2012 Brazilian municipal elections
The Brazilian municipal elections of 2012 took place on October 7 and on October 28. Over 138 million voters chose mayors, deputy mayors and city councillors for the 5,568 municipalities of Brazil; these were the first elections in which the registered parties Partido Pátria Livre and Partido Social Democrático participated. Political parties whose candidates wished to run for the 2012 elections had to be registered at the TSE for at least one year before the election date, while candidates had to be affiliated to a party for the same period of time. Conventions for the selection of candidates within the parties occurred between 10 and 30 June, while the registry of candidates and alliances with the Regional Electoral Courts took place until July 5. Electoral campaign was authorized from the moment; the free electoral program – two daily slots on free-to-air TV and radio for political advertising paid by the Electoral Justice fund – ran weekdays from 21 August until 4 October. According to the current Brazilian electoral law, the two-round system – should the leading candidate receive less than 50% +1 of the votes – is only available for cities with more than 200,000 voters.
This includes all state capitals, with the exception of Boa Vista and Palmas, plus 59 other municipalities. The free electoral program for the second round ran from 13 October until 26 October. Below is a list of the cities; these cities are home to 31 725 967 of the country's total constituency of 140 646 446 registered electors. Belém, Pará Belford Roxo, Rio de Janeiro Blumenau, Santa Catarina Campina Grande, Paraíba Campinas, São Paulo Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul Cariacica, Espírito Santo Cascavel, Paraná Contagem, Minas Gerais Cuiabá, Mato Grosso Curitiba, Paraná Diadema, São Paulo Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro Florianópolis, Santa Catarina Fortaleza, Ceará Franca, São Paulo Guarujá, São Paulo Guarulhos, São Paulo João Pessoa, Paraíba Joinville, Santa Catarina Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais Jundiaí, São Paulo Londrina, Paraná Macapá, Amapá Manaus, Amazonas Maringá, Paraná Mauá, São Paulo Montes Claros, Minas Gerais Natal, Rio Grande do Norte Niterói, Rio de Janeiro Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro Ponta Grossa, Paraná Porto Velho, Rondônia Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo Santo André, São Paulo Rio Branco, Acre Salvador, Bahia São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro São Luís, Maranhão São Paulo, São Paulo Sorocaba, São Paulo Taubaté, São Paulo Teresina, Piauí Uberaba, Minas Gerais Vila Velha, Espírito Santo Vitória, Espírito Santo Vitória da Conquista, Bahia Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro The following tables' contents can be found at the Supreme Electoral Court website.
Goiânia mayoral election, 2012
Municipalities of Brazil
The municipalities of Brazil are administrative divisions of the Brazilian states. At present, Brazil has 5,570 municipalities, making the average municipality population 34,361; the average state in Brazil has 214 municipalities. Roraima is the least subdivided state, with 15 municipalities, while Minas Gerais is the most subdivided state, with 853; the Federal District cannot be divided into municipalities, according to the Brazilian Constitution, the Federal District assumes the same constitutional and legal powers and obligations of the states and municipalities, instead, it is divided by administrative regions. The 1988 Brazilian Constitution treats the municipalities as parts of the Federation and not dependent subdivisions of the states; each municipality has an autonomous local government, comprising a mayor and a legislative body called municipal chamber. Both the local government and the legislative body are directly elected by the population every four years; these elections take place at the same time all over the country.
Each municipality has the constitutional power to approve its own laws, as well as collecting taxes and receiving funds from the state and federal governments. However, municipal governments have no judicial power, courts are only organised at the state or federal level. A subdivision of the state judiciary, or comarca, can either correspond to an individual municipality or encompass several municipalities; the seat of the municipal administration is a nominated city, with no specification in the law about the minimum population, area or facilities. The city always has the same name as the municipality. Municipalities can be subdivided, only for administrative purposes, into districts. Other populated sites with no legal effect or regulation. All municipalities are subdivided into neighbourhoods, although most municipalities do not define their neighbourhood limits. Municipalities can be split or merged to form new municipalities within the borders of the state, if the population of the involved municipalities expresses a desire to do so in a plebiscite.
