List of political parties in Germany

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This is a list of political parties in Germany.

The Parliament of the Federal Republic of Germany, the Bundestag, has a plural multi-party system, with two major parties, the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), with its sister party, the Christian Social Union (CSU) in the same parliamentary group, also known as CDU/CSU or the Union.

Germany also has a number of minor parties, in recent history most importantly the Free Democratic Party (FDP), Alliance '90/The Greens and The Left. The federal government of Germany often consisted of a coalition of a major and a minor party, specifically CDU/CSU and FDP, SPD and FDP or SPD and Greens, from 1966 to 1969, from 2005 to 2009 and again since 2013, the federal government consisted of a coalition of the two major parties, called Grand Coalition.[1] Coalitions in the Bundestag and state legislators are often described by party colors. Party colors are the Social Democratic Party being red, the Alliance '90/The Greens green, the Free Democratic Party yellow, the Left dark red, red or purple, and the CDU/CSU black or blue.[2][3]

The parties[edit]

Parties represented in the Bundestag or the European Parliament[edit]

Logo Name Abbr. Leader Ideology MdBs MEPs Political Position EP-group Notes
Cdu-logo.svg Christian Democratic Union of Germany
Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands
CDU Angela Merkel Christian democracy,[4]
Liberal conservatism[4]
255 29 Centre-right EPP [A]
Csu Logo 2016 neu.svg Christian Social Union in Bavaria
Christlich-Soziale Union in Bayern
CSU Horst Seehofer Christian democracy,[4] Conservatism,[4] Regionalism[4] 56 5 Centre-right[5][6][7] EPP
SPD logo.svg Social Democratic Party of Germany
Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands
SPD Martin Schulz Social democracy[4] 193 27 Centre-left S&D
Die Linke logo.svg The Left
Die Linke
LINKE Katja Kipping and Bernd Riexinger Democratic socialism,[4]
Left-wing populism
64 7 Left-wing GUE/NGL
Bündnis 90 - Die Grünen Logo.svg Alliance '90/The Greens
Bündnis 90/Die Grünen
GRÜNE Simone Peter and Cem Özdemir Green politics[4] 63 11 Centre-left Greens/EFA
Liberal-Konservative Reformer.png Liberal Conservative Reformers
Liberal-Konservative Reformer
LKR Bernd Lucke Liberal conservatism,
Euroscepticism,
Economic liberalism
0 5 Centre-right ECR
Logo der Freien Demokraten.svg Free Democratic Party
Freie Demokratische Partei
FDP Christian Lindner Liberalism,[4]
Classical liberalism[8][9]
0 3 Centre to centre-right ALDE
Alternative-fuer-Deutschland-Logo-2013.svg Alternative for Germany
Alternative für Deutschland
AfD Frauke Petry and Jörg Meuthen German nationalism,[10][11] Euroscepticism,[12]
National conservatism,[13]
Right-wing populism[14]
0 2 Right-wing EFDD / ENF
Free Voters
Freie Wähler
FREIE WÄHLER Hubert Aiwanger 0 1 Centre-right ALDE and ECR
Piratenpartei Deutschland Logo.svg Pirate Party Germany
Piratenpartei Deutschland
PIRATEN Stefan Körner Pirate politics,
Social liberalism[13]
0 1 Centre to centre-left Greens/EFA
NPD-Logo-2013.svg National Democratic Party of Germany
Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands
NPD Frank Franz Neo-Nazism, Ultranationalism,
Pan-Germanism,
Anti-immigration
0 1 Far-right[12] Alliance for Peace and Freedom
FamilienPartei Logo2007.svg Family Party of Germany
Familien-Partei Deutschlands
FAMILIE Maria Hartmann Social conservatism[12] 0 1 Centre-right ECR
ÖDP-Logo.svg Ecological Democratic Party
Ökologisch-Demokratische Partei
ÖDP Sebastian Frankenberger Green conservatism[12] 0 1 Centre-right Greens/EFA
Die partei logo.jpg Die PARTEI
Partei für Arbeit, Rechtsstaat, Tierschutz, Elitenförderung und basisdemokratische Initiative
Die PARTEI Martin Sonneborn Satire 0 1 Apolitical None
A The CDU and CSU form the CDU/CSU group in the Bundestag; CSU runs only in Bavaria, CDU elsewhere.

