its harbour, it is a major yachting centre with three marinas. According to the 2011 census, Lymington had a population of 9,385; the earliest settlement in the Lymington area was around the Iron Age hill fort known today as Buckland Rings. The hill and ditches of the fort survive, archaeological excavation of part of the walls was carried out in 1935; the fort has been dated to around the 6th century BC. There is another supposed Iron Age site at nearby Ampress Hole. However, evidence of settlement there is sparse before Domesday book. Lymington itself began as an Anglo-Saxon village; the Jutes arrived in the area from the Isle of Wight in the 6th century and founded a settlement called Limentun.
The Old English word tun means a farm or hamlet whilst limen is derived from the Ancient British word *lemanos meaning an elm tree. The town is recorded in Domesday as "Lentune". About 1200, the lord of the manor, William de Redvers created the borough of New Lymington around the present quay and High Street, while Old Lymington comprised the rest of the parish, he gave the town the right to hold a market. The town became a parliamentary borough in 1585, returning two MPs until 1832, when its electoral base was expanded, its representation was reduced to one member under the Second Reform Act of 1867, it was subsumed into the New Forest Division under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885. Lymington was famous for salt-making from the Middle Ages up to the 19th century. There was an continuous belt of salt workings along the coast toward Hurst Spit. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, Lymington possessed a military depot that included a number of foreign troops – artillery but several militia regiments.
At the time of the Napoleonic Wars, the King's German Legion-Artillery was based near Portchester Castle and sent sick soldiers to Lymington or Eling Hospital. As well as Germans and Dutch, there were French regiments, they were raised to take part in the ill-fated Quiberon Invasion of France, from. From the early 19th century, Lymington had a thriving shipbuilding industry associated with Thomas Inman, builder of the schooner Alarm, which famously raced the American yacht America in 1851. Much of the town centre is Victorian and Georgian, with narrow cobbled streets in the area of the quay. Lymington promotes stories about its smuggling. There are unproven stories of smugglers' tunnels running from the old inns and under the High Street to the town quay. Lymington was one of the boroughs reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835. In 1932 the borough was extended to include Milton, the parishes of Milford on Sea and Pennington, parts of Lymington Rural District, so extending it along the coast to the edge of Christchurch.
The borough of Lymington was abolished on 1 April 1974 under the terms of the Local Government Act 1972, becoming an unparished area in the district of New Forest, with Charter Trustees. The area was subsequently divided into the four parishes of New Milton and Pennington, Milford-on-Sea and Hordle. Due to changes in planning legislation, many older areas of the town have been redeveloped. Houses have been replaced with blocks of flats and retirement homes. In a Channel 5 programme, Lymington received the accolade of "best town on the coast" in the UK for living, for scenery, transport links and low crime levels. Lymington New Forest Hospital opened in 2007; this has a Minor Injuries Unit but no Emergency facility. The nearest are at Southampton General Hospital, 16 miles away, the Royal Bournemouth Hospital, 14.5 miles away. The main Anglican parish church is the St Thomas in the high street; the northern neighbourhoods of the town are Buckland and Lower Buckland, the latter adjoining the Lymington River.
However, due to confusion with Buckland, Portsmouth in Hampshire, many people refer to themselves and their businesses here as Lymington. The poet Caroline Anne Bowles was died at Buckland Cottage. Pennington is a village near to Lymington, but is separated from the town by several schools with playing fields. Upper Pennington is a northern residential offshoot of Pennington, more rural in character entirely surrounded by heath and farmland. Lymington yacht basin and mudflats make up the former docks area known as Waterford. Woodside consists of a small southern triangle of residential roads, gardens and a cricket ground, which includes a manor house, church community hall, All Saints, Lymington; the church was built in 1909 by W. H. Romaine-Walker, architect of Danesfield House, Moreton Hall and the Tate Gallery extension, a student of the High Victorian architect George Edmund Street. Normandy is a coastal hamlet by a small dock and estuary, it includes the buildings Little Normandy and Normandy Farm.