However, these must abide by the Brazilian Constitution, forming exclaves or seceding from the state or union is expressly forbidden. Municipalities of Acre Municipalities of Alagoas Municipalities of Amapá Municipalities of Amazonas Municipalities of Bahia Municipalities of Ceará Municipalities of Espírito Santo Municipalities of Goiás Municipalities of Maranhão Municipalities of Mato Grosso Municipalities of Mato Grosso do Sul Municipalities of Minas Gerais Municipalities of Pará Municipalities of Paraíba Municipalities of Paraná Municipalities of Pernambuco Municipalities of Piauí Municipalities of Rio de Janeiro Municipalities of Rio Grande do Norte Municipalities of Rio Grande do Sul Municipalities of Rondônia Municipalities of Roraima Municipalities of Santa Catarina Municipalities of São Paulo Municipalities of Sergipe Municipalities of Tocantins Lists of cities List of largest cities in Brazil List of municipalities of Brazil Administrative region Map on the World Gazetteer at Archive.today Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics
Visa policy of Brazil
Visitors to Brazil must obtain a visa from one of the Brazilian diplomatic missions, unless they come from one of the visa-exempt countries or countries eligible for an electronic visa. Holders of passports of the following jurisdictions do not require a visa to visit Brazil for up to 90 days for tourism or business purposes. An identity document is accepted instead of a passport in some cases. 1 - For nationals of Croatia, Poland and the United Kingdom, a stay of up to 90 days. For other European Union citizens, a stay of up to 3 months during a 6-month period. 2 - For a stay of up to 90 days during a 180-day period. 3 - For tourism, a stay of up to 90 days. For business, a stay of up to 14 days, extendable for up to 90 days every 12 months. 4 - For a stay of up to 60 days. 5 - For a stay of up to 30 days. ID - May enter with an ID card. T - Visa-free for tourism purposes only. Nationals of Spain are required to hold proof of sufficient funds of at least R$170 per day, proof of confirmed hotel accommodation or a notary certified invitation letter from a resident of Brazil, documents required for their next destination.
Those traveling on business are exempt from these requirements when holding an original letter from their company, stating the purpose of the visit. Brazilian citizens who have another nationality are allowed to enter and leave Brazil with the passport of the other country in combination with any document attesting Brazilian nationality such as a Brazilian identity card or an expired Brazilian passport. If they do not provide such document, they may still enter Brazil as foreigners, subject to the regular requirements and limitations as such; however this case is only possible if Brazil does not require a visa from the other nationality. Brazil only issues visas to dual citizens in exceptional circumstances, such as for those who work in foreign government jobs that prohibit the use of a Brazilian passport. Holders of diplomatic or service passports of countries exempt from tourist visas do not require a visa, except those of Andorra, Liechtenstein and New Zealand. In addition, holders of diplomatic or service passports of Algeria, Azerbaijan, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Congo, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, India, Ivory Coast, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Mali, Moldova, Myanmar, Nigeria, Qatar, Saint Lucia, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Togo and Zambia and of diplomatic passports of Cuba, Iran and Uzbekistan do not require a visa.
Brazil has signed visa waiver agreements with the following countries, but they are pending ratification or implementation: Dominican Republic – 60 days, renewable for up to 120 days per 12-month period, for tourism and business purposes for ordinary passports Moldova – 90 days within any 6-month period for tourism and business purposes for ordinary passports Sierra Leone - 90 days, or the entire period of a mission if accredited to Brazil, for holders of diplomatic, official or service passportsThe Brazilian government has decided to unilaterally waive the visitor visa requirement for nationals of the following countries, from 17 June 2019: These are the same countries that were granted a visa waiver during the 2016 Summer Olympics and which are eligible for electronic visas. The conditions of stay with this visa waiver are the same as with the visitor visa; the visit visa allows stays of up to 90 days, for the following purposes: Tourism, including cultural and recreational activities, family visits, attending conferences, volunteer work, research and teaching.
