Defence Command (Denmark)
The Defence Command is the Danish joint military command and the top coordination and controlling authority of the Danish military. It is a Level I command authority, directly under the Ministry of Defence and it consists of the Chief of Defence and three service staffs and Planning Staffs, known collectively as Forsvarsstaben, Arctic Command and the Special Operations Command. It was a continuation of the Danish defence re-construction of 1950, the reorganization resulted in a unified command structure similar to the previous Generalkommandoen. The Danish Defence agreement 2005–09 called for another major re-construction of the Danish military, between 1973 and 2006 FKO was located in Vedbæk a little north of Lyngby, in a modern steel and concrete building, built 1970 – November 1972 by Forsvarets Bygningstjeneste. FKO moved to building in March 1973. FKO moved to Søarsenalet on Holmen naval base on July 24,2006, due to the Danish Defence Agreement 2013–17, the FKO saw major structural reorganization, to such an extent that it was renamed Værnsfælles Forsvarskommando, however retaining its name in English.
The entities and authorities which were subject to the operational commands. Naval Staff in Karup – Rear Admiral Frank Trojahn, air Staff in Karup – Major General Max A. L. T. Plans and Coordination Staff in Copenhagen – Major General Flemming Lentfer, joint Operations Staff in Copenhagen – Rear Admiral Finn Hansen. Special Operations Command in Aalborg – Gen. George Høll, joint Arctic Command in Nuuk – Gen. Stig Østergaard Nielsen
Foreign relations of Denmark
The foreign policy of Denmark is based on its identity as a sovereign nation in Europe. As such its primary foreign policy focus is on its relations with other nations as an independent nation. Denmark has long had relations with other nations. It has been involved in coordinating Western assistance to the Baltic states, the country is a strong supporter of international peacekeeping. Danish forces were engaged in the former Yugoslavia in the UN Protection Force, with IFOR. Denmark strongly supported American operations in Afghanistan and has contributed both monetarily and materially to the ISAF and these initiatives are a part of the active foreign policy of Denmark. In recent years and the Faroe Islands have been guaranteed a say in foreign issues, such as fishing, whaling. Following World War II, Denmark ended its policy of neutrality. Denmark has been a member of NATO since its founding in 1949, the conservative led Centre-right government accepted this variety of minority parliamentarism, that is, without making it a question of the governments parliamentary survival.
With the end of the Cold War, Denmark has been supportive of U. S. policy objectives in the Alliance, danes have enjoyed a reputation as reluctant Europeans. When they rejected ratification of the Maastricht Treaty on 2 June 1992, the Amsterdam Treaty was approved in the referendum of 28 May 1998. In the autumn of 2000, Danish citizens rejected membership of the Euro currency group in a referendum, the Lisbon treaty was ratified by the Danish parliament alone. It was not considered a surrendering of national sovereignty, which would have implied the holding of a referendum according to article 20 of the constitution, a continental shelf dispute involving Iceland and the UK Hans Island. An island located between Greenland and Canadian Arctic islands, unresolved boundary disputed between Canada and Denmark. This dispute flared up again in July 2005 following the visit of a Canadian minister to the disputed island, Denmark is trying to prove that the North Pole is geographically connected to Greenland.
If such proof is established, Denmark will claim the North Pole and Poland have still not agreed on the location of the maritime border between the two countries. Denmark supports a border halfway between the two countries, Poland wants to be awarded an even greater share of the Baltic Sea, the Polish position is based on the argument that Poland owns a longer coast line than the Danish island of Bornholm. China and Denmark, relations since 1674, jørgen Sevaldsen, Bo Bjørke, Claus Bjørn
Politics of the Faroe Islands
The Faroe Islands are politically associated with the Kingdom of Denmark, but have been self-governing since 1948. Executive power is exercised by the government, legislative power is vested in both the government and the Løgting. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature and the responsibility of Denmark, as of October 25,2007, the Faroe Islands became one electoral district. The high commissioner is appointed by the Queen of Denmark, the High Commissioner has a seat in the Løgting, he or she is allowed to speak in the Løgting regarding common Danish/Faroese affairs, but he or she is not allowed to vote. The chairman with the most votes is handed the initiative, after forming the coalition, the løgmaður leads the landsstýri. The landsstýri will often consist of around 7 members, the coalition parties divide the various ministries among themselves and after this, the parties elect their representative to these ministries. Any other member of the cabinet is called a landsstýrismaður if the person is a man, the word ráðharri is used for a member of the cabinet, i. e. mentamálaráðharri or heilsumálaráðharri.