The last backs onto an early 19th-century listed building. The high street has seen rapid change over the last few years, with an increasing presence of chain stores and coffee-shop franchises. There is a local market, one of the New Forest producers' markets, held at the Masonic hall once a month
Hayling Island is an island off the south coast of England, in the borough of Havant in the county of Hampshire, near Portsmouth. An Iron Age shrine in the north of Hayling Island was developed into a Roman temple in the 1st century BC and was first recorded in Richard Scott's Topographical and Historical Account of Hayling Island, published in 1826; the site was excavated between 1897 and 1907 and again from 1976 to 1978. Remains are buried beneath cultivated farmland; the first coin credited to Commius, found in an excavated context was found at the temple. This Commius was the son of the Commius mentioned by Julius Caesar in his writings although its possible the coin was issued by the original Commius. Salt production was an industry on the island from the 11th century until the late 19th century. Construction of Northwode Chapel by the monks of Jumièges, began in about 1140, it has been claimed that St Peter's three bells, cast in about 1350, have one of the oldest peals in England. St Mary's Church is a standard design of the churches of its era, but upon close examination, the walls have been constructed from a mortar of local shells and beach pebbles.
The ancient yew tree in the churchyard is believed to be the oldest yew in the country, with a girth of some nine metres. Although estimates as to its age vary, they range from over a thousand to nearly two thousand years old; the grave of Princess Yourievsky, a member of the ill-fated Russian Royal family and who lived in North Hayling for many years, may be found in St. Peter's churchyard; the island was the location of a mock invasion during the military Exercise Fabius in May 1944, rehearsing the preparations for D-Day. In 1982, British courts recognised prior art by Peter Chilvers, who as a young boy on Hayling Island assembled his first board combined with a sail, in 1958, it incorporated all the elements of modern windsurfer. The courts found that innovations were "merely an obvious extension" and upheld the defendant's claim based on film footage; this court case set a significant precedent for patent law in the United Kingdom, in terms of Inventive step and non-obviousness. The case, Hayling, a replica of Chilvers' original board were featured on an episode of the BBC's The One Show in 2009.
On 20 October 2013, at least one hundred properties on the island were damaged when it was hit by a tornado. No injuries were reported. Hayling Island is a true island surrounded by sea. Looking at its north to south orientation, it is shaped like an inverted T, about 6.5 km long and 6.5 km wide. A road bridge connects its northern end to the mainland of England at Langstone; the Hayling Ferry is a small pedestrian ferry connecting to the Eastney area of the city of Portsmouth on the neighbouring Portsea Island. To the west is Langstone Harbour and to the east is Chichester Harbour; the natural beach at Hayling was predominantly sandy, but in recent years it has been mechanically topped with shingle dredged from the bed of the Solent in an effort to reduce beach erosion and reduce the potential to flood low-lying land. At low tide, the East Winner sandbank is visible, extending a mile out to sea; the coastline in this area has changed since Roman times: it is believed much land has been lost from the coasts of Hayling and Selsey by erosion and subsequent flooding.
As with the rest of the British Isles and Southern England, Hayling Island experiences a maritime climate with cool summers and mild winters. Temperatures have never fallen into double figures below freezing, illustrating the relative warmth of the island – comparable to the far southwest of England and its neighbour, the Isle of Wight. Temperature extremes between 1960 and 2010 have ranged from −9.4 °C during January 1963, up to 32.1 °C during June 1976. Hayling Island has a non-League football club, Hayling United F. C. which plays at Hayling Park. Although residential, Hayling is a holiday and sailing centre, the site where windsurfing was invented. In summer 2010, the Hayling Island Sailing Club hosted the 2010 World Laser Standard Senior and Junior Championships; the Senior championship was won by Australian Tom Slingsby, whilst Dane Thorbjoern Schierup won the Junior competition. Today it is home to many different types including a growing Fireball fleet; as a consequence of the island's popularity for water activities, there are two lifeboat services: Hayling Island Lifeboat Station, run by the RNLI and Hayling Island Rescue Service, an independent service run by retired RNLI helmsman, Frank Dunster.
