Betting in poker
In the game of poker, the play centers on the act of betting, as such, a protocol has been developed to speed up play, lessen confusion, increase security while playing. Different games are played using different types of bets, small variations in etiquette exist between cardrooms, but for the most part the following rules and protocol are observed by the majority of poker players. Players in a poker game act in clockwise rotation; when it is a player's turn to act, the first verbal declaration or action they take binds them to their choice of action. Until the first bet is made each player in turn may "check,", to not place a bet, or "open,", to make the first bet. After the first bet each player may "fold,", to drop out of the hand losing any bets they have made. A player may fold by surrendering one's cards. A player may check by making any similar motion. All other bets are made by placing chips in front of the player, but not directly into the pot. In general, the person to the left of the dealer acts first and action proceeds in a clockwise fashion.
If any player has folded earlier, action proceeds to next player. In games with blinds, the first round of betting begins with the player to the left of the blinds. In stud games, action begins with the player showing the strongest proceeds clockwise. If there is a bring-in, the first round of betting begins with the player obliged to post the bring-in. If no one has yet opened the betting round, a player may pass or check, equivalent to betting zero and/or to calling the current bet of zero; when checking, a player declines to make a bet. In games played with blinds, players may not check on the opening round because the blinds are live bets and must be called or raised to remain in the hand. A player who has posted the big blind has the right to raise on the first round, called the option, if no other player has raised. If all players check, the betting round is over with no additional money placed in the pot. A common way to signify checking is to tap the table, either with a fist, knuckles, an open hand or the index finger.
If in any betting round it is a player's turn to act and the action is unopened the player can open action in a betting round by making a bet—the act of making the first voluntary bet in a betting round is called opening the round. On the first betting round, it is called opening the pot, though in variants where blind bets are common, the blind bets "open" the first betting round and other players call and/or raise the "big blind" bet; some poker variations have special rules about opening a round. For example, a game may have a betting structure that specifies different allowable amounts for opening than for other bets, or may require a player to hold certain cards to open. A player makes a bet by placing the chips they wish to wager into the pot. Under normal circumstances, all other players still in the pot must either call the full amount of the bet or raise if they wish remain in, the only exceptions being when a player does not have sufficient stake remaining to call the full amount of the bet or when the player is all-in.
To raise is to increase the size of an existing bet in the same betting round. A player making the second or subsequent raise of a betting round is said to re-raise. A player making a raise after checking in the same betting round is said to check-raise; the sum of the opening bet and all raises is the amount that all players in the hand must call in order to remain eligible to win the pot, subject to the table stakes rules described in the previous paragraph. A bluff is when a player bets or raises when it is they do not have the best hand; when a player bets or raises with a weak hand that has a chance of improvement on a betting round, the bet or raise is classified as a semi-bluff. On the other hand, a bet made by a player who hopes or expects to be called by weaker hands is classified as a value bet. In no-limit and pot-limit games, there is a minimum amount, required to be bet in order to open the action. In games with blinds, this amount is the amount of the big blind. Standard poker rules require that raises must be at least equal to the amount of the previous bet or raise.
For example, if an opponent bets $5, a player must raise by at least another $5, they may not raise by only $2. If a player raises a bet of $5 by $7, the next re-raise would have to be by at least another $7 more than the $12; the primary purpose of the minimum raise rule is to avoid game delays caused by "nuisance" raises (small raises of large bets, such as an extra $1 over a current bet of $50, that have little effect on the action but take time as all others m
2011 World Series of Poker
The 2011 World Series of Poker was the 42nd annual World Series of Poker. The WSOP is the most prestigious poker tournament in the world with the winner of the Main Event considered to be the World Champion, it was held at the Rio All Suite Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas, Nevada between May 31 – July 19, 2011. There were 59 bracelet events, beginning with the WSOP National Circuit Championship and culminating in the $10,000 No Limit Hold'em Championship; the November Nine concept returned for a fourth consecutive year, with the Main Event finalists returning on November 6, playing down to three that evening and adjourning until November 8. The 2011 WSOP marked the first time; because of the nature of the competition, live coverage was not allowed by the Nevada Gaming Commission. WSOP.com streamed 55 gold bracelet events on a 5-minute delay via the internet. ESPN3 streamed $50K Poker Players Championship and the Main Event online. ESPN doubled the airtime given to the WSOP from prior years. For the first time television coverage of the WSOP Main Event was "live" with a 30-minute delay.
