The Amorites were an ancient Semitic-speaking people from Syria who occupied large parts of southern Mesopotamia from the 21st century BC to the end of the 17th century BC, where they established several prominent city states in existing locations, notably Babylon, raised from a small town to an independent state and a major city. The term Amurru in Akkadian and Sumerian texts refers to their principal deity; the Amorites are mentioned in the Bible as inhabitants of Canaan both before and after the conquest of the land under Joshua. In the earliest Sumerian sources concerning the Amorites, beginning about 2400 BC, the land of the Amorites is associated not with Mesopotamia but with the lands to the west of the Euphrates, including Canaan and what was to become Syria by the 3rd century BC known as The land of the Amurru, as Aram and Eber-Nari, they appear as an uncivilized and nomadic people in early Mesopotamian writings from Sumer and Assyria connected with the mountainous region now called Jebel Bishri in northern Syria called the "mountain of the Amorites".
The ethnic terms Mar.tu, Amurru and Amor were used for them in Sumerian and Ancient Egyptian respectively. From the 21st century BC triggered by a long major drought starting about 2200 BC, a large-scale migration of Amorite tribes infiltrated southern Mesopotamia, they were one of the instruments of the downfall of the Third Dynasty of Ur, Amorite dynasties not only usurped the long-extant native city-states such as Isin, Larsa and Kish, but established new ones, the most famous of, to become Babylon, although it was a minor insignificant state. Known Amorites wrote in a dialect of Akkadian found on tablets at Mari dating from 1800–1750 BC. Since the language shows northwest Semitic forms and constructions, the Amorite language is a Northwest Semitic language, one of the Canaanite languages; the main sources for the limited knowledge about Amorite are the proper names, not Akkadian in style, that are preserved in such texts. The Akkadian language of the native Semitic states and polities of Mesopotamia, was from the east Semitic, as was the Eblaite of the northern Levant.
In the earliest Sumerian texts, all western lands beyond the Euphrates, including the modern Levant, were known as "the land of the mar.tu". The term appears in Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta, which describes it in the time of Enmerkar as one of the regions inhabited by speakers of a different language. Another text known as Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird describes how, 50 years into Enmerkar's reign, the Martu people arose in Sumer and Akkad, necessitating the building of a wall to protect Uruk. There are sparse mentions in tablets from the East Semitic-speaking kingdom of Ebla, dating from 2500 BC to the destruction of the city c. 2250 BC: from the perspective of the Eblaites, the Amorites were a rural group living in the narrow basin of the middle and upper Euphrates in northern Syria. For the Akkadian kings of central Mesopotamia Mar.tu was one of the "Four Quarters" surrounding Akkad, along with Subartu/Assyria and Elam. Naram-Sin of Akkad records successful campaigns against them in northern Syria c. 2240 BC, his successor, Shar-Kali-Sharri, followed suit.
By the time of the last days of the Third Dynasty of Ur, the immigrating Amorites had become such a force that kings such as Shu-Sin were obliged to construct a 270-kilometre wall from the Tigris to the Euphrates to hold them off. The Amorites appear as nomadic tribes under chiefs, who forced themselves into lands they needed to graze their herds; some of the Akkadian literature of this era speaks disparagingly of the Amorites and implies that the Akkadian- and Sumerian-speakers of Mesopotamia viewed their nomadic and primitive way of life with disgust and contempt: The MAR. TU who know no grain.... The MAR. TU who know no house nor town, the boors of the mountains.... The MAR. TU who digs up truffles... who does not bend his knees, who eats raw meat, who has no house during his lifetime, not buried after death "They have prepared wheat and gú-nunuz as a confection, but an Amorite will eat it without recognizing what it contains!"As the centralized structure of the Third Dynasty collapsed, the component regions, such as Assyria in the north and the city-states of the south such as Isin and Eshnunna, began to reassert their former independence, the areas in southern Mesopotamia with Amorites were no exception.
