2014 Bulgarian parliamentary election
Parliamentary elections were held in Bulgaria on 5 October 2014 to elect the 43rd National Assembly. GERB remained the largest party. A total of eight parties won seats, the first time since the beginning of democratic elections in 1990 that more than seven parties entered parliament. Boyko Borisov became prime minister as head of a coalition with the Reformist Bloc and with outside support from the Patriotic Front and the Alternative for Bulgarian Revival. After the 2013 election, the seat distribution was such that the new coalition government, composed of the Bulgarian Socialist Party and the Movement for Rights and Freedoms and led by Plamen Oresharski, had only half the seats in Parliament, thus prospects of holding early elections were significant; the Oresharski cabinet was confronted by a series of protests starting on 14 June 2013, in response to the election of Delyan Peevski as head of the Bulgarian state security agency DANS. Following the setback suffered by the BSP in the European Parliament election - having picked up 18.94% of the popular vote - opposition parties called for early parliamentary elections.
The leader of the DPS expressed his desire to have the government resign so that early elections can be scheduled for the end of 2014 or the middle of 2015. On 10 June 2014 the leader of the Bulgarian Socialist Party, Sergei Stanishev, demanded the resignation of the government: "We cannot have the responsibility for the existence and actions of this government by ourselves." Following an agreement from the three largest parties to hold early parliamentary elections for 5 October 2014, the cabinet was to resign by the end of July. On Wednesday July 23, Oresharski's government submitted its resignation; the next day parliament voted 180 -- 8. After each party refused to try to form a new government, on 6 August a caretaker government led by Georgi Bliznashki was sworn into office and the 42nd National Assembly was dissolved with an election date set for 5 October. Twenty-two parties and seven coalitions registered to run on election day before the deadline. Two parties were denied registration.
The election campaign started on 5 September. Following his party's election victory, Borisov stated that his party would try to form the next government and that he "want to govern, in person"; the newly elected Assembly met for the first time on 27 October. After being tasked by President Rosen Plevneliev to form a government, Borisov's GERB allied with the Reformist Bloc to form a government and had the outside support of the Patriotic Front and the Alternative for Bulgarian Revival; the cabinet of twenty ministers was approved by a majority of 136-97. Borisov was chosen as prime minister by an larger vote of 149-85
2017 Bulgarian parliamentary election
Parliamentary elections were held in Bulgaria on 26 March 2017. They had been scheduled for 2018 at the end of the four-year term of the National Assembly. However, following the resignation of Prime Minister Boyko Borisov and the failure of Bulgarian parties to form a government, early elections were called. Borisov resigned following the defeat of Tsetska Tsacheva, the candidate of his GERB party, in the November 2016 presidential elections; the official election campaign began on 24 February. GERB won a plurality, with 95 of the 240 seats. Borisov was elected Prime Minister again after negotiating a governing coalition. During the 2016 presidential election campaign, Borisov promised to resign if his party's candidate, Chairperson of the National Assembly Tsetska Tsacheva, lost the election. On 6 November 2016 Tsacheva finished second in the first round to BSP-backed Major General Rumen Radev, receiving only 22% of the popular vote compared to Radev's 25.4%. Following the result, Borisov reiterated his promise to resign if his party's candidate lost the runoff election a week later.
On November 13, 2016, she finished a distant second with only 36.2% of the popular vote compared to Radev's 59.4%. Borisov, staying true to his campaign promise, subsequently resigned on 14 November. Two days the National Assembly voted 218–0 to accept it; the 240 members of the National Assembly are elected by closed list proportional representation from 31 multi-member constituencies ranging in size from 4 to 16 seats. The electoral threshold is 4%. Bulgarians abroad were able to vote in 371 voting sections in territories; some territories were excluded from this provision due to either security concerns or that few resident Bulgarian nationals resident in the country had submitted requests to be enabled to vote. The deadline for political parties to register for the election was 8 February 2017. Despite holding 15 seats in the Assembly, Reload Bulgaria chose not to compete in the election after being refused a name change, among other reasons; the list of registered parties is below. Percentages do not account for undecided voters.'Date' column signifies the last date of the survey in question, not the date of publication.