The Faroese Parliament has 33 MPs, elected for a term by proportional representation. Election of 2 seats to the Danish Parliament was last held on June 18,2015, Social Democrats 1, the Faroese Parliament has 33 seats. Members are elected by vote to serve four-year terms. The islands are divided into 30 municipalities with about 120 cities and villages. Traditionally, there are the 6 sýslur, sýsla means district and although it is only a police district today, it is still commonly understood as a geographical region. In earlier times, each sýsla had its own ting, the so-called várting, cabinet of the Faroe Islands List of Prime Ministers of the Faroe Islands Politics of Denmark List of Danish High Commissioners in the Faroe Islands Prime Minister’s Office
Greenland is an autonomous constituent country within the Danish Realm between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe for more than a millennium. The majority of its residents are Inuit, whose ancestors began migrating from the Canadian mainland in the 13th century, Greenland is the worlds largest island. Three-quarters of Greenland is covered by the permanent ice sheet outside Antarctica. With a population of about 56,480, it is the least densely populated country in the world, the Arctic Umiaq Line ferry acts as a lifeline for western Greenland, connecting the various cities and settlements. Greenland has been inhabited off and on for at least the last 4,500 years by Arctic peoples whose forebears migrated there from what is now Canada, Norsemen settled the uninhabited southern part of Greenland beginning in the 10th century, and Inuit peoples arrived in the 13th century.
The Norse colonies disappeared in the late 15th century, soon after their demise, beginning in 1499, the Portuguese briefly explored and claimed the island, naming it Terra do Lavrador. In the early 18th century, Scandinavian explorers reached Greenland again, to strengthen trading and power, Denmark-Norway affirmed sovereignty over the island. Greenland was settled by Vikings more than a thousand years ago, Vikings set sail from Greenland and Iceland, discovering North America nearly 500 years before Columbus reached Caribbean islands. Though under continuous influence of Norway and Norwegians, Greenland was not formally under the Norwegian crown until 1262, the Kingdom of Norway was extensive and a military power until the mid-14th century. Thus, the two kingdoms resources were directed at creating Copenhagen, Norway became the weaker part and lost sovereignty over Greenland in 1814 when the union was dissolved. Greenland became a Danish colony in 1814, and was made a part of the Danish Realm in 1953 under the Constitution of Denmark, in 1973, Greenland joined the European Economic Community with Denmark.