Elsewhere, the armies of Elam, in southern Iran, were attacking and weakening the empire, making it vulnerable. Many Amorite chieftains in southern Mesopotamia aggressively took advantage of the failing empire to seize power for themselves. There was not an Amorite invasion of southern Mesopotamia as such, but Amorites ascended to power in many locations during the reign of the last king of the Neo-Sumerian Empire, Ibbi-Sin. Leaders with Amorite names assumed power in various places, usurping native Akkadian rulers, including in Isin and Larsa; the small town of Babylon, unimportant both politically and militarily, was raised to the status of a minor independent city-state, under Sumu-abum in 1894 BC. The Elamites sacked Ur in c. 2004 BC. Some time the Old Assyrian Empire became the most powerful entity in Mesopotamia preceding
Gojoseon named Joseon, was an ancient kingdom on the Korean Peninsula. The addition of Go, meaning "ancient", is used to distinguish it from the Joseon kingdom. According to the Samguk Yusa, Gojoseon was established in 2333 BC by Dangun, said to be the offspring of a heavenly prince and a bear-woman. Though Dangun is a mythological figure for whom no concrete evidence has been found, the account has played an important role in developing Korean identity. Today, the founding date of Gojoseon is celebrated as the National Foundation Day in North Korea and South Korea; some of the same sources relate that in the 12th century BC Gija, a man from the Shang dynasty of China, immigrated to Gojoseon and founded Gija Joseon. However, somewhat similar to the case of Dangun, the evidence for Gija Joseon is lacking and the narrative has been challenged since the 20th century. Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BC. During its early phase, the capital of Gojoseon was located in Liaoning.
In 108 BC, the Han dynasty of China conquered Wiman Joseon. The Han established four commanderies to administer the Gojoseon territory; the area was conquered by Goguryeo in 313 AD. There are three different main founding myths concerning Gojoseon, which revolve around Dangun, Gija, or Wi Man; the myths revolving around Dangun were recorded in the much-later Korean work Samguk Yusa of the 13th century. This work states that Dangun, the offspring of a heavenly prince and a bear-woman, founded Gojoseon in 2333 BC, only to be succeeded by Gija after King Wu of Zhou had placed him onto the throne in 1122 BC. A similar account is found in Jewang Ungi. According to the legend, the Lord of Heaven, Hwanin had a son, who descended to Baekdu Mountain and founded the city of Shinsi. A bear and a tiger came to Hwanung and said that they wanted to become people. Hwuanung said to them that if they went in a cave and lived there for 100 days while only eating mugwort and garlic he will change them into human beings.
However, about halfway through the 100 days the tiger ran out of the cave. On the other hand, the bear restrained herself and became a beautiful woman called Ungnyeo. Hwanung married Ungnyeo, she gave birth to Dangun. While the Dangun story is considered to be a myth, it is believed it is a mythical synthesis of a series of historical events relating to the founding of Gojoseon. There are various theories on the origin of this myth. Seo and Kang believe the Dangun myth is based on integration of two different tribes, an invasive sky-worshipping Bronze Age tribe and a native bear-worshipping neolithic tribe, that led to the foundation of Gojoseon. Lee K. B. believes. Dangun is said to have founded Gojoseon around 2333 BC, based on the descriptions of the Samgungnyusa, Jewang Ungi, Dongguk Tonggam and the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty; the date differs among historical sources, although all of them put it during the mythical Emperor Yao's reign. Samgungnyusa says Dangun ascended to the throne in the 50th year of the legendary Yao's reign, Annals of the King Sejong says the first year, Dongguk Tonggam says the 25th year.
Gija, a man from the period of the Shang dynasty fled to the Korean peninsula in 1122 BC during the fall of the Shang to the Zhou dynasty and founded Gija Joseon. Most experts believe Gija's relation to Gojoseon is a Chinese fabrication and Gija has nothing to do with Gojoseon. In the past, the earliest surviving Chinese record, Records of the Three Kingdoms, recognized Gija Joseon; the Dongsa Gangmok of 1778 described Gija's contributions in Gojoseon. The records of Gija refer to Eight Prohibitions, that are recorded by the Book of Han and evidence a hierarchical society and legal protection of private property. In pre-modern Korea, Gija represented the authenticating presence of Chinese civilization, until the 12th century, Koreans believed that Dangun bestowed upon Korea its people and basic culture, while Gija gave Korea its high culture—and standing as a legitimate civilisation. However, in the modern era Gija's place has diminished to the point of near extinction. Many experts deny its existence for various reasons due to contradicting archaeological evidence and anachronistic historical evidence.