Holders of visit visas are not allowed to receive payment from Brazilian sources for the activities during their stay, except for compensation for travel and living expenses and competition prizes. The visit visa is valid for multiple entries during the visa validity period, one year but may be longer for some nationalities; each stay is limited to 90 days, but an extension may be requested from the Federal Police after arrival. The combined stays must not exceed 180 days per any one-year period. Nationals of the following countries may apply online for electronic visit visas, which are valid for up to two years and allow stays of up to 90 days per year: Many types of temporary visas are available, for stays longer than 90 days. Certain types of visas allow paid activity, some with restrictions. For some visas based on work or investment, the applicant must obtain authorization from the General Coordination of Immigration before requesting the visa. All holders of temporary visas intending to stay for more than 90 days are required to register with the Federal Police within 90 days after arrival.
After registration, they receive a migration registration card and are granted residency for a certain period. In some cases this period may be "indeterminate". Temporary residents may apply to renew their residency period, in some cases to convert it to permanent residency. Only the time spent; those who will be employed in Brazil must obtain a Labor and Social Security Booklet from a Regional Superintendency of Labor. A taxpayer number, obtained from the Department of Federal Reve
State Senator (Brazil)
Established by the Constitution of Brazil, the State Senate is the State's representative body. The members are elected through the proportional system, by taking into account the joining affiliation, as a way to define the number of elected candidates that are filling the vacancies reserved for specific groups. State Representative is the name given to the political agent while the corresponding body is the State Legislative Assembly, the highest legislative authority of each state; the term for a Representative is 4 years. The term for the President of the Legislature is a 4 or 5-year period, beginning 6 months after the start of the session; the Constitution gives state legislators the task of legislating in the field of state legislative powers defined by the Constitution, including being able to propose, modify and repeal state laws, both common and complementary and amend the state constitution, annually evaluating the accounts rendered by the State Governor, creating Parliamentary Committees of Inquiry, as well as other powers established in the Constitution and the State Constitution.
1. Registered Voter 2. Registered Resident of Elected-District 3. Full Political Rights 4. Member of a Political Party 5. At least 21 years old Illiterate individuals are not allowed to hold office
Populism is a range of political approaches that deliberately appeal to "the people" juxtaposing this group against the "elite". There is no single definition of the term, which developed in the 19th century and has been used to mean various things since that time. In Europe, few politicians or political groups describe themselves as "populist" and in political discourse the term is applied to others pejoratively. Within political science and other social sciences, various different definitions of populism have been used, although some scholars propose rejecting the term altogether. A common framework for interpreting populism is known as the ideational approach: this defines populism as an ideology which presents "the people" as a morally good force against "the elite", who are perceived as corrupt and self-serving. Populists differ in how "the people" are defined, but it can be based along class, ethnic, or national lines. Populists present "the elite" as comprising the political, economic and media establishment, depicted as a homogeneous entity and accused of placing their own interests, the interests of other groups—such as foreign countries or immigrants—above the interests of "the people".
According to this approach, populism is a thin-ideology, combined with other, more substantial thick ideologies such as nationalism, liberalism, or socialism. Thus, populists can be found at different locations along the left–right political spectrum and there is both left-wing populism and right-wing populism. Other scholars active in the social sciences have defined the term populism in different ways. According to the popular agency definition used by some historians of United States history, populism refers to popular engagement of the population in political decision making. An approach associated with the scholar Ernesto Laclau presents populism as an emancipatory social force through which marginalised groups challenge dominant power structures; some economists have used the term in reference to governments which engage in substantial public spending financed by foreign loans, resulting in hyperinflation and emergency measures. In popular discourse, the term has sometimes been used synonymously with demagogy, to describe politicians who present overly simplistic answers to complex questions in a emotional manner, or with opportunism, to characterise politicians who seek to please voters without rational consideration as to the best course of action.
The term populism came into use in the late 19th century alongside the promotion of democracy. In the United States, it was associated with the People's Party, while in the Russian Empire it was linked to the agrarian socialist Narodnik movement. During the 20th century, various parties emerged in liberal democracies that were described as populist. In the 21st century, the term became popular, used in reference to left-wing groups in the Latin American pink tide and current right-wing conservative wave, right-wing groups in Europe, both right and leftist groups in the U. S. In 2017 "populism" was chosen as the Cambridge Dictionary Word of the Year; the term populism is a vague and contested term, used in reference to a diverse variety of phenomena. The term originated as a term of self-designation, being used by members of the People's Party active in the United States during the late 19th century, while in the Russian Empire during the same period a group referred to itself as the narodniki, translated into English as populists.
