Upper Mesopotamia is the name used for the uplands and great outwash plain of northwestern Iraq, northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey, in the northern Middle East. After the early Muslim conquests of the mid-7th century, the region has been known by the traditional Arabic name of al-Jazira and the Syriac variant Gāzartā or Gozarto; the Euphrates and Tigris rivers transform Mesopotamia into an island, as they are joined together at the Shatt al-Arab in the Basra Governorate of Iraq, their sources in eastern Turkey are in close proximity. The region extends south from the mountains of Anatolia, east from the hills on the left bank of the Euphrates river, west from the mountains on the right bank of the Tigris river and includes the Sinjar plain, it extends down the Euphrates to Hīt. The Khabur runs for over 400 km across the plain, from Turkey in the north, feeding into the Euphrates; the major settlements are Deir ez-Zor, Raqqa, al-Hasakah, Diyarbakır and Qamishli. The western, Syrian part, is contiguous with the Syrian al-Hasakah Governorate and is described as "Syria's breadbasket".
The eastern, Iraqi part and extends beyond the Iraqi Nineveh Governorate. In the north it includes the Turkish provinces of Şanlıurfa and parts of Diyarbakır Province; this area now has large swaths controlled by Rojava. The name al-Jazira has been used since the 7th century AD by Islamic sources to refer to the northern section of Mesopotamia, which together with the Sawād, made up al-‘arāq; the name means "island", at one time referred to the land between the two rivers, which in Aramaic is Bit Nahren. The name could be restricted to the Sinjar plain coming down from the Sinjar Mountains, or expanded to embrace the entire plateau east of the coastal ranges. In pre-Abbasid times the western and eastern boundaries seem to have fluctuated, sometimes including what is now northern Syria to the west and Adiabene in the east. Al-Jazira is characterised as an outwash or alluvial plain, quite distinct from the Syrian Desert and lower-lying central Mesopotamia; the region has several parts to it. In the northwest is one of the largest salt flats in the world, Sabkhat al-Jabbul.
Further south, extending from Mosul to near Basra is a sandy desert not unlike the Empty Quarter. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries the region has been plagued by drought. Al-Jazirah is important archeologically; this is the area where the earliest signs of agriculture and domestication of animals have been found, thus the starting point leading to civilization and the modern world. Al-Jazirah includes the mountain Karaca Dağ in southern Turkey, where the closest relative to modern wheat still grows wild. At several sites we can see a continuous occupation from a hunter-gathering lifestyle to an economy based on growing wheat and legumes from around 9000 BC. Domestication of goats and sheep followed within a few generations, but didn't become widespread for more than a millennium. Weaving and pottery followed about two thousand years later. From Al-Jazirah the idea of farming along with the domesticated seeds spread first to the rest of the Levant and to North-Africa and eastwards through Mesopotamia all the way to present-day Pakistan.
Earlier archeologists worked on the assumption that agriculture was a prerequisite to a sedentary lifestyle, but excavations in Israel and Lebanon surprised science by showing that a sedentary lifestyle came before agriculture. Further surprises followed in the 1990s with the spectacular finds of the megalithic structures at Göbekli Tepe in south-eastern Turkey; the earliest of these ritual buildings are from before 9000 BC—over five thousand years older than Stonehenge—and thus the absolute oldest known megalithic structures anywhere. As far as we know today no well-established farming societies existed at the time. Farming seemed to be still experimental and only a smallish supplement to continued hunting and gathering. So either were sedentary hunter-gatherers rich enough and many enough to organize and execute such large communal building projects, or well-established agricultural societies existed much further back than hitherto known. After all, Göbekli Tepe lies just 32 km from Karaca Dağ.
The questions raised by Göbekli Tepe have led to intense and creative discussions among archeologists of the Middle East. Excavations at Göbekli Tepe continues, only about 5 percent has been revealed so far. Sumerians are theorized to have evolved from the Samarra culture of northern Mesopotamia. Upper Mesopotamia is the heartland of ancient Assyria, founded circa the 25th century BC. From the late 24th Century BC it was part of the Akkadian Empire, separated into three eras: Old Assyrian Empire, Middle Assyrian Empire, Neo Assyrian Empire; the Uruk period existed from the protohistoric Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age period in Mesopotamia, including a section of the upper region. The region fell to the Assyrians' southern brethren, the Babylonians in 605 BC, from 539 BC it became part of the Achaemenid Empire. From 323 BC, it was ruled by the Greek Seleucid Empire, the Greeks corrupting the name to Syria, which they applied to Aram, it fell to the Parthians and Romans and was renamed Assyria by both.