The final table of the Main Event was televised in its entirety on ESPN. As per Nevada Gaming Commission stipulations, play was broadcast with a 15-minute delay and the hole cards were not shown to the television audience until after the hand was over. Since 1970, the WSOP was held in Las Vegas, Nevada. In 2004, Harrah's Entertainment purchased the rights to the WSOP and immediately started to expand the name brand. After the purchase, Harrah's introduced Circuit Events around the country; these events were intended to build up hype for the WSOP. In 2011, they introduced WSOP Circuit National Championship; the WSOP Circuit National Championship was an exclusive tournament, limited to 100 players who qualified through the circuit events. The winner of the championship was awarded a WSOP bracelet; the event, which took place from May 27 through May 29, was won by amateur player Sam Barnhart. Through the first 57 events, the 2011 WSOP: awarded $127,468,010 in prize money. Had 68,807 tournament entries.
Had 98 countries represented. Had representation from all 50 U. S. states. Had a male participation percentage of 94.7%. Had one multiple bracelet winner; the Main Event: had 6,865 entrants. Had 85 countries represented. Had representation from all 50 U. S. states. Had a male participation percentage of 96.5%. Had 4,604 participants from the U. S. had 2,265 participants from other countries. The $10,000 No Limit Hold. After reaching the final table of nine players on July 19, the remainder of the tournament was delayed until November 6; the Main Event drew 6,865 players, creating a prize pool of $64,531,000. The top 693 finishers placed in the money, with first place paying $8,715,638; the Main Event was won by Pius Heinz. There were 301 hands played at the final table, including 119 hands of heads-up play, the most in WSOP Main Event history. Several celebrities participated in the Main Event: Day 1-A: Jason Alexander, Vincent Van Patten Day 1-B: Sam Simon, Patrick Bruel Day 1-C: Paul Pierce, Brad Garrett, Petter Northug, Audley Harrison, Shane Warne, Ray Romano, Robert Iler Day 1-D: Jennifer Tilly, Shannon Elizabeth, René Angélil, Mars Callahan, Colson WhiteheadOf these celebrities, Sam Simon, Robert Iler and Mars Callahan finished in the money.
* Indicates a player who finished in the money. NB: This list is restricted to top 30 finishers with an existing Wikipedia entry. *Career statistics prior to the beginning of the 2011 Main Event
Game theory is the study of mathematical models of strategic interaction between rational decision-makers. It has applications in all fields of social science, as well as in computer science, it addressed zero-sum games, in which one person's gains result in losses for the other participants. Today, game theory applies to a wide range of behavioral relations, is now an umbrella term for the science of logical decision making in humans and computers. Modern game theory began with the idea regarding the existence of mixed-strategy equilibria in two-person zero-sum games and its proof by John von Neumann. Von Neumann's original proof used the Brouwer fixed-point theorem on continuous mappings into compact convex sets, which became a standard method in game theory and mathematical economics, his paper was followed by the 1944 book Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, co-written with Oskar Morgenstern, which considered cooperative games of several players. The second edition of this book provided an axiomatic theory of expected utility, which allowed mathematical statisticians and economists to treat decision-making under uncertainty.
Game theory was developed extensively in the 1950s by many scholars. It was explicitly applied to biology in the 1970s, although similar developments go back at least as far as the 1930s. Game theory has been recognized as an important tool in many fields; as of 2014, with the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences going to game theorist Jean Tirole, eleven game theorists have won the economics Nobel Prize. John Maynard Smith was awarded the Crafoord Prize for his application of game theory to biology. Early discussions of examples of two-person games occurred long before the rise of modern, mathematical game theory; the first known discussion of game theory occurred in a letter written by Charles Waldegrave, an active Jacobite, uncle to James Waldegrave, a British diplomat, in 1713. In this letter, Waldegrave provides a minimax mixed strategy solution to a two-person version of the card game le Her, the problem is now known as Waldegrave problem. In his 1838 Recherches sur les principes mathématiques de la théorie des richesses, Antoine Augustin Cournot considered a duopoly and presents a solution, a restricted version of the Nash equilibrium.