However, in a referendum in 1982, a majority of the population voted for Greenland to withdraw from the EEC which was effected in 1985, Greenland contains the worlds largest and most northernly national park, Northeast Greenland National Park. Greenland is divided into four municipalities - Sermersooq, Qaasuitsup and it retains control of monetary policy, providing an initial annual subsidy of DKK3.4 billion, which is planned to diminish gradually over time. Greenland expects to grow its economy based on increased income from the extraction of natural resources, the capital, held the 2016 Arctic Winter Games. At 70%, Greenland has one of the highest shares of renewable energy in the world, the early Viking settlers named the island as Greenland. In the Icelandic sagas, the Norwegian-born Icelander Erik the Red was said to be exiled from Iceland for manslaughter, along with his extended family and his thralls, he set out in ships to explore an icy land known to lie to the northwest. After finding an area and settling there, he named it Grœnland
Frederik, Crown Prince of Denmark
Frederik, Crown Prince of Denmark, Count of Monpezat, RE, SKmd is the heir apparent to the throne of Denmark. Frederik is the son of Queen Margrethe II and Henrik. At the time of his birth, his grandfather was on the throne of Denmark. He was christened on 24 June 1968, at Holmens Kirke and he was named Frederik after his maternal grandfather, King Frederick IX, continuing the Danish royal tradition of the heir apparent being named either Frederick or Christian. His middle names honour his paternal grandfather, André de Laborde de Monpezat, his father, Prince Henrik and he became Crown Prince of Denmark when his mother succeeded to the throne as Margrethe II on 14 January 1972. Frederick attended primary school at Krebs Skole during the years 1974–1981, from 1974–1976 as a pupil at Amalienborg Palace. In the period 1982–1983, he was a boarder at École des Roches in Normandy, in 1986, Frederik graduated from the upper secondary school of Øregaard Gymnasium. In addition he is fluent in French and German, in 1989, began to study for an academic degree, when he began a course in Political Science at Aarhus University.
This included a year at Harvard University under the name of Frederik Henriksen and he took up a position for three months with the Danish UN mission in New York in 1994. In 1995, he obtained his MSc degree in Political Science from Aarhus University and he completed the course in the prescribed number of years with an exam result above average. His final paper was an analysis on the policy of the Baltic States. The prince was posted as First Secretary to the Danish Embassy in Paris from October 1998 to October 1999, Frederick has completed extensive military studies and training in all three services, notably completing education as a sailor in the naval elite special operations forces. In the period 2001 and 2002, he completed training for leaders at the Royal Danish Defence College. Reconnaissance Platoon Commander with the Royal Guard Hussars’ Regiment 1988, First Lieutenant in the Reserve 1989. First Lieutenant in the Reserve 1995, Lieutenant Commander in the Reserve 1997. Royal Danish Air Force Flying School 2000 Captain in the Reserve 2000, Command and General Staff Course, Royal Danish Defence College 2001–2002.
Staff Officer, Defence Command Denmark 2002–2003, senior lecturer with the Institute of Strategy at the Royal Danish Defence College, 2003–. Commander, senior grade, lieutenant colonel 2004, the wedding took place on 14 May 2004 at Copenhagen Cathedral, Copenhagen
In practice, a diplomatic mission usually denotes the resident mission, namely the office of a countrys diplomatic representatives in the capital city of another country. As well as being a mission to the country in which it is situated. There are thus resident and non-resident embassies, a permanent diplomatic mission is typically known as an Embassy, and the head of the mission is known as an Ambassador, or High Commissioner. Therefore, the Embassy operates in the Chancery, European Union missions abroad are known as EU delegations. Some countries have more particular naming for their missions and staff, under the rule of Muammar Gaddafi, Libyas missions used the name peoples bureau and the head of the mission was a secretary. Missions between Commonwealth countries are known as commissions and their heads are High Commissioners. This is because Ambassadors are exchanged between foreign countries, but since the beginning of the Commonwealth, member countries have maintained that they are not foreign to one another.
An ambassador represents one head of state to another and a letters of credence are addressed by one head of state to another. Until India became a republic on 26 January 1950, all members of the Commonwealth had the head of state. In the past a diplomatic mission headed by an official was known as a legation. Since the ranks of envoy and minister resident are effectively obsolete, a consulate is similar to, but not the same as a diplomatic office, but with focus on dealing with individual persons and businesses, as defined by the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations. A consulate or consulate general is generally a representative of the embassy in locales outside of the capital city. For instance, the United Kingdom has its Embassy of the United Kingdom in Washington, D. C. but maintains seven consulates-general, the person in charge of a consulate or consulate-general is known as a consul or consul-general, respectively. Similar services may be provided at the embassy in what is called a consular section.