The Russian and American movements differed in various respects, the fact that they shared a name was coincidental. Although the term started out as a self-designation, part of the confusion surrounding it stems from the fact that it has been used in this way, with few political figures describing themselves as "populists"; as noted by the political scientist Margaret Canovan, "there has been no self-conscious international populist movement which might have attempted to control or limit the term's reference, as a result those who have used it have been able to attach it a wide variety of meanings." In this it differs from other political terms, like socialism, which have been used as a self-designation by individuals who have presented their own, internal definitions of the word. The term is used against others in a pejorative sense to discredit opponents. In being applied in this way, the term "populism" has been conflated with other concepts like demagoguery and presented as something to be "feared and discredited".
Some of those who have been referred to as "populists" in a pejorative sense have subsequently embraced the term while seeking to shed it of negative connotations. The French far-right politician Jean-Marie Le Pen for instance was accused of populism and responded by stating that "Populism is taking into account the people's opinion. Have people the right, in a democracy, to hold an opinion? If, the case yes, I am a populist."Canovan noted that "if the notion of populism did not exist, no social scientist would deliberately invent it. The confusion surrounding the term has led some scholars to suggest that it should be abandoned by scholarship. In contrast to this view, the political scientists Cas Mudde and Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser stated that "while the frustration is understandable, the term populism is too central to debates about politics from Europe to the Americas to do away with." Canovan noted that the term "does have comparatively clear and definite meanings in a number of specialist areas" and that it "provides a pointer, however shaky, to an interesting and unexplored area o
Visa requirements for Brazilian citizens
Visa requirements for Brazilian citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of Brazil. As of 26 March 2019, Brazilian citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 171 countries and territories, ranking the Brazilian passport 17th in terms of travel freedom, according to the Henley Passport Index; the Mercosur member states of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay, together with most other South American countries do not require a Brazilian passport. The identity card must be in good condition, must not have expired, the holder must be recognizable in the photograph. Brazilians within Mercosur have unlimited access to any of the full members and associated members with the right to residence and work, with no requirement other than nationality. Citizens of these nine countries may apply for the grant of "temporary residence" for up to two years in another country of the bloc, they may apply for "permanent residence" just before the term of their "temporary residence" expires.
Australia. Ashmore and Cartier Islands - Special authorisation required. Crimea. Visa not required. Territory accessed under Russian visa policy. China. Hainan - 30 days. Visa-free for Brazilian nationals as from May 1, 2018. China. Tibet Autonomous Region - Tibet Travel Permit required. Colombia. San Andrés and Leticia - Visitors arriving at Gustavo Rojas Pinilla International Airport and Alfredo Vásquez Cobo International Airport must buy tourist cards on arrival. Ecuador. Galápagos - Online pre-registration is required. Transit Control Card must be obtained at the airport prior to departure. Eritrea outside Asmara - To travel in the rest of the country, a Travel Permit for Foreigners is required. Fiji. Lau Province - Special permission required. Greece Mount Athos - Special permit required. There is a visitors' quota: maximum 100 Orthodox and 10 non-Orthodox per day and women are not allowed. India. Protected Area Permit required for whole states of Nagaland and Sikkim and parts of states Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh.
Restricted Area Permit required for parts of Sikkim. Some of these requirements are lifted for a year. Iraqi Kurdistan. Visa on arrival for 15 days is available at Sulaymaniyah airports. Iran. Kish Island - Visa not required. Kazakhstan. Closed cities - Special permission required for the town of Baikonur and surrounding areas in Kyzylorda Oblast, the town of Gvardeyskiy near Almaty. North Korea outside Pyongyang - Special permit required. People are not allowed to leave the capital city, tourists can only leave the capital with a governmental tourist guide. Malaysia. Sabah and Sarawak - Visa not required; these states have their own immigration authorities and passport is required to travel to them, however the same visa applies. Maldives outside Malé - Permission required. Tourists are prohibited from visiting non-resort islands without the express permission of the Government of Maldives. Russia. Special authorization required for several closed cities and regions in Russia require special authorization.