The island hosts one of the few active Real Tennis courts in the UK. Founded in 1911, Seacourt Tennis club is one of only a handful in the UK where it is possible to play every recognised racquet sport; the racquets court itself was opened by Sir Colin Cowdrey. Seacourt Tennis Club hosts a weekly fencing club featuring all ages and weapons. Hayling Golf Club has been voted in the top 100 golf courses in the UK. A traditional links course, although short by modern standards, the strong prevailing south-westerly winds, fast greens, gorse bushes and traditional deep links bunkers make this a stern test for any golfer. Funland, an amusement park situated at Beachlands, is open year-round, as is the East Hayling Light Railway which runs from the funfair to Eastoke corner. T
Hornsea is a small seaside resort and civil parish in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. The settlement dates to at least the early medieval period; the town was expanded in the Victorian era with the coming of the Hull and Hornsea Railway in 1864. The civil parish encompasses Hornsea town. Structures of note with the parish include the medieval parish church of St Nicholas, Bettison's Folly, Hornsea Mere and the sea front promenade; the Hull and Hornsea Railway opened 1864, was closed in 1964 – the main railway station, Hornsea Town, is still extant, the former trackbed forms the section of the Trans Pennine Trail to Hull. In the First World War the Mere was the site of RNAS Hornsea, a seaplane base. During the Second World War the town and beach was fortified against invasion. Hornsea Pottery was established in Hornsea c. 1950 and closed in 2000. Modern Hornsea still functions as a coastal resort, has large caravan sites to the north and south; the civil parish of Hornsea is located on the Holderness coast 16 miles north-east of Hull.
The parish is bounded by the civil parishes of Atwick to the north, Seaton to the west and Mappleton to the south, by the North Sea to the east. The civil parish contains the coastal town of Hornsea, a suburb of "Hornsea Bridge" or "Hornsea Burton" south of the former railway line, as well as Hornsea Mere. Excluding the town and its suburbs there are no other habitations of note in the parish, except some farms; the remainder of the parish is low lying farm land divided into fields. Most of the civil parish lies at between 33 and 66 feet above sea level, with the highest points in the parish under 98 feet; the B1242 road runs north to south parallel with the coast through the parish and the A1035 runs westward connecting with the A165 near Leven. Additionally a foot and cycle path, the Hornsea Rail Trail, part of the Trans Pennine Trail runs south-west from the town centre towards Hull. Hornsea Mere is a lake of around 1.24 by 0.62 miles which outflows towards the sea by the Stream Dike Drain – the drain separates Hornsea from the Hornsea Bridge suburb.
According to the 2011 UK census, Hornsea parish had a population of 8,432. Hornsea is in the Parliamentary constituency of Holderness; the underlying geology is boulder clay. High points in the area are formed of gravel; the topsoils are fine and loamy, whilst the rock beneath the boulder clay is classed as Flamborough Chalk from the Upper Cretaceous period. Large stones in the boulder clay were removed for use in road construction – this activity had been prohibited at Hornsea by the board of trade by 1885. Sands and clays were used locally in building, though better quality materials were found elsewhere; some early writers thought that ground conditions in the area were evidence of an earthquake, whilst Poulson 1840 supposed the Mere and fossil finds to be evidence of a great flood or deluge in the area. Since at least the late 19th century the geological conditions overlying the underlying chalk have been interpreted as being from a glacial process in origin – both the boulder clay and the gravel beds and morraines.
Borings suggest the chalk lies at around 60 to 70 feet under the sand and clay beds at Hornsea, though deeper. Water in Hornsea has been obtained from wells and bore holes, though some borings have yielded water contaminated with iron, whilst others failed to reach an aquifer at a depth of 976 feet; the Mere is the last of many lakes in the Holderness area – the remainder had been drained by the late 19th century. At the sea remains of a submarine forest were found in a bed of peat found around halfway between cliff and lower water; the trees found were oak and willow. A variety of fossils have been found in the deposits, including those of the extinct Eurasian cave lion, Woolly Mammoth, Aurochs as well as Red Deer and Horse species. Molluscs found in the subterranean gravel appear to have been freshwater species, it is thought the source of the submarine forests recorded on the coast at Hornsea may have been a second mere on the eastern side of the present lake, silted and was lost to the sea at some point.
The coast at Hornsea is subject to erosion. The rate of erosion varies, but has been inferred at around 4 yards per year in the latter part of the 16th century; the rate of erosion may have been influenced by the presence or absence of erosion limiting groynes or a pier. South, at Hornsea Burton erosion rates rose from 1.3 to 5 yards pa between the periods 1845–76 and 1876–82, thought to be due to the construction of groynes north of the beach at Hornsea. The current rate of erosion is 1 foot 8 inches north of and 6 feet 7 inches south of Hornsea – the difference due to the defences at Hornsea preventing the renewing flow of sediment southwards. An apocryphal inscription said to have been found in Hornsea references the nearing of the sea by erosion – the figure of ten miles given as the distance the town once stood from the sea is artistic licence. Hornsea steeple, when I built thee,Thou was 10 miles off Burlington, 10 miles off Beverley, 10 miles off sea; the old town of Hornsea is centred on the Market Place, includes Southgate and Mere Side.