In cases of dispute, it is common for a country to recall its head of mission as a sign of its displeasure, a chargé daffaires ad interim heads the mission during the interim between the end of one chief of missions term and the beginning of another. Contrary to popular belief, most diplomatic missions do not enjoy full extraterritorial status, the premises of diplomatic missions usually remain under the jurisdiction of the host state while being afforded special privileges by the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations. Diplomats themselves still retain full diplomatic immunity, and the host country may not enter the premises of the mission without permission of the represented country, international rules designate an attack on an embassy as an attack on the country it represents. The term extraterritoriality is often applied to missions, but normally only in this broader sense
Regions of Denmark
Denmark, officially the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Scandinavian country in Europe and a sovereign state. The southernmost and smallest of the Nordic countries, it is south-west of Sweden and south of Norway, Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean, the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark has an area of 42,924 square kilometres. The country consists of a peninsula, and an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand, the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea, Denmark and Norway were ruled together under the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523. Denmark and Norway remained under the monarch until outside forces dissolved the union in 1814. The union with Norway made it possible for Denmark to inherit the Faroe Islands, beginning in the 17th century, there were several cessions of territory to Sweden.
In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945, the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy which had begun in 1660. It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy, the government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nations capital, largest city and main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs, Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948, in Greenland home rule was established in 1979 and further autonomy in 2009. Denmark became a member of the European Economic Community in 1973, maintaining certain opt-outs, it retains its own currency, the krone. It is among the members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE.
The etymology of the word Denmark, and especially the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as a kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centred primarily on the prefix Dan and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -mark ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, and the name of the people, from a word meaning land, related to German Tenne threshing floor. The -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth
The Folketing, known as the Danish Parliament in English, is the unicameral national parliament of the Kingdom of Denmark. Established in 1849, until 1953 the Folketing was the house of a bicameral parliament, called the Rigsdag. It meets in Christiansborg Palace, on the islet of Slotsholmen in central Copenhagen, the Folketing passes all laws, approves the cabinet, and supervises the work of the government. It is responsible for adopting the states budgets and approving the states accounts, as set out in the Danish Constitution, the Folketing shares power with the reigning monarch. In practice, the role is limited to signing laws passed by the legislature. The Folketing consists of 179 representatives,175 from Denmark,2 from Greenland, general elections must be held every four years, but it is within the powers of the Prime Minister to ask the monarch to call for an election before the term has elapsed. On a vote of no confidence, the Folketing may force a single Minister or the government to resign.
Members are democratically elected by proportional representation,135 by the DHondt method and 40 by the Sainte-Laguë method, the Danish political system has traditionally generated coalitions. Most post-war governments have been minority coalitions ruling with the support of non-government parties, the most recent general election took place on 18 June 2015 and the Folketing reconvened on 6 October. The first sitting of the house was attended by Queen Margrethe II, from 1849 to 1953 the Folketing was one of the two houses in the bicameral parliament known as the Rigsdag, the other house was known as the Landsting. Since both houses, in principle, had power, the terms upper house and lower house were not generally used. The difference between the houses was voter representation, the Folketing was elected by common vote among men and consisted mainly of independent farmers and merchants as well as the educated classes. From 1915 both men and women had the right of vote for both houses, and the Landsting was elected by vote, although indirectly and with a higher age limit than for the Folketing.
During the next decades, law-making mainly took place in the Folketing, in 1953, a revised constitution was adopted by popular vote. Among the changes was the elimination of the Landsting and the introduction of a unicameral parliament, Christiansborg Palace has been the domicile of parliament since 1849. The palace is located in the heart of Copenhagen, winning a seat in parliament requires only 2% of the vote. With such a low threshold, a large number of parties are represented in the chamber, making it all. No party has achieved this since 1901, all Danish governments since have been coalitions or one-party minority governments
Monarchy of Denmark
The Monarchy of Denmark, colloquially known as the Danish Monarchy, is a constitutional institution and a historic office of the Kingdom of Denmark. The Kingdom includes not only Denmark, but the regions of Greenland. The Kingdom of Denmark were already consolidated in the late 8th century, originally an elective monarchy, it became hereditary only in the 17th century during the reign of Frederick III. A decisive transition to a constitutional monarchy occurred in 1849 with the writing of the first Constitution, the current Royal House is a branch of the princely family of Glücksburg, originally from Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, the same royal house as the Norwegian and former Greek royal families. The Danish Monarchy is constitutional and as such, the role of the monarch is defined and limited by the Constitution of Denmark, the monarch is, in practice, limited to non-partisan functions such as bestowing honours and appointing the Prime Minister. The monarch and his or her immediate family undertake various official, diplomatic, Queen Margrethe II ascended the throne on the death of her father, King Frederick IX, on 14 January 1972.