Saudi Arabia Mecca and Medina - Special access required. Non-Muslims and those following the Ahmadiyya religious movement are prohibited from entry. Sudan. Darfur - Separate travel permit is required. Sudan outside Khartoum - All foreigners traveling more than 25 kilometers outside of Khartoum must obtain a travel permit. Tajikistan. Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province - OIVR permit required and another special permit is required for Lake Sarez. Turkmenistan. Closed cities - A special permit, issued prior to arrival by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, is required if visiting the following places: Atamurat, Dashoguz and Serhetabat. United States. Closed city of Mercury, United States - Special authorization is required for entry into Mercury. United States. United States Minor Outlying Islands - Special permits required for Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, Palmyra Atoll and Wake Island. Venezuela. Margarita Island - Visa not required. All visitors are fingerprinted.
Vietnam. Phú Quốc - Visa not required for 30 days. Yemen outside Sana’a or Aden - Special permission needed for travel outside Sana’a or Aden. UN Buffer Zone in Cyprus - Access Permit is required for travelling inside the zone, except Civil Use Areas. Korean Demilitarized Zone - Restricted area. UNDOF Zone and Ghajar - Restricted area. Visas for Cambodia, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sri Lanka and Turkey are obtainable online. In the absence of specific bilateral agreements, countries requiring passports to be valid for at least 6 more months on arrival include Afghanistan, Anguilla, Bhutan, British Virgin Islands, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Comoros, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Curaçao, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Guinea Bissau, Haiti, Iran, Israel, Kenya, Kuwait, Madagascar, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Myanmar, Nepal, Nigeria, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, Samoa
Antônio Hamilton Martins Mourão is a Brazilian politician, the 25th and current Vice President of Brazil, since 1 January 2019. Mourão is a retired Brazilian Army General, the highest rank a Brazilian soldier can reach during peace time, he is a member of the Brazilian Labour Renewal Party. Mourão was born in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, the son of General Antônio Hamilton Mourão and Wanda Coronel Martins, he retired on 28 February 2018. He is of Indigenous Brazilian descent, declares himself Indigenous Brazilian. Hamilton is a practising Roman Catholic. Mourão became a widower in December 2016, he married Paula Mourão in October 2018. Paula is a first lieutenant of the Brazilian Army, they made their relationship public in 2017. The Mourãos own residences in Rio de Janeiro. Mourão joined the Army in February 1972, in the Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras, in Resende, Rio de Janeiro, where he became on officer on December 12, 1975; as lieutenant, he was instructor at Military Academy and as Captain, he worked with Jair Bolsonaro in the 8th Paratrooper Field Artillery Group, placed in Rio de Janeiro.
He had classes at the Escola de Comando e Estado-Maior do Exército where he graduated as Staff Officer and attended classes of Politics and Army High Administration. He trained in Basic Parachuting, Jump Master and Free Jump. During his military career he was an instructor at AMAN, was part of a peace mission in Angola and was the Military Attache for Brazil's Embassy to Venezuela, he commanded the 27th Field Artillery Group in Ijuí, Rio Grande do Sul. Mourão gained fame in 2015 during the political crisis in the second term of president Dilma Rousseff, when he was transferred from the Military Command of the South to the Secretary of Economy and Finance, in the Federal District, due to statements made in a speech about the current state of politics. In a public announcement of the Masonic Lodge Grande Oriente in September 2017, in the Federal District, Mourão stated that, "among the duties of the Brazilian Army, there was the guarantee of the operation of the institutions and of the law and order", that, if the judiciary "couldn't be able to heal the existing politics in the country, this would be imposed by the army through a military intervention", which, in his vision, "is provided by the Federal Constitution of 1988".
However, in May 2018, following the truck drivers' strike, Mourão spoke against calls for military intervention in the government, stating that "if the government lacks conditions to govern, resign. Call elections earlier, do whatever, but end its immobilism", that "the country cannot descend to chaos", he called the Unified Federation of Oil Workers' strike, "shameful", said "there are people taking advantage on both sides". Leaving the active service in 2018, Mourão considered running for president of the Military Club. On 8 May 2018, Mourão announced his membership in the Brazilian Labor Renewal Party and his intention to run for President of Brazil, along with Levy Fidelix. However, in August 2018, Mourão became Vice Presidential running mate of right-wing Presidential candidate Jair Bolsonaro