They point to the Bamboo Annals and the Analects of Confucius, which were among the first works to mention Gija, but do not mention his migration to Gojoseon. The myth that Gija migrated to Korea is believed to have been made up by Han Dynasty in order to justify its conquest of Korea. Wi Man was a military officer of the Yan state of northeastern China, who fled to the northern Korean peninsula in 195 BC from the encroaching Han dynasty, he founded a principality with Wanggeom-seong as capital, thought to be on the region of present-day Pyongyang. The 3rd-century Chinese text Weilüe of the Sanguozhi recorded that Wiman usurped King Jun and thus took kingship over Gojoseon Gojoseon history can be divided into three phases, Dangun and Wiman Joseon. Kang & Macmillan, Sohn et al. Kim J. B. Han W. K. Yun N. H. Lee K. B. Lee J. B. viewed the Dangun myth as a native product of proto-Koreans, although it is not always associated with Gojoseon. Kim J. B. rejected the Dangun myth's association with Gojoseon and pushes it further back to the Neolithic period.
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Assyria called the Assyrian Empire, was a Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant. It existed as a state from as early as the 25th century BC until its collapse between 612 BC and 609 BC - spanning the periods of the Early to Middle Bronze Age through to the late Iron Age. From the end of the seventh century BC to the mid-seventh century AD, it survived as a geopolitical entity, for the most part ruled by foreign powers such as the Parthian and early Sasanian Empires between the mid-second century BC and late third century AD, the final part of which period saw Mesopotamia become a major centre of Syriac Christianity and the birthplace of the Church of the East. A Semitic-speaking realm, Assyria was centred on the Tigris in Upper Mesopotamia; the Assyrians came to rule powerful empires in several periods. Making up a substantial part of the greater Mesopotamian "cradle of civilization", which included Sumer, the Akkadian Empire, Babylonia, Assyria reached the height of technological and cultural achievements for its time.
At its peak, the Neo-Assyrian Empire of 911 to 609 BC stretched from Cyprus and the East Mediterranean to Iran, from present-day Armenia and Azerbaijan in the Caucasus to the Arabian Peninsula and eastern Libya. The name "Assyria" originates with the Assyrian state's original capital, the ancient city of Aššur, which dates to c. 2600 BC - one of a number of Akkadian-speaking city-states in Mesopotamia. In the 25th and 24th centuries BC, Assyrian kings were pastoral leaders. From the late 24th century BC, the Assyrians became subject to Sargon of Akkad, who united all the Akkadian- and Sumerian-speaking peoples of Mesopotamia under the Akkadian Empire, which lasted from c. 2334 BC to 2154 BC. After the Assyrian Empire fell from power, the greater remaining part of Assyria formed a geopolitical region and province of other empires, although between the mid-2nd century BC and late 3rd century AD a patchwork of small independent Assyrian kingdoms arose in the form of Assur, Osroene, Beth Nuhadra, Beth Garmai and Hatra.
The region of Assyria fell under the successive control of the Median Empire of 678 to 549 BC, the Achaemenid Empire of 550 to 330 BC, the Macedonian Empire, the Seleucid Empire of 312 to 63 BC, the Parthian Empire of 247 BC to 224 AD, the Roman Empire and the Sasanian Empire of 224 to 651 AD. The Arab Islamic conquest of the area in the mid-seventh century dissolved Assyria as a single entity, after which the remnants of the Assyrian people became an ethnic, linguistic and religious minority in the Assyrian homeland, surviving there to this day as an indigenous people of the region. Assyria was sometimes known as Subartu and Azuhinum prior to the rise of the city-state of Ashur, after which it was Aššūrāyu, after its fall, from 605 BC through to the late seventh century AD variously as Achaemenid Assyria, referenced as Atouria, Ator and sometimes as Syria which etymologically derives from Assyria according to Strabo, Assyria and Asōristān. "Assyria" can refer to the geographic region or heartland where Assyria, its empires and the Assyrian people were centered.
The indigenous modern Eastern Aramaic-speaking Assyrian Christian ethnic minority in northern Iraq, north east Syria, southeast Turkey and northwest Iran are the descendants of the ancient Assyrians. As Babylonia is called after the city of Babylon, Assyria means "land of Asshur"Etymologically, Assyria is connected to the name of Syria, with both being derived from the Akkadian Aššur. Theodor Nöldeke in 1881 was the first to give philological support to the assumption that Syria and Assyria have the same etymology, a suggestion going back to John Selden. A 21st-century discovery of the Çineköy inscription confirmed that Syria, being a Greek corruption of the name Assyria, is derived from the Assyrian term Aššūrāyu. In prehistoric times, the region, to become known as Assyria was home to a Neanderthal culture such as has been found at the Shanidar Cave; the earliest Neolithic sites in what will be Assyria were the Jarmo culture c. 7100 BC, the Halaf culture c. 6100 BC, the Hassuna culture c. 6000 BC.