One German MEP is independent, member of the GUE-NGL-group in the European Parliament and was elected as a candidate of the Human Environment Animal Protection-party (better known as Tierschutzpartei).

Parties represented in state parliaments[edit]

Logo Name Abbr. Leader Ideology Elected in State (Seats) Position Notes
Ssw-logo.svg South Schleswig Voters' Association
Südschleswigscher Wählerverband
SSW Flemming Meyer Regionalism,
Ethnic minority politics,
Social liberalism[15]
Schleswig-Holstein (3) Centre [A]
BIW-Logo.jpg Citizens in Rage
Bürger in Wut
BIW Jan Timke Right-wing populism Bremen (1) Right-wing
United Civil Movements of Brandenburg / Free Voters
Brandenburger Vereinigte Bürgerbewegungen / Freie Wähler
BVB / FW Péter Vida Localism, Direct democracy Brandenburg (3) Centre-left
A Represents the Danish and Frisian minorities. Not subject to the general requirement of passing a 5% vote threshold.

Minor parties[edit]

Logo Name Abbr. Leader Ideology Political Position EP-group
Alliance C – Christians for Germany
Bündnis C – Christen für Deutschland
Bündnis C Karin Heepen & Ole Steffes Conservatism,
Christian democracy
Centre ECPM
APPD-Logo.svg Anarchist Pogo Party of Germany
Anarchistische Pogo-Partei Deutschlands
APPD Peter Vehreschild Satire Apoliticism none
Bayernpartei Logo.svg Bavaria Party
Bayernpartei
BP Florian Weber Autonomism,
Bavarian nationalism,
Regionalism,
Conservatism
Centre-right EFA
Cropped-logo-seite.png Bergpartei, die "ÜberPartei"
bergpartei, die überpartei
B* Rico Tscharntke Post-left anarchy, Dadaism Far-left none
Büso parteilogo.jpg Civil Rights Movement Solidarity
Bürgerrechtsbewegung Solidarität
BüSo Helga Zepp-LaRouche LaRouche movement,
Conspiracism
Apoliticism none
Deutsche Zentrumspartei logo.svg German Centre Party
Deutsche Zentrumspartei
ZENTRUM Gerhard Woitzik Political Catholicism,
Christian democracy,
Social conservatism
Centre-right none
Kpd-flagge-icon.png Communist Party of Germany
Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands
KPD Torsten Schöwitz Communism,
Marxism–Leninism,
Anti-Revisionism,
Stalinism
Far-left none
Feministische Partei Logo.jpg Feminist Party of Germany
Feministische Partei Die Frauen
DIE FRAUEN Renate Schmidtsdorff-Aicher Feminism none
Deutsche Kommunistische Partei Logo.svg German Communist Party
Deutsche Kommunistische Partei
DKP Patrik Köbele Communism,
Marxism–Leninism
Far-left none
Logo Deutsche Soziale Union.png German Social Union
Deutsche Soziale Union
DSU Roberto Rink National conservatism,
Social conservatism
Right-wing none
Tierschutzpartei-Logo.svg Human Environment Animal Protection
Partei Mensch Umwelt Tierschutz
Tierschutzpartei Matthias Ebner
Sandra Lück
Horst Wester
Animal rights
Environmentalism
none
MLPD Logo 2011 (2).svg Marxist–Leninist Party of Germany
Marxistisch-Leninistische Partei Deutschlands
MLPD Gabi Fechtner Marxism–Leninism,
Anti-Revisionism,
Communism
Far-left none
Neue Liberale.png New Liberals
Neue Liberale – Die Sozialliberalen
Liberale Christian Bethke Social liberalism Centre to
centre-left
none
Party for Franconia
Partei für Franken
DIE FRANKEN Robert Gattenlöhner Social democracy none
Logo Party of Reason.png Party of Reason
Partei der Vernunft
PDV Friedrich Dominicus Libertarianism EPIL
PSG Logo.svg Socialist Equality Party
Sozialistische Gleichheitspartei
SGP Ulrich Rippert Trotskyism Far-left none
LDF2010.png The Frisians
Die Friesen
FRIESEN Ralf Bieneck Ethnic minority interests EFA
The III. Way
Der III. Weg
Klaus Armstroff Neo-Nazism,
Pan-Germanism,
Social conservatism
Far-right none
Die Republikaner Logo.png The Republicans
Die Republikaner
REP Kevin Krieger German nationalism,
National conservatism,
Euroscepticism,
Social conservatism
Right-wing none
The Right
Die Rechte
Christian Worch Right-wing none
The Violets - for spiritual politics
Die Violetten – für spirituelle Politik
Die Violetten Irene Garcia Social liberalism,
Spiritualism
none
Pro Germany Citizens Movement Logo.jpg Pro Germany Citizens' Movement
Bürgerbewegung pro Deutschland
pro Deutschland Manfred Rouhs Right-wing populism,
Counter-jihad
Far-right none
Schriftzug-v-partei.png V-Partei³ - Party for Change, Vegetarians and Vegans
V-Partei³ – Partei für Veränderung, Vegetarier und Veganer
Roland Wegner Animal rights,
Environmentalism
none