In 1913, Ernst Zermelo published Über eine Anwendung der Mengenlehre auf die Theorie des Schachspiels. It proved that the optimal chess strategy is determined; this paved the way for more general theorems. In 1938, the Danish mathematical economist Frederik Zeuthen proved that the mathematical model had a winning strategy by using Brouwer's fixed point theorem. In his 1938 book Applications aux Jeux de Hasard and earlier notes, Émile Borel proved a minimax theorem for two-person zero-sum matrix games only when the pay-off matrix was symmetric. Borel conjectured that non-existence of mixed-strategy equilibria in two-person zero-sum games would occur, a conjecture, proved false. Game theory did not exist as a unique field until John von Neumann published the paper On the Theory of Games of Strategy in 1928. Von Neumann's original proof used Brouwer's fixed-point theorem on continuous mappings into compact convex sets, which became a standard method in game theory and mathematical economics, his paper was followed by his 1944 book Theory of Games and Economic Behavior co-authored with Oskar Morgenstern.
The second edition of this book provided an axiomatic theory of utility, which reincarnated Daniel Bernoulli's old theory of utility as an independent discipline. Von Neumann's work in game theory culminated in this 1944 book; this foundational work contains the method for finding mutually consistent solutions for two-person zero-sum games. During the following time period, work on game theory was focused on cooperative game theory, which analyzes optimal strategies for groups of individuals, presuming that they can enforce agreements between them about proper strategies. In 1950, the first mathematical discussion of the prisoner's dilemma appeared, an experiment was undertaken by notable mathematicians Merrill M. Flood and Melvin Dresher, as part of the RAND Corporation's investigations into game theory. RAND pursued the studies because of possible applications to global nuclear strategy. Around this same time, John Nash developed a criterion for mutual consistency of players' strategies, known as Nash equilibrium, applicable to a wider variety of games than the criterion proposed by von Neumann and Morgenstern.
Nash proved that every n-player, non-zero-sum non-cooperative game has what is now known as a Nash equilibrium. Game theory experienced a flurry of activity in the 1950s, during which time the concepts of the core, the extensive form game, fictitious play, repeated games, the Shapley value were developed. In addition, the first applications of game theory to philosophy and political science occurred during this time. In 1979 Robert Axelrod tried setting up computer programs as players and found that in tournaments between them the winner was a simple "tit-for-tat" program that cooperates on the first step on subsequent steps just does whatever its opponent did on the previous step; the same winner was often obtained by natural selection. In 1965, Reinhard Selten introduced his solution concept of subgame perfect equilibria, which further refined the Nash equilibrium. In 1994 Nash and Harsanyi became Economics Nobel Laureates for their contributi
Community card poker
Community card poker refers to any game of poker that uses community cards, which are cards dealt face up in the center of the table and shared by all players. In these games, each player is dealt an incomplete hand, which are combined with the community cards to make a complete hand; the set of community cards is called the "board", may be dealt in a simple line or arranged in a special pattern. Rules of each game determine; the most popular community card game today is Texas. In home games, it is typical to use antes, while casinos use only blinds for these games. No limit and Fixed limit games are most common, while spread limit and pot limit games are less common; the betting format and stakes can vary by region as well as time of volume. Betting rounds have a higher limit than earlier betting rounds; each betting round begins with the player to the dealer's left, so community card games are positional games. Most community card games do not play well with lowball hand values, though some do play well at high-low split with ace-to-five low values, making it possible to win both halves of a pot.