^ Combined result of the Patriotic Front and Attack. Five parties met the 4% threshold required to gain seats. GERB maintained their position as the largest party. Boyko Borisov appeared set to resume his tenure as Prime Minister with a coalition with the United Patriots, formed the Third Borisov Government with the United Patriots
National Assembly (Bulgaria)
The National Assembly is the unicameral parliament and legislative body of the Republic of Bulgaria. The National Assembly was established in 1879 with the Tarnovo Constitution; the National Assembly consists of 240 members elected for a four-year term elected by proportional representation in multi-seat constituencies. Political parties must garner a minimum of 4 % of the national vote. Bulgaria has a multi-party system; the Assembly is responsible for enactment of laws, approval of the budget, scheduling of presidential elections and dismissal of the Prime Minister and other ministers, declaration of war, concluding peace and deployment of troops outside Bulgaria, ratification of international treaties and agreements. It presided by the Chairperson of the National Assembly of Bulgaria; the Assembly administers the publication of Bulgaria's gazette of record. By the Constitution, the National Assembly is inaugurated by the eldest elected member of Parliament. On the first day of sitting, he or she presides over the election of two deputies.
Once elected, the Speakers retain their party allegiances, which means that they remain as MPs and are allowed to take part in debates and voting. 121 MPs must be present in order for any session to commence, 50%+1 of those present must vote "for" any point of order or bill to be approved. Ministers may be chosen from among the MPs or they may be experts outside Parliament. All MPs picked to be Cabinet ministers lose their MP status, other members from their party are called up to Parliament to fill the seats they vacate. Parliament sits Wednesday to Friday, sessions begin at 9 am. Parliamentary committees sit in the afternoons; the Chamber is made up of all facing the 5-seat speaker's bench in a 26 x 11 arrangement. In front of the Speaker facing the chamber, is the pulpit, in front of, the stenographers' desk. Parties sit in parliamentary groups, loosely following the rule that the political left sit to the Speaker's left and the political right to his right; the largest parties choose the left, right or centre wings of the chamber, with smaller blocks accommodating themselves wherever convenient.
Individual MPs will sometimes sit outside their block or stand, since compulsory electronic registration was implemented, may vote from any seat in the house. To the speaker's right facing the chamber, is a section with 17 seats reserved for the Cabinet, any of whom may or may not be present at any time during a parliamentary session. Any of them may, however, be called up by Parliament at any time. In addition to the ordinary National Assembly, a Grand National Assembly may be convened in order for matters of special jurisdiction, such as: 1) Adoption of a new Constitution. Before the World War II the Grand National Assembly was competent in electing the Regency of the Bulgarian Kingdom if the tzar had not come to age; the First and the Third Grand National Assemblies elected the first two Bulgarian monarchs after the liberation from Ottoman rule – Prince Alexander Battenberg and Prince Ferdinand Saxe Coburg-Gotha. As an organ, the Grand National Assembly was introduced with the Tarnovo Constitution of 1879, abolished in 1947 and reintroduced with the 1991 constitution.
In different constitutional provisions, it was constituted by a different number of representatives. According to the 1991 Constitution, it consists of 400 deputies; the 1991 Constitution was adopted by the Seventh Grand National Assembly and was composed of 200 members being elected by proportional representation and the other 200 under a first-past-the-post voting system. The Constitution provides that the elections for Grand National Assembly shall be conducted in the same manner as those for the Ordinary National Assembly. A qualified majority of 2/3 during three voting procedures on separate dates is required for a decision to be made; the Grand National Assembly can serve as an ordinary National Assembly, taking care of regular legislative activities, in urgent cases only. After it has concluded its work on the matter for which it was elected, the Grand National Assembly is dissolved ex lege and the President of the Republic shall appoint elections for an ordinary National Assembly. A total of seven Grand National Assemblies have been in operation in Bulgaria, the last one from 10 July 1990 to 12 July 1991 adopting the current constitution.