The Akkadian-speaking people who would found Assyria appear to have entered Mesopotamia at some point during the latter 4th millennium BC intermingling with the earlier Sumerian-speaking population, who came from northern Mesopotamia, with Akkadian names appearing in written record from as early as the 29th century BC. During the 3rd millennium BC, a intimate cultural symbiosis developed between the Sumerians and the Akkadians throughout Mesopotamia, which included widespread bilingualism; the influence of Sumerian on Akkadian, vice versa, is evident in all areas, from lexical borrowing on a massive scale, to syntactic and phonological convergence. This has prompted scholars to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian in the third millennium BC as a sprachbund. Akkadian replaced Sumerian as the spoken language of Mesopotamia somewhere after the turn of the 3rd and the 2nd millennium BC, although Sumerian continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial and scientific language in Mesopotamia until the 1st century AD, as did use of the Akkadian cuneiform.
The cities of A
33rd century BC
The 33rd century BC was a century which lasted from the year 3300 BC to 3201 BC. Major climate shift due to shift in solar activity. Glaciers expand. Atmospheric temperatures fall. Sahara changes from a habitable region into a barren desert Ancient Egypt begins using clay and ivory tags to label boxes an example of proto-writing Indus Valley Civilization begins in Harappa c. 3300 BC: Harappan script is discovered in Indus Valley c. 3300 BC: Pictographs in Uruk 3300 BC: to 3000 BC: Face of a woman, from Uruk is made. It is now in the Iraq Baghdad. C. 3300 BC: The Red Temple, the first phase of the Monte d'Accoddi sanctuary in Northwest Sardinia, is built. 3300-3000 BC: Evidence of proto-Thracians or proto-Dacians in the prehistoric period. Proto-Dacian or proto-Thracian people developed from a mixture of indigenous peoples and Indo-Europeans from the time of Proto-Indo-European expansion in the Early Bronze Age The Bronze Age begins in the Fertile Crescent Cattle introduced to the Nile valley Egyptians domesticate the wild ass of North Africa c. 3250 BC – Potter's wheel in use in Ancient Near East Ötzi the Iceman, a mummy discovered in the Austrian/Italian Alps in 1991
3rd millennium BC
The 3rd millennium BC spanned the years 3000 through 2001 BC. This period of time corresponds to the Early to Middle Bronze Age, characterized by the early empires in the Ancient Near East. In Ancient Egypt, the Early Dynastic Period is followed by the Old Kingdom. In Mesopotamia, the Early Dynastic Period is followed by the Akkadian Empire. World population growth relaxes after the burst due to the Neolithic Revolution. World population is stable, at 60 million, with a slow overall growth rate at 0.03% p.a. The Bronze Age occurred between 3000 BC and 2500 BC; the previous millennium had seen the emergence of advanced, urbanized civilizations, new bronze metallurgy extending the productivity of agricultural work, developed ways of communication in the form of writing. In the 3rd millennium BC, the growth of these riches, both intellectually and physically, became a source of contention on a political stage, rulers sought the accumulation of more wealth and more power. Along with this came the first appearances of mega architecture, organized absolutism and internal revolution.
The civilizations of Sumer and Akkad in Mesopotamia became a collection of volatile city-states in which warfare was common. Uninterrupted conflicts drained all available resources and populations. In this millennium, larger empires succeeded the last, conquerors grew in stature until the great Sargon of Akkad pushed his empire to the whole of Mesopotamia and beyond, it would not be surpassed in size until Assyrian times 1,500 years later. In the Old Kingdom of Egypt, the Egyptian pyramids were constructed and would remain the tallest and largest human constructions for thousands of years. In Egypt, pharaohs began to posture themselves as living gods made of an essence different from that of other human beings. In Europe, still neolithic during the same period, the builders of megaliths were constructing giant monuments of their own. In the Near East and the Occident during the 3rd millennium BC, limits were being pushed by architects and rulers. Towards the close of the millennium, Egypt became the stage of the first popular revolution recorded in history.