When played high-low split, there is a minimum qualifying hand for low and no declaration is needed. The main difference from draw and stud poker are the community cards. Several community cards are dealt to the table, shared by all players, subject to variant-specific rules about how many, which of the cards may be used in each player's hand; such a set of community cards is called a "board" or "window". The board is dealt in a simple line, but some games may have elaborate layouts of community cards with special rules about what combinations can be used. For example, Texas hold'em ends with each player holding two cards in his individual hand, a board of five community cards in a simple line shared by everyone. In Omaha hold'em, game rules restrict players to using three of the five community cards, combined with two of the four cards dealt to each player, to make a hand. In Tic-tac-toe, the board is a 3x3 array of nine cards, players must use three cards from a row, column, or diagonal of the board.
This is the most popular community card game today. Each player is dealt two private "hole" cards, after. Three community cards are dealt face up to form the "flop", followed by a second betting round. A fourth community card is followed by a third betting round, and the fifth community card is followed by the final betting round. At showdown, each player plays the best five-card hand he can make using any five cards among the two in his hand and the five on the board; this is the key difference from Omaha. Note that in current practice, before each community card round first a card is "burned" and placed in a discard pile; this was implemented to prevent card-cheaters from "marking" cards and knowing what the card on the top of the dealer's deck was. For double-board hold'em, two separate five-card boards are dealt, the high hand using each board takes half of the pot. For example, after the first betting round, three community cards are dealt to each of two separate boards, it is possible for one player to have the best hand on both boards and thus "scoop" the entire pot.
This variant of Texas hold'em is sometimes called "double-flop hold'em", a bit of a misnomer, since there are not just two flops, but two turns and two rivers. Greek hold'em follows the same rules as Omaha, except that each player is only dealt two cards, same as in Texas hold'em. In Greek hold'em each player must use both hole cards along with 3 of the total available community cards to make the strongest five card hand, unlike Texas hold'em where each player may play the best five card poker hand from any combination of the seven cards available to them. In Irish poker, each player is dealt four cards before the flop. After the betting round on the flop is completed each player must discard two cards. From this point the game is played like Texas hold'em with betting after the turn and river. At showdown, each player uses their remaining two cards along with the board to construct a hand. Players are dealt three hole cards instead of two with three betting rounds: pre-flop and turn. Players can use any number of hole cards to make the final hand.
Royal hold'em is a variation, played using a stripped deck. In royal hold'em, the deuces through nines are stripped from the deck, thereby only leaving the tens through aces. Royal hold'em can only be played with a maximum of six players because there are only 20 cards in the deck. With 5 community cards, 3 burn cards, 2 pocket cards per player
Heads up poker
Heads up poker is a form of poker, played between only two players. It might be played during a larger cash game session, where the game is breaking up and only two players remain on the table, or where two players are trying to start a game and playing heads-up while waiting for other opponents, it is a necessary phase in most sit-and-go poker tournaments. Alternatively, heads up poker may be played on purpose, either in a cash game format, or as a SNG, where two players play a winner-take-all tournament for a fixed agreed upon amount of money. On larger online poker rooms and during certain tournament series, one may stumble upon larger heads up tournaments in the shoot-out format. In order to ensure the fairness of the game, all players finishing at the same level of the tournament bracket will be paid out the same amount of money, no matter what their finishing place is; the rules of heads up poker are the same as in a game with three or more players, except in community card poker, the blinds are reversed in order to decrease the positional advantage in matches between two players of similar skill.
The strategy employed tends to be vastly different from a multi-handed poker game. Since only two players take part in the hand, the chance of having the best hand is much higher than in a multi-handed game, which causes the game to become more aggressive than normal. Bluffs for example become easier to pull off in a heads up game since it is only necessary to bluff a single opponent in order to win the pot, whereas in a multi-handed game there is a greater risk of someone having a big hand that cannot be bluffed. In spite of the diversity of strategies one can design, it is important to remark that the heads-up limit Texas hold'em variation has been claimed to be "essentially weakly solved" in January 2015 by the Cepheus poker-playing bot. Theoretically a better strategy exists but would not be able to win more than one big blind per thousand games on average. A person using that strategy would not be able to prove with statistical significance that it was better than Cepheus with a lifetime of playing against it.