Historical parties[edit]

Parties existing up to World War I[edit]

Logo Name Abbr. Ideology
Bavarian Peasants' League BB
Centre Party Zentrum
Christian Social Party CSP
Democratic Union DV
Free Conservative Party FKP
Free-minded People's Party FVP
Free-minded Union FV
General German Workers' Association ADAV
German Conservative Party DKP
German Fatherland Party
German-Hanoverian Party DHP
German People's Party DtVP
German Progress Party DFP
German Free-minded Party DFP
Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany USPD
Liberal Union LV
National Liberal Party NLP
National-Social Association NSV
Progressive People's Party FVP
Social Democratic Party of Germany SPD
Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany SDAP

Parties in Weimar Republic[edit]

Defunct parties in (former) West Germany[edit]

Parties banned by the Constitutional Court[edit]

Parties in (former) East Germany[edit]

Bloc parties in the socialist state (1949–1989)[edit]

During transition (1989–90)[edit]

Parties founded from 1989[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.dw-world.de/popups/popup_printcontent/0,,1647406,00.html
  2. ^ "Political parties form colorful spectrum in Germany". Deutsche Welle. 2009-08-18. Retrieved 2009-09-12. 
  3. ^ The Green party: Getting used to opposition, Deutsche Welle, 2009-08-24, retrieved 2009-10-12, This made a so-called Jamaica coalition with the Christian Democratic Union and the Free Democratic Party impossible. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Parties and Elections in Europe: The database about parliamentary elections and political parties in Europe, by Wolfram Nordsieck
  5. ^ Christina Boswell; Dan Hough (2009). Politicizing migration: Opportunity or liability for the centre-right in Germany. Immigration and Integration Policy in Europe: Why Politics – and the Centre-Right – matter. Routledge. pp. 18, 21. 
  6. ^ Klaus Detterbeck (2012). Multi-Level Party Politics in Western Europe. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 105. 
  7. ^ Margret Hornsteiner; Thomas Saalfeld (2014). Parties and the Party System. Developments in German Politics. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 80. 
  8. ^ George C. Lodge; Ezra F. Vogel (1987). Ideology and National Competitiveness: An Analysis of Nine Countries. Harvard Business Press. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-87584-147-2. 
  9. ^ Russell A. Berman (2010). Freedom Or Terror: Europe Faces Jihad. Hoover Press. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-8179-1114-0. 
  10. ^ "After migrants, German nationalist party takes aim at Islam". Yahoo News. 23 May 2016. 
  11. ^ "Germany's Nationalist Party Set for Gains as Three States Vote". Voice of America. 11 March 2016. 
  12. ^ a b c d William T Daniel (2015). Career Behaviour and the European Parliament: All Roads Lead Through Brussels?. Oxford University Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-19-871640-2. 
  13. ^ a b Simon Franzmann (2015). "The Failed Struggle for Office Instead of Votes". In Gabriele D'Ottavio; Thomas Saalfeld. Germany After the 2013 Elections: Breaking the Mould of Post-Unification Politics?. Ashgate. pp. 166–167. ISBN 978-1-4724-4439-4. 
  14. ^ Frank Decker (2015). "Follow-up to the Grand Coalition: The Germany Party System before and after the 2013 Federal Election". In Eric Langenbacher. The Merkel Republic: An Appraisal. Berghahn Books. pp. 34–39. ISBN 978-1-78238-896-8. 
  15. ^ José Magone (2011). Contemporary European Politics: A Comparative Introduction. Routledge. p. 392. 

External links[edit]