On her accession, Queen Margrethe II became the first female monarch of Denmark since Margrethe I, ruler of the Scandinavian countries in 1375‒1412, during the Kalmar Union. Danish regnal names have traditionally alternated between Frederick and Christian, Margrethe has taken the place of a Christian, and accordingly her heir apparent is Crown Prince Frederik. The modern Kingdom of Denmark dates back to Harthacnuts son, Gorm the Old, the first King of a united Scotland was King Kenneth MacAlpin who died around 80 years before Gorm the Old was born. The Danes were united and officially Christianized in 965 CE by Harald Bluetooth, the Jelling stones attests that Harald had won Norway. The son of Harald, Sweyn Forkbeard, mounted a series of wars of conquest against England, the reign of Cnut represented the peak of the Danish Viking age, his North Sea Empire included Denmark, Norway and held strong influence over the north-eastern coast of Germany. The last monarch descended from Valdemar IV, Christopher III of Denmark, Count Christian of Oldenburg, descendant of Valdemar IVs aunt Richeza, was chosen as his successor and became the next monarch of Denmark, ruling under the name Christian I.
Originally the Danish monarchy was elective, but in practice the eldest son of the monarch was elected. Later a Coronation Charter was signed by the king to restrict the powers of the Danish monarch, in 1657, during the Second Northern War, King Frederick III launched a war of revenge against Sweden which turned into a complete disaster. The war became a disaster for two reasons, because Denmarks new powerful ally, the Netherlands, remained neutral as Denmark was the aggressor and Sweden the defender. Secondly, the Belts froze over in an occurrence during the winter of 1657-1658. In the following Treaty of Roskilde, Denmark–Norway capitulated and gave up all of Eastern Denmark, in addition to the counties of Bohuslän, but the Second Northern War was not yet over. Three months after the treaty was signed, Charles X Gustav held a council of war where he decided to simply wipe Denmark from the map
Constitution of Denmark
The Constitutional Act of Denmark, or simply the Constitution, forms a part of the supreme law of Kingdom of Denmark, applying equally in Denmark and the Faroe Islands. It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles of governance and establishes the structure, powers, sections set out fundamental rights and the duties of citizens, such as freedom of speech, freedom of religion and compulsory military service. The Kingdom is governed on the basis of this Constitutional Act but it is complemented by Royal Law, the Act of Succession and devolution arrangements in Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The government of Denmark, as described in Part One of the Constitutional Act, is a system under a constitutional monarchy. In its present form, the Constitutional Act is from 1953 and its adoption ended an absolute monarchy and introduced democracy. Denmark celebrates the adoption of the Constitution on 5 June—the date in which the Constitution was ratified—every year as Constitution Day, the Danish Parliament cannot make any laws which may be repugnant or contrary to the Constitutional Act.
However, Denmark has no court, and establishing such a court would require a constitutional amendment. Changes to the Act must be confirmed by a majority in two parliamentary terms and the approval of the electorate through a national referendum. The Danish Constitution differs from all other Danish laws by virtue of its superseding status, as such, these laws are not permitted to contravene the provisions of the Constitution Act. The main principle of the Constitutional Act was to limit the Kings power and it creates a comparatively weak constitutional monarch who is dependent on Ministers for advice and Parliament to draft and pass legislation. The Constitution of 1849 established a parliament, the Rigsdag, consisting of the Landsting. The most significant change in the Constitution of 1953 was the abolishment of the Landsting, leaving the unicameral Folketing and it enshrined fundamental civil rights, which remain in the current constitution, such as habeas corpus, private property rights and freedom of speech.