After lengthy wars, the Sumerians recognized the benefits of unification into a stable form of national government and became a peaceful, well-organized, complex technocratic state called the 3rd dynasty of Ur. This dynasty was to become involved with a wave of nomadic invaders known as the Amorites, who were to play a major role in the region during the following centuries. Near East c. 2900–2350 BC: Early Dynastic Period c. 2334–2154 BC: Akkadian Empire 3100–2686 BC: Early Dynastic Period c. 2700 BC–1600 BC: Old Elamite period. 2686–2181 BC Old Kingdom of Egypt 2181–2055 BC First Intermediate Period of Egypt c. 3000 BC: Nubian A-Group Culture comes to an end. C. 2300 BC: Nubian C-Group culture. Europe c. 3200 BC: Cycladic culture in Aegean islands of Greece. C. 3200 BC–3100 BC: Helladic culture in mainland Greece. C. 3200 BC–2800 BC: Ozieri culture. Corded Ware culture. Late Maikop culture. Late Vinca culture. Globular Amphora culture. Early Beaker culture. Yamnaya culture, Catacomb culture loci of Indo-European Satemization.
The Sintashta-Petrovka-Arkaim culture emerges from the Catacomb culture from about 2200 BC locus of Proto-Indo-Iranian. Butmir culture. Late Funnelbeaker culture. Baden culture. Gaudo culture. South Asia2800 BC–2600 BC: Harappan 2. 2600 BC–1900 BC: Harappan 3. East and Southeast AsiaLongshan culture Baodun culture Shijiahe culture Liangzhu culture Majiayao culture Lower Xiajiadian culture c. 2500 BC: Austronesian peoples from Formosa colonize Luzon in northern Philippines. AmericasMesoamerican Archaic period Old Copper Complex Norte Chico civilization. Sub-Saharan AfricaSavanna Pastoral Neolithic Elmenteitan Certain 4th millennium BC events were precursors to the 3rd millennium BC: c. 3700 BC: Lothal: Indus Valley trade-port city in India. C. 3650 BC–3000 BC: Minoan culture appeared on Crete. C. 3200 BC/3100 BC: Helladic culture and Cycladic culture both emerge in Greece. The 3rd millennium BC included the following key events: c. 3000 BC: Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt. C. 3000 BC: First evidence of gold being used in the Middle East.
C. 3000 BC: Nubian A-Group, Ta-Seeti "kingdom" came to an end due to raids by Egypt. C. 3000 BC–2000 BC: Vessels from Denmark are made. C. 2890 BC: Second Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Hotepsekhemwy. Syria: Foundation of the city of Mari. Semitic tribes occupy Assyria in northern part of the plain of Akkad. Phoenicians settle with centers at Tyre and Sidon. Beginning of the period of the mythical Sage Kings in China known as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors. C. 2879 BC: Rise of the mythical Văn Lang Kingdom and the Hồng Bàng Dynasty in northern Viet Nam. C. 2800 BC–2700 BC: Harp Player, from Keros, was made. It is now at the Metropolitan Museum of New York. Iran: Creation of the Kingdom of Elam. Germination of the Bristlecone pine tree "Methuselah" about 2700 BC, one of the oldest known trees still living now. C. 2686 BC: Third Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Sanakhte. C. 2613 BC: Fourth Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Sneferu. C. 2600 BC: Founding of the Chalcolithic Iberian civilizations of Los Millares and Zambujal.
2600 BC: Unified Indus Valley Civilisation. C. 2500 BC: The state of Assyria is established. C. 2500 BC: Excavation and development of the Hypogeum of Ħal-Saflieni at Paola, Malta, a subterranean temple complex subsequently used as a necropolis. C. 2500 BC–2200 BC: Incised panel "Frying pan", from Syros, Cyclades is made.
Land of Punt
The Land of Punt was an ancient kingdom. A trading partner of Egypt, it was known for producing and exporting gold, aromatic resins, ebony and wild animals; the region is known from ancient Egyptian records of trade expeditions to it. It is possible that it corresponds to Opone as known by the ancient Greeks, while some biblical scholars have identified it with the biblical land of Put or Havilah. At times Punt is referred to as Ta netjer, the "Land of the God"; the exact location of Punt is still debated by historians. Most scholars today believe Punt was situated to the southeast of Egypt, most in the coastal region of modern Djibouti, northeast Ethiopia and the Red Sea littoral of Sudan, it is possible that the territory covered both the Horn of Africa and Southern Arabia. Puntland, the Somali administrative region situated at the extremity of the Horn of Africa, is named in reference to the Land of Punt; the earliest recorded ancient Egyptian expedition to Punt was organized by Pharaoh Sahure of the Fifth Dynasty.