The bot can be played online at poker.srv.ualberta.ca, users can query strategies from the software. In poker tournaments heads up poker is played as individual events and there are heads up championships. Heads up poker tournaments are played as knock-out tournaments. An example of a heads up tournament is the National Heads-Up Poker Championship
A stripped deck or shortened pack is a set of playing cards from which some cards have been removed. The removed cards are the pip cards. Many card games use stripped decks, stripped decks for popular games are commercially available; when playing cards first arrived in Europe during the 1370s, they had the same format as the modern standard 52-card deck, consisting of four suits each with ten pip cards and three face cards. During the late 14th and 15th centuries, the Spanish and Portuguese decks dropped the 10s while the German and Swiss packs removed the Aces to create 48-card decks, it is far easier to print 48 cards using two woodblocks than 52 cards. While the removal of the above cards was motivated by manufacturing considerations expulsions are the result of trying to speed up card games to make them more exciting. Trappola is the first known card game to be played with a deck, stripped for game play, it removed all the cards from 6 to 3 to create a 36-card deck. The most popular card game in 16th-century Europe was Piquet, played with a 36-card deck that dropped ranks from 5 to 2.
Around 1700, it dropped the 6s as well to create the 32-card deck, now the most popular format in France. 32 and 36-card decks are the most widespread in countries that were once part of the Holy Roman, Austro-Hungarian, Russian empires. 24-card decks to play Schnapsen are available in central Europe although it may be shortened to 20 in the future as, how the modern variant is now played. The Spanish, Portuguese and Latin Americans use 40-card decks. Unlike the countries above, they drop the higher-ranking numerals so that the 7 is located under the face cards; this was due to the popularity of the game that introduced the concept of bidding. The British and the Scandinavians are the most resistant against stripped decks, having maintained the 52-card format since receiving them in the 15th century; the British have propagated that deck size through whist, the most popular card game of the 19th century. In the 20th century, this has been followed by contract bridge, gin rummy and poker which all require that deck size.
The British prefer games involving four players as opposed to the continental three-player games which uses smaller decks. Asian countries created stripped decks using their traditional playing cards. In contrast to the Western practice of removing ranks, Asians remove suits. During the Qing dynasty, the Chinese money-suited cards dropped one suit as shedding-type games became more popular. In India, the gambling game of Naqsha overtook the Ganjifa trick-taking game and many decks were made with only half of the traditional suits; the opposite of a stripped deck is an expanded deck. Many commercial attempts have failed to increase the standard deck above 52 cards; the most successful addition to the standard deck is the Joker which first appeared during the American Civil War as a Euchre trump card. The Joker has since been adopted as a wild card in a few other standard playing card games with different values and quantities depending on which game is being played. 500 is a Euchre offshoot invented by the United States Playing Card Company during the early 20th century.
To play the six-handed version, USPCC created a deck with ranks 11, 12, 13. 500 decks are now produced by other manufacturers and are sold in English-speaking countries where the game is played. A much older expanded deck is tarot, invented in 15th-century Italy, with an extra suit of trumps. Tarot card games have since declined, they are still played in various continental European countries with France having the largest community. Tarot decks are not immune to stripping either; the Tarocco Bolognese, Tarocco Siciliano, Industrie und Glück, Cego decks have excised some pip cards. A French-suited deck of 32 cards, consisting of 7, 8, 9, 10, Queen and Ace in four suits each, is used in the two-player game Piquet, which dates back to the 16th century. Games played with a piquet deck are still among the most popular in some parts of Europe; this includes klaverjas and skat. Bezique is played with two piquet decks. Stripped decks are used in certain poker variants; the earliest form of poker was played with only 20 cards.