The area was still known as Asōri
The Chorrera culture or Chorrera tradition is a Late Formative indigenous culture that flourished between 1300 BCE and 300 BCE in Ecuador. Chorrera culture was one of the most widespread cultures in pre-Columbian Ecuador, spanning the Pacific lowlands to the Andean highlands, into southern Colombia. Due to variations in ceramics and other material culture, Chorrera culture is divided into regional variants; these include: Mafa Phase, northern Esmeraldas Province Tachina Phase, southern Esmeraldas Province Tabuchula Phase, northern Manabí Province Engoroy Phase, Santa Elena Peninsula and Guayas coastal region Chorrera proper, Guayas River Basin Early Jubones Phase, southeastern Guaya and western Azuay Province Arenillas Phase, El Oro Province. Other regions exhibit a strong Chorrera influence; the hallmark of Chorrera culture is its ceramic traditions, which features whistling animal and plant effigy Stirrup spout vessels and human figurines made from molds. Everyday utilitarian pottery was still fine with thin decorated walls and red or black slips polished to a high sheen.
Surfaces of bowls, bottles and other ceramic pieces were incised, pattern burnished, or decorated with rocker stamps. Ceramics were used in personal adornments as well, examples being ceramic ear spools and rocker stamps used for body painting. Unusual decorative features of Chorrera ceramics include iridescent slips; the first metal work in Ecuador is attributed to the Chorrera craftsmen. Numerous metal objects and fragments were excavated at the coastal site of Salango. Objects from copper and gold were made elite goods like jewelry. Crops cultivated by Chorrera people include achira, corn, common beans, as well as gourds and squash, they gathered wild tree fruits and palm. Chorrera people fished and hunted as well, catching game such as armadillo, deer duck, lizards and various rodents; this culture continued the brisk trade network established by Machalilla cultures. Chorrera fisherman traded spiny oyster shells and other marine shells with people from the Quito basin for obsidian. Gold is traded in the latter centuries BCE.
In 467 BCE, the Pululahua Volcano north of Quito erupted, sending volcanic ash over much of the western Ecuadorian lowland regions, which reduced the expressions of Chorrera culture. These evolved into more complex cultures of the Regional Developmental Period of 200 and 300 BCE. Zeidler, J. A. "The Ecuadorian Formative." Helaine Silverman and William H. Isbell, eds. Handbook of South American Archaeology. New York: Springer, 2008. ISBN 978-0-387-75228-0. Chorrera ceramics, National Museum of the American Indian Chorrera Culture
The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient empire of Mesopotamia, centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region, which the Bible called Akkad. The empire united Sumerian speakers under one rule; the Akkadian Empire exercised influence across Mesopotamia, the Levant, Anatolia, sending military expeditions as far south as Dilmun and Magan in the Arabian Peninsula. During the 3rd millennium BC, there developed a intimate cultural symbiosis between the Sumerians and the Akkadians, which included widespread bilingualism. Akkadian, an East Semitic language replaced Sumerian as a spoken language somewhere between the 3rd and the 2nd millennia BC; the Akkadian Empire reached its political peak between the 24th and 22nd centuries BC, following the conquests by its founder Sargon of Akkad. Under Sargon and his successors, the Akkadian language was imposed on neighboring conquered states such as Elam and Gutium. Akkad is sometimes regarded as the first empire in history, though the meaning of this term is not precise, there are earlier Sumerian claimants.
After the fall of the Akkadian Empire, the people of Mesopotamia coalesced into two major Akkadian-speaking nations: Assyria in the north, and, a few centuries Babylonia in the south. The Bible refers to Akkad in Genesis 10:10, which states that the beginning of Nimrod's kingdom was in the land of Akkad. Nimrod's historical identity is unknown, but some have compared him with the legendary Gilgamesh, founder of Uruk. Today, scholars have documented some 7,000 texts from the Akkadian period, written in both Sumerian and Akkadian. Many texts from the successor states of Assyria and Babylonia deal with the Akkadian Empire. Understanding of the Akkadian Empire continues to be hampered by the fact that its capital Akkad has not yet been located, despite numerous attempts. Precise dating of archaeological sites is hindered by the fact that there are no clear distinctions between artifact assemblages thought to stem from the preceding Early Dynastic period, those thought to be Akkadian. Material, thought to be Akkadian continues to be in use into the Ur III period.