However, gold from Punt is recorded as having been in Egypt as early as the time of Pharaoh Khufu of the Fourth Dynasty. Subsequently, there were more expeditions to Punt in the Sixth, Eleventh and Eighteenth dynasties of Egypt. In the Twelfth Dynasty, trade with Punt was celebrated in popular literature in the Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor. In the reign of Mentuhotep III, an officer named Hannu organized one or more voyages to Punt, but it is uncertain whether he traveled on these expeditions. Trading missions of the 12th dynasty pharaohs Senusret I, Amenemhat II and Amenemhat IV had successfully navigated their way to and from the mysterious land of Punt. In the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, Hatshepsut built a Red Sea fleet to facilitate trade between the head of the Gulf of Aqaba and points south as far as Punt to bring mortuary goods to Karnak in exchange for Nubian gold. Hatshepsut made the most famous ancient Egyptian expedition that sailed to Punt. During the reign of Queen Hatshepsut in the 15th century BC, ships crossed the Red Sea in order to obtain bitumen, carved amulets and other goods transported overland and down the Dead Sea to Elat at the head of the gulf of Aqaba where they were joined with frankincense and myrrh coming north both by sea and overland along trade routes through the mountains running north along the east coast of the Red Sea.
A report of that five-ship voyage survives on reliefs in Hatshepsut's mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri. Throughout the temple texts, Hatshepsut "maintains the fiction that her envoy" Chancellor Nehsi, mentioned as the head of the expedition, had travelled to Punt "in order to extract tribute from the natives" who admit their allegiance to the Egyptian pharaoh. In reality, Nehsi's expedition was a simple trading mission to a land, by this time a well-established trading post. Moreover, Nehsi's visit to Punt was not inordinately brave since he was "accompanied by at least five shiploads of marines" and greeted warmly by the chief of Punt and his immediate family; the Puntites "traded not only in their own produce of incense and short-horned cattle, but in goods from other African states including gold and animal skins." According to the temple reliefs, the Land of Punt was ruled at that time by King Parahu and Queen Ati. This well illustrated expedition of Hatshepsut occurred in Year 9 of the female pharaoh's reign with the blessing of the god Amun: Said by Amen, the Lord of the Thrones of the Two Land:'Come, come in peace my daughter, the graceful, who art in my heart, King Maatkare...
I will give thee Punt, the whole of it... I will lead your soldiers by land and by water, on mysterious shores, which join the harbours of incense... They will take incense as much, they will load their ships to the satisfaction of their hearts with trees of green incense, all the good things of the land.' While the Egyptians "were not well versed in the hazards of sea travel, the long voyage to Punt, must have seemed something akin to a journey to the moon for present-day explorers...the rewards of outweighed the risks." Hatshepsut's 18th dynasty successors, such as Thutmose III and Amenhotep III continued the Egyptian tradition of trading with Punt. The trade with Punt continued into the start of the 20th dynasty before terminating prior to the end of Egypt's New Kingdom. Papyrus Harris I, a contemporary Egyptian document that detailed events that occurred in the reign of the early 20th dynasty king Ramesses III, includes an explicit description of an Egyptian expedition's return from Punt: They arrived safely at the desert-country of Coptos: they moored in peace, carrying the goods they had brought.
They were loaded, in travelling overland, upon asses and upon men, being reloaded into vessels at the harbour of Coptos. They were sent arriving in festivity, bringing tribute into the royal presence. After the end of the New Kingdom period, Punt became "an unreal and fabulous land of myths and legends." However, Egyptians continued to compose love songs about Punt, "When I hold my love close, her arms steal around me, I'm like a man translated to Punt, or like someone out in the reedflats, when the world bursts into flower." At times, the ancient Egyptians called Punt Ta netjer, meaning "God's Land". This referred to the fact that it was among the regions of the Sun God, that is, the regions located in the direction of the sunrise, to the East of Egypt; these eas
38th century BC
The 38th century BC was a century which lasted from the year 3800 BC to 3701 BC. An earthquake near a Neolithic culture at Sotira in Cyprus destroys much of the local infrastructure. Ubaid period came to an abrupt end in eastern Arabia and the Oman peninsula at 3800 BC. In Syria, mass graves at Tell Brak, dating from ca. 3800 to 3600 BC, have been unearthed, suggesting advanced warfare around this period. 3800–3200 BC – 120 Wedge tombs 3760 BC – first year of the Hebrew calendar c. 3750 BC – origins of Proto-Semitic language See: Human Era/Holocene epoch25th of Elul, 3761 BC — Considered the first day of creation from formless matter, traditionally interpreted as out of nothing, on which the Bible recalls that God created existence, matter and light. 1st of Tishrei, 3761 BC — Considered the sixth day of creation, on which the Bible recalls that God created Adam and Eve