The Australian game of Manila uses a piquet deck, Mexican stud is played with the 8s, 9s, 10s removed from the deck. This may require adjusting hand values: in both of these games, a flush ranks above a full house, because having fewer cards of each suit available makes flushes rarer. A hand such as 6-7-J-Q-K plays as a straight in Mexican stud; some places may allow a hand such as 10-9-8-7-A to play as a straight in the 32-card game, the A playing low and skipping over the removed ranks. The relative frequency of straights versus three of a kind is sensitive to the deck composition, so some places may consider three of a kind to be superior to a straight, but the difference is small enough that this complication is not necessary for most games. A full house tends to occur more than a flush in a piquet deck, due to the increased frequency of each playing card rank, creating a change in poker combination ranking. Five-card stud is often played with a piquet deck. In lively home games it might work better to
Casino tokens are small discs used in lieu of currency in casinos. Colored metal, injection-molded plastic or compression molded clay tokens of various denominations are used in table games, as opposed to metal token coins, used in slot machines. Casino tokens are widely used as play money in casual or tournament games; some casinos use rectangular gaming plaques for high-stakes table games. Plaques differ from chips in that they are larger rectangular in shape and contain serial numbers. Money is exchanged for tokens in a casino at the casino cage, at the gaming tables, or at a cashier station; the tokens are interchangeable with money at the casino. They have no value outside of the casino, but certain businesses in gambling towns may honor them informally. Tokens are employed for several reasons; because of the uniform size and patterns of stacks of chips, they are easier to tally compared to currency. This attribute enables the pit boss or security to verify the amount being paid, reducing the chance that a dealer might incorrectly pay a customer.
The uniform weight of the casino's official tokens allows them to weigh great stacks or heaps of chips rather than tally them Furthermore, it is observed that consumers gamble more with replacement currencies than with cash. A more pragmatic reason for casinos using chips in place of cash at table games is to discourage players from grabbing back their bet and attempting to flee should their bet not win, because chips, unlike cash, must be redeemed at the casino cashier and have no value outside the casino in question. Lastly, the chips are considered to be an integral part of the casino environment, replacing them with some alternate currency would be unpopular. Many casinos have eliminated the use of metal tokens in their slot machines, in favor of paper receipts or pre-paid cards, while requiring heavy infrastructure costs to install, eliminate the coin handling expenses, jamming problems encountered in machines which took coins or tokens and can allow more game-specific technology in the space of a machine which would be dedicated to coin mechanisms.
While some casinos which installed the receipt system had kept the $1 tokens around for use as $1 chips, most other casinos using the receipts had scrapped the tokens entirely. Most casinos using receipts have automated machines at which customers may redeem receipts, eliminating the need for coin counting windows and decreasing labor costs. Casino chip collecting is a part of numismatics, more as specialized exonumia collecting; this hobby has become popular with the Casino Chips & Gaming Tokens Collectors Club formed in 1988. Some collectors may value certain casino tokens up to $100,000, which are traded on online auction websites like eBay. Several casinos sell custom-made sets of chips and one or two decks of cards stamped with the name of the casino on them; each set is contained in box. The ancestors of the modern casino token were the counters used to keep score in the card games Ombre and Quadrille. In 1752, French Quadrille sets contained a number of different counters, known as jetons and mils.
Unlike modern poker chips, they were colored differently only to determine player ownership for purposes of settling payments at the end of the game, with different denominations differentiated by different shapes that each counter type had. In the early history of Poker during the 19th century, players seemed to use any small valuable object imaginable. Early poker players sometimes used jagged gold pieces, gold nuggets, gold dust, or coins as well as "chips" made of ivory, wood, a composition made from clay and shellac. Several companies between the 1880s and the late 1930s made clay composition poker chips. There were over 1000 designs from. Most chips were white, red and yellow, but they could be made in any color desired; the vast majority of authentic casino chips are "clay" chips but can be more described as compression molded chips. Contrary to popular belief, no gaming chip going as far back as the 1950s has been 100% clay. Modern clay chips are a composition of materials more durable than clay alone.
At least some percentage of the chips is of an earthen material such as sand and clay similar to that found in cat litter. The process used to make these chips is a trade secret, varies by manufacturer, most being expensive and time-consuming per chip; the edge spots, or inserts, are not painted on. Each chip receives a mid-inlay if desired, is placed in a special mold that heats and compresses the chip at 10,000 psi at 300 °F, hence the term compression molded chips; the printed graphics on clay chips is called an inlay. Inlays are made of paper and are clad with a plastic film applied to the chip prior to the compression molding process. During the molding process the inlay becomes permanently fastened to the chip and can not be removed from the chip without destroying the inlay. Ceramic chips were introduced in the mid 1980s as alternative to clay chips, are used in casinos, as well as being available to the home market; the ability