List of political parties in Malaysia

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This is a list of political parties in Malaysia, including existing and historical ones.


Under the current legislation, all political parties (termed "Political Associations") must be registered under the Societies Act.

Election expenses[edit]

The Election Offences Act (1954) regulate the maximum expenses allowed for candidates vying for parliamentary seats and for state seats during the campaign period (excluding before the nomination day and after election day), the permissible campaign expenditure set by the Election Offences Act (1954) is RM100,000 per candidate for state seats, and RM200,000 per candidate for federal seats. According to this guideline, with 505 state seats and 222 parliamentary seats in the 2013 general election, the maximum amount that Barisan Nasional was allowed to spend was only about RM95 million. Due to the lack of record and regulations, Malaysian politicians may not even know how much they spent on their campaigns or overspending the expenditure than permitted by law. Another related problem was the secrecy surrounding political funds and their use, although many politicians, including members of newly appointed cabinets, voluntarily disclosed their personal finances, such disclosure is not compulsory and many sources of revenue remain obscure.

Election deposits[edit]

The deposit was RM10,000 to contest a parliamentary seat, or RM5,000 to contest a state assembly seat, the deposit is used to pay for infringements of election laws and is returned after polling day unless the candidate loses and fails to garner more than 12.5 percent or one-eighth of the votes cast. Additionally it is required that each candidate provide a RM5,000 deposit for cleaning up banners and posters after the election.

Political donations[edit]

Political donations are legal in Malaysia. There is no limit, and parties are not obliged to disclose the source of the funding, which makes political donations a vague subject but still entirely legal in the country. All political donations are allowed to be given into accounts of individuals and accounts of the political party. Anonymous donors and foreigners may request to not to reveal their identities.

Political parties are funded by contributions from:