The National Assembly's main building has been proclaimed a monument of culture for its historic significance. Situated in downtown Sofia, it was designed in Neo-Renaissance style by Konstantin Jovanović. Due to insufficient space in the main building at Parliament Square, some administrative offices of the National Assembly are now housed by the former headquarters of the Bulgarian Communist Party, located at the Largo. There has been a proposal that the entire National Assembly be permanently moved to the old Party house building, with its inner courtyard being converted into an interior space for the plenary chamber. Politics of Bulgaria List of legislatures by country Народно събрание на Република България/ National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria, official website Bulgaria The National Assembly Historical photographs of the National Assembly
GERB is a conservative, populist Bulgarian political party established on 13 March 2006. The initials of the party герб/gerb translate as "coat of arms" in Bulgarian, it is Bulgaria's second-largest party by membership. GERB is headed by Prime Minister of Bulgaria Boyko Borisov, former mayor of Sofia, former member of the National Movement Simeon II, former personal guard of Todor Zhivkov in the 90s of the last century, they were close friends. The establishment of the party followed the creation of a non-profit organization with the acronym GERB — Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria, earlier the same year; the name of the party is spelled in all caps nonetheless. In early January 2007, early February 2007, the party came second in public polls on party support with around 14%, trailing the Bulgarian Socialist Party which had around 25%, its stated priorities are fighting crime and corruption, preserving family as the cornerstone of society and achieving energy independence. GERB won the 2009 European Parliament election in Bulgaria with 24.36% of the vote.
The party elected five MEPs and joined the European People's Party-European Democrats Group in the European Parliament. On June 6, 2007 GERB applied formally to join as a member-party the European People's Party and joined EPP on February 7, 2008. GERB won the 2009 parliamentary elections, held a month after the European ballot, winning 39.7% of the popular vote and 117 seats. After the elections, a new government was formed, led by Borisov with GERB members and with 5 independent ministers around Deputy Prime Minister Simeon Djankov; the reformist wing was responsible for some of the most significant legislative victories, including a Constitutional reform to ban tax increases. On 20 February 2013, the government resigned after nationwide protests demanding it to step down. GERB's candidates for the 2011 presidential election, Rosen Plevneliev and Margarita Popova, won the elections on the second ballot with 52.6% of the popular vote. GERB won the 2013 parliamentary elections with 97 seats; this made GERB the first governing party to be re-elected in the history of the post-communist Bulgaria.
However, with lack of support from the other parties and designated to form a new government, Borisov refused the offer and so GERB went in the opposition. However, due to the collapse of the coalition government in 2014, GERB backed into power after the snap elections. Official website Official website GERB's page on the European People's Party website
The Bulgarian Left is a socialist political party in Bulgaria. It was created in February 2009 predominantly by members of the Bulgarian Socialist Party, with its constituent congress taking place on April 4, 2009, its leaders are Margarita Mileva, Ivan Genov. The party is full member of the Party of the European Left since September 2010. In the 2013 parliamentary elections the party failed to win any seats. In 2014 the party participated in a coalition with Green Party of Bulgaria. Together they won 7,010 votes; this coalition continued during 2017 parliamentary elections. Official website
Bulgaria the Republic of Bulgaria, is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north and North Macedonia to the west and Turkey to the south, the Black Sea to the east; the capital and largest city is Sofia. With a territory of 110,994 square kilometres, Bulgaria is Europe's 16th-largest country. One of the earliest societies in the lands of modern-day Bulgaria was the Neolithic Karanovo culture, which dates back to 6,500 BC. In the 6th to 3rd century BC the region was a battleground for Thracians, Persians and ancient Macedonians; the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine, Empire lost some of these territories to an invading Bulgar horde in the late 7th century. The Bulgars founded the First Bulgarian Empire in AD 681, which dominated most of the Balkans and influenced Slavic cultures by developing the Cyrillic script; this state lasted until the early 11th century, when Byzantine emperor Basil II conquered and dismantled it. A successful Bulgarian revolt in 1185 established a Second Bulgarian Empire, which reached its apex under Ivan Asen II.