The Constitutional Act has been changed very few times, but always with the consent of Danish citizens, the wording in the Act is so general that it can still be applied today, despite major changes in society and political life in the intervening years. However, since Denmark lacks a Constitutional Court, scrutiny of legislation for compatibility with the Constitution is a matter for ordinary courts, significantly this means that the actual testing of compatibility can only be instigated by a citizen or company who is affected by the question. When reading the Danish Constitution, it is important to bear in mind that the King is meant to be read as the government because of the symbolic status. This is a consequence of sections 12 and 13, by which the King executes his power through his ministers, an implication of these sections is that the monarch cannot act alone in disregard of the ministers, so the Danish monarch does not interfere in politics. The Danish Parliament is the power, enacting the laws of the country.
The Cabinet is the power, formally acting out the role of the Monarch
Margrethe II of Denmark
Margrethe II is the Queen of Denmark. She is the authority of the Church of Denmark. Born into the House of Glücksburg, a house with origins in Northern Germany, she was the eldest child of Frederick IX of Denmark. She succeeded her father upon his death on 14 January 1972, having had become heir presumptive to her father in 1953, on her accession, Margrethe became the first female monarch of Denmark since Margaret I, ruler of the Scandinavian countries in 1375–1412 during the Kalmar Union. Having been on the Danish throne for 45 years, she is the second longest-reigning Danish monarch after her ancestor Christian IV, in 1967, she married Henri de Laborde de Monpezat, with whom she has two sons, Crown Prince Frederik and Prince Joachim. Princess Margrethe was born 16 April 1940 at Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen as the first child of Crown Prince Frederick, King Frederick IX and Crown Princess Ingrid and her birth took place just one week after Nazi Germanys invasion of Denmark on 9 April 1940.
She was baptised on 14 May in the Church of Holmen in Copenhagen, since her paternal grandfather was the King of Iceland, she was given an Icelandic name, Þórhildur. When Margrethe was four years old, in 1944, her first sister, Princess Benedikte married Prince Richard of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg and lives some of the time in Germany. Her second sister Princess Anne Marie was born in 1946, anne-Marie married Constantine II of Greece and now lives in Greece. Margrethe and her sisters grew up in apartments at Frederick VIIIs Palace at Amalienborg in Copenhagen and she spent summer holidays with the royal family in her parents summer residence at Gråsten Palace in Southern Jutland. On 20 April 1947, King Christian X died and Margrethes father ascended the throne as King Frederick IX. At the time of her birth, only males could ascend the throne of Denmark, as she had no brothers, it was assumed that her uncle Prince Knud would one day assume the throne. The process of changing the constitution started in 1947, not long after her father ascended the throne, the popularity of Frederick and his daughters and the more prominent role of women in Danish life started the complicated process of altering the constitution.
The law required that the proposal be passed by two successive Parliaments and by a referendum, which occurred 27 March 1953, Princess Margrethe therefore became heir presumptive. On her eighteenth birthday,16 April 1958, Margrethe was given a seat in the Council of State and she subsequently chaired the meetings of the Council in the absence of the King. Margrethe was educated at the private school N. Zahles School in Copenhagen from which she graduated in 1959 and she is a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London. Queen Margrethe is fluent in Danish, English and German, Princess Margrethe married a French diplomat, Count Henri de Laborde de Monpezat,10 June 1967, at the Church of Holmen in Copenhagen. Laborde de Monpezat received the style and title of His Royal Highness Prince Henrik of Denmark because of his new position as the spouse of the heir presumptive to the Danish throne, Margrethe gave birth to her first child 26 May 1968