Many of the more recent insights on the Akkadian Empire have come from excavations in the Upper Khabur area in modern northeastern Syria, to become a part of Assyria after the fall of Akkad. For example, excavations at Tell Mozan brought to light a sealing of Tar'am-Agade, a unknown daughter of Naram-Sin, married to an unidentified local endan; the excavators at nearby Tell Leilan have used the results from their investigations to argue that the Akkadian Empire came to an end due to a sudden drought, the so-called 4.2 kiloyear event. The impact of this climate event on Mesopotamia in general, on the Akkadian Empire in particular, continues to be hotly debated. Excavation at the modern site of Tell Brak has suggested that the Akkadians rebuilt a city on this site, for use as an administrative center; the city included two large buildings including a complex with temple, offices and large ovens. The Akkadian Period is dated to either: c. 2334 BC – c. 2154 BC, or c. 2270 BC – c. 2083 BC It was preceded by the Early Dynastic Period of Mesopotamia and succeeded by the Ur III Period, although both transitions are blurry.
For example: it is that the rise of Sargon of Akkad coincided with the late ED Period and that the final Akkadian kings ruled with the Gutian kings alongside rulers at the city-states of both: Uruk and Lagash. The Akkadian Period is contemporary with: EB IV, EB IVA and EJ IV, EB IIIB The relative order of Akkadian kings is clear; the absolute dates of their reigns are approximate. The Akkadian Empire takes its name from the region and the city of Akkad, both of which were localized in the general confluence area of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Although the city of Akkad has not yet been identified on the ground, it is known from various textual sources. Among these is at least one text predating the reign of Sargon. Together with the fact that the name Akkad is of non-Akkadian origin, this suggests that the city of Akkad may have been occupied in pre-Sargonic times. Sargon of Akkad conquered his empire; the earliest records in the Akkadian language date to the time of Sargon. Sargon was claimed to be the son of La'ibum or Itti-Bel, a humble gardener, a hierodule, or priestess to Ishtar or Inanna.
One legend related to Sargon in Assyrian times says that My mother was a changeling, my father I knew not. The brothers of my father loved the hills. My city is Azurpiranu, situated on the banks of the Euphrates. My changeling mother conceived, she set me with bitumen she sealed my lid. She cast me into the river; the river carried me to Akki, the drawer of water. Akki, the drawer of water, reared me. Akki the drawer of water, appointed me as his gardener. While I was gardener Ishtar granted me her love, for four and... years I exercised kingship. Claims made on behalf of Sargon were that his mother was an "entu" priestess; the claims might have been made to ensure
18th century BC
The 18th century BC was the century which lasted from 1800 BC to 1701 BC. 1800 BC: Iron age in India 1800 BC: Beginning of the Nordic Bronze Age in the period system devised by Oscar Montelius. C. 1800 BC: Sedentary Mayan communities in Mesoamerica c. 1800 BC: Hyksos start to settle in the Nile Delta. They had the capital at Avaris in northeastern Nile Delta. 1800 BC Adichanallur urn-burial site in Tirunelveli district in Tamil Nadu. In 2004, a number of skeletons dating from around 3,800 years ago. 1800 BC Indo-Aryan migration 1800 BC – 1700 BC: Decline of the Indus Valley Civilization 1800 BC – 1300 BC: Troy VI flourishes. C. 1792 BC – 1750 BC: – Hammurabi rules Babylonia and has to deal with Mari, which he conquers late in his career. C. 1792 BC – 1750 BC: – Stela of Hammurabi, from Susa is made. It is now in Paris. 1787 BC – 1784 BC: Amorite conquests of Uruk and Isin. 1786 BC: Egypt: Queen Sobekneferu dies. End of Twelfth Dynasty, start of Thirteenth Dynasty, start of Fourteenth Dynasty. 1779 BC: Zimrilim, the King of Mari, starts to rule.