After numerous exhausting wars and feudal strife, the Second Bulgarian Empire disintegrated in 1396 and its territories fell under Ottoman rule for nearly five centuries. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 resulted in the formation of the current Third Bulgarian State. Many ethnic Bulgarian populations were left outside its borders, which led to several conflicts with its neighbours and an alliance with Germany in both world wars. In 1946 Bulgaria became part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc; the ruling Communist Party gave up its monopoly on power after the revolutions of 1989 and allowed multi-party elections. Bulgaria transitioned into a democracy and a market-based economy. Since adopting a democratic constitution in 1991, the sovereign state has been a unitary parliamentary republic with a high degree of political and economic centralisation; the population of seven million lives in Sofia and the capital cities of the 27 provinces, the country has suffered significant demographic decline since the late 1980s.
Bulgaria is a member of the European Union, NATO, the Council of Europe. Its market economy is part of the European Single Market and relies on services, followed by industry—especially machine building and mining—and agriculture. Widespread corruption is a major socioeconomic issue; the name Bulgaria is derived from a tribe of Turkic origin that founded the country. Their name is not understood and difficult to trace back earlier than the 4th century AD, but it is derived from the Proto-Turkic word bulģha and its derivative bulgak; the meaning may be further extended to "rebel", "incite" or "produce a state of disorder", i.e. the "disturbers". Ethnic groups in Inner Asia with phonologically similar names were described in similar terms: during the 4th century, the Buluoji, a component of the "Five Barbarian" groups in Ancient China, were portrayed as both a "mixed race" and "troublemakers". Neanderthal remains dating to around 150,000 years ago, or the Middle Paleolithic, are some of the earliest traces of human activity in the lands of modern Bulgaria.
The Karanovo culture arose circa 6,500 BC and was one of several Neolithic societies in the region that thrived on agriculture. The Copper Age Varna culture is credited with inventing gold metallurgy; the associated Varna Necropolis treasure contains the oldest golden jewellery in the world with an approximate age of over 6,000 years. The treasure has been valuable for understanding social hierarchy and stratification in the earliest European societies; the Thracians, one of the three primary ancestral groups of modern Bulgarians, appeared on the Balkan Peninsula some time before the 12th century BC. The Thracians excelled in metallurgy and gave the Greeks the Orphean and Dionysian cults, but remained tribal and stateless; the Persian Achaemenid Empire conquered most of present-day Bulgaria in the 6th century BC and retained control over the region until 479 BC. The invasion became a catalyst for Thracian unity, the bulk of their tribes united under king Teres to form the Odrysian kingdom in the 470s BC.
It was weakened and vassalized by Philip II of Macedon in 341 BC, attacked by Celts in the 3rd century, became a province of the Roman Empire in AD 45. By the end of the 1st century AD, Roman governance was established over the entire Balkan Peninsula and Christianity began spreading in the region around the 4th century; the Gothic Bible—the first Germanic language book—was created by Gothic bishop Ulfilas in what is today northern Bulgaria around 381. The region came under Byzantine control after the fall of Rome in 476; the Byzantines were engaged in prolonged warfare against Persia and could not defend their Balkan territories from barbarian incursions. This enabled the Slavs to enter the Balkan Peninsula as marauders through an area between the Danube River and the Balkan Mountains known as Moesia; the interior of the peninsula became a country of the South Slavs, who lived under a democracy. The Slavs assimilated the Hellenized and Gothicized Thracians in the rural areas. Not l
A coalition government is a cabinet of a parliamentary government in which multiple political parties cooperate, reducing the dominance of any one party within that "coalition". The usual reason for this arrangement is that no party on its own can achieve a majority in the parliament. A coalition government might be created in a time of national difficulty or crisis to give a government the high degree of perceived political legitimacy or collective identity it desires while playing a role in diminishing internal political strife. In such times, parties have formed all-party coalitions. If a coalition collapses, a confidence vote is held or a motion of no confidence is taken; when a general election does not produce a clear majority for a single party, parties either form coalition cabinets, supported by a parliamentary majority, or minority cabinets which may consist of one or more parties. Cabinets based on a group of parties that command a majority in parliament tend to be more stable and long-lived than minority cabinets.