1770 BC: Babylon, capital of Babylonia becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Thebes, capital of Egypt. 1766 BC: Shang conquest of Xia Dynasty. China. 1764 BC – 1750 BC: Wars of Hammurabi. 1757 BC: Mari sacked by Hammurabi. Zimrilim's palace is destroyed. 1757 BC: Zimrilim, the King of Mari, dies. 1750 BC: Hyksos occupation of Northern Egypt. 1750 BC: A colossal volcanic eruption at Mount Veniaminof, Alaska. C. 1750 BC: Vedic period starts in India. C. 1750 BC: Investiture of Zimrilim, facsimile of a wall painting on mud plaster from the Zimrilim palace at Mari, Court 106, is made. It is now in Paris. C. 1740–1720 BC: reigns of pharaoh Neferhotep I and his brother Sobekhotep IV, marking the apex of the Egyptian 13th Dynasty. 1749 BC – 1712 BC: Mesopotamian Rebellions. Early Unetice culture, beginning of the Bronze Age in Central Europe. Minoan civilization: phase II of the Middle period. C. 1700 BC: The last species of mammoth became extinct on Wrangel Island. C. 1700 BC: Indus Valley Civilization comes to an end but is continued by the Cemetery H culture c. 1700 BC: Minoan Old Palace period ends and Minoan Second Palace period starts in Crete.
C. 1700 BC: Aegean metalworkers are producing decorative objects rivaling those of Ancient Near East jewelers, whose techniques they seem to borrow. C. 1700 BC: Lila-Ir-Tash started to rule the Elamite Empire. C. 1700 BC: Bronze Age starts in China. C. 1700 BC: Shang Dynasty starts in China. Hammurabi, ruler of the Babylonian Empire Tang of Shang overthrew emperor Jie, last ruler of the Xia Kingdom. 1750 BC—Hammurabi c. 1700 BC—Median date for the building of the Phaistos Disc. Its purpose and meaning, its original geographical place of manufacture remains unknown, making it one of the most famous mysteries of archaeology
The Hittites were an Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC. This empire reached its height during the mid-14th century BC under Suppiluliuma I, when it encompassed an area that included most of Anatolia as well as parts of the northern Levant and Upper Mesopotamia. Between the 15th and 13th centuries BC, the Empire of Hattusa, conventionally called the Hittite Empire, came into conflict with the Egyptian Empire, Middle Assyrian Empire and the empire of the Mitanni for control of the Near East; the Assyrians emerged as the dominant power and annexed much of the Hittite empire, while the remainder was sacked by Phrygian newcomers to the region. After c. 1180 BC, during the Bronze Age collapse, the Hittites splintered into several independent "Neo-Hittite" city-states, some of which survived until the 8th century BC before succumbing to the Neo-Assyrian Empire. The Hittite language was a distinct member of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family, along with the related Luwian language, is the oldest attested Indo-European language.
Hittites referred to their native language as nešili "in the language of Nesa" but called their native land as Kingdom of Hattusa. The conventional name "Hittites" is due to their initial identification with the Biblical Hittites in 19th century archaeology. Despite their use of the name Hattusa for their state, the Hittites should be distinguished from the Hattians, an earlier people who inhabited the region of Hattusa and spoke an unrelated language known as Hattic; the history of the Hittite civilization is known from cuneiform texts found in the area of their kingdom, from diplomatic and commercial correspondence found in various archives in Assyria, Babylonia and the Middle East, the decipherment of, a key event in the history of Indo-European linguistics. The Hittite military made successful use of chariots, although belonging to the Bronze Age, the Hittites were the forerunners of the Iron Age, developing the manufacture of iron artifacts from as early as the 18th century BC; the Hittites were the first of the Indo-European people to make use of iron.
Due to the widespread availability of iron ore, this allowed them to create weapons that were much stronger and cheaper. The Hittite empire fell victim to the Bronze Age Collapse around the beginning of the 12th century BC. Ethnic Hittite dynasties survived in small kingdoms scattered around modern Syria and Israel. Lacking a unifying continuity, their descendants are scattered and have merged into the modern populations of the Levant and Mesopotamia. During the 1920s, interest in the Hittites increased with the founding of the modern Republic of Turkey and attracted the attention of Turkish archaeologists such as Halet Çambel and Tahsin Özgüç. During this period, the new field of Hittitology influenced the naming of institutions, such as the state-owned Etibank, the foundation of the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations in Ankara, located 200 kilometers west of the Hittite capital and housing the most comprehensive exhibition of Hittite art and artifacts in the world. Before the archeological discoveries that revealed the Hittite civilization, the only source of information about the Hittites had been the Old Testament.