While the former are prone to internal struggles, they have less reason to fear votes of no confidence. Majority governments based on a single party are even more stable, as long as their majority can be maintained. Countries which operate with coalition cabinets include: the Nordic countries, the Benelux countries, Austria, France, Greece, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, Kosovo, Lebanon, New Zealand, Thailand and Tobago, Turkey and Ukraine. Switzerland has been ruled by a coalition of the four strongest parties in parliament from 1959 to 2008, called the "Magic Formula". Between 2010 and 2015, the United Kingdom operated a formal coalition between the Conservative and the Liberal Democrat parties, but this was unusual: the UK has a single-party majority government. In the United Kingdom, coalition governments have only been formed at times of national crisis; the most prominent was the National Government of 1931 to 1940. There were multi-party coalitions during both world wars. Apart from this, when no party has had a majority, minority governments have been formed with one or more opposition parties agreeing to vote in favour of the legislation which governments need to function: for instance the Labour government of James Callaghan formed a pact with the Liberals from March 1977 until July 1978, after a series of by-election defeats had eroded Labour's majority of three seats, gained at the October 1974 election.
However, in the run-up to the 1997 general election, Labour opposition leader Tony Blair was in talks with Liberal Democrat leader Paddy Ashdown about forming a coalition government if Labour failed to win a majority at the election. The 2010 general election resulted in a hung parliament, the Conservatives, led by David Cameron, which had won the largest number of seats, formed a coalition with the Liberal Democrats in order to gain a parliamentary majority, ending 13 years of Labour government; this was the first time that the Conservatives and Lib Dems had made a power-sharing deal at Westminster. It was the first full coalition in Britain since 1945, having been formed 70 years to the day after the establishment of Winston Churchill's wartime coalition and the Liberal Democrats have entered into a coalition three times in the Scottish Parliament and twice in the Welsh Assembly. In Germany, for instance, coalition government is the norm, as it is rare for either the Christian Democratic Union of Germany together with their partners the Christian Social Union in Bavaria, or the Social Democratic Party of Germany, to win an unqualified majority in a national election.
Thus, at the federal level, governments are formed with at least two parties. For example, Helmut Kohl's CDU governed for years in coalition with the Free Democratic Party. "Grand coalitions" of the two large parties occur, but these are rare, as large parties prefer to associate with small ones. However, if none of the larger parties can receive enough votes to form their preferred coalition, a grand coalition might be their only choice for forming a government; this was the situation in Germany in 2005 when Angela Merkel became Chancellor: in early elections, the CDU/CSU did not garner enough votes to form a majority coalition with the FDP. A grand coalition government was subsequently forged between the CDU/CSU and the SPD. Partnerships like these involve structured cabinets; the CDU/CSU ended up holding the Chancellery. Parties make statements ahead of elections which coalitions they categorically reject, similar to election promises or shadow cabinets in other countries. In Germany, coalitions consist of more than two parties.
However, in the 2010s coalitions on the state level included three different parties FDP, Greens and one of the major parties or "red red green" coalitions of SPD, Linkspartei and Greens. By 2016, the Greens have joined governments on the state level in eleven coalitions in seven various constellations. In federal Australian politics