Francis William Newman expressed the critical view, common in the early 19th century, that, "no Hittite king could have compared in power to the King of Judah...". As the discoveries in the second half of the 19th century revealed the scale of the Hittite kingdom, Archibald Sayce asserted that, rather than being compared to Judah, the Anatolian civilization " worthy of comparison to the divided Kingdom of Egypt", was "infinitely more powerful than that of Judah". Sayce and other scholars noted that Judah and the Hittites were never enemies in the Hebrew texts. Uriah the Hittite was a captain in King David's army and counted as one of his "mighty men" in 1 Chronicles 11. French scholar Charles Texier found the first Hittite ruins in 1834 but did not identify them as Hittite; the first archaeological evidence for the Hittites appeared in tablets found at the karum of Kanesh, containing records of trade between Assyrian merchants and a certain "land of Hatti". Some names in the tablets were neither Hattic nor Assyrian, but Indo-European.
The script on a monument at Boğazkale by a "People of Hattusas" discovered by William Wright in 1884 was found to match peculiar hieroglyphic scripts from Aleppo and Hama in Northern Syria. In 1887, excavations at Amarna in Egypt uncovered the diplomatic correspondence of Pharaoh Amenhotep III and his son, Akhenaten. Two of the letters from a "kingdom of Kheta"—apparently located in the same general region as the Mesopotamian references to "land of Hatti"—were written in standard Akkadian cuneiform, but in an unknown language. Shortly after this, Sayce proposed that Hatti or Khatti in Anatolia was identical with the "kingdom of Kheta" mentioned in these Egyptian texts, as well as with the biblical Hittites. Others, such as Max Müller, agreed that Khatti was Kheta, but proposed connecting it with Biblical Kittim rather than with the Biblical Hittites. Sayce's identification came to be accepted over the course of the early 20th century.
Magan was an ancient region, referred to in Sumerian cuneiform texts of around 2300 BC and existed to 550 BC as a source of copper and diorite for Mesopotamia. The location of Magan is not known with certainty, but most of the archaeological geological evidence suggests that Magan was part of what is now the United Arab Emirates and Oman. However, some archaeologists place it elsewhere, such as in the region of Yemen known as Ma'in, in the south of Upper Egypt, in Nubia or the Sudan, others as part of today's Iran and Pakistan; the latter location in the neighborhood of coastal Baluchistan, has been suggested on account of the similarity between Baluchistan's historical name, "Makran", "Makkan", a variant of Magan. The first Sumerian mentions of a land of Magan are made during the Umm al-Nar period, as well as references to'the Lords of Magan'. Sumerian sources point to'Tilmun' and Meluhha. Akkadian campaigns against Magan took place in the twenty-third century, again explaining the need for fortifications, both Manishtusu and Naramsin and Manishtusu, in particular, wrote of campaigning against'32 lords of Magan'.
Naramsin gave the Akkadian title Malek to the defeated Ruler of Magan, a title which survives in the Arabic for king, malek. Magan was famed for its maritime capabilities. King Sargon of Agade boasted that his ports were home to boats from Tilmun and Meluhha, his successor, Naram-Sin, not only conquered Magan, but honoured the Magan King Manium by naming the city of Manium-Ki in Mesopotamia after him. Trade between the Indus Valley and Sumer took place through Magan, although that trade appears to have been interrupted, as Ur-Nammu laid claim to having'brought back the ships of Magan'. Archaeological finds dating from this time show trade not only with the Indus Valley and Sumer, but with Iran and Bactria, they have revealed what is thought to be the oldest case on record of poliomyelitis, with the distinctive signs of the disease found in the skeleton of a woman from Tell Abraq, in modern Umm Al Quwain. Trade was common between Ur before the reigns of the Gutian kings over Ur. After they were deposed, Ur-Nammu of Ur restored the roads and trade resumed between the two nations.
Dilmun Archaeology of Oman List of Ancient Settlements in the UAE Al Sufouh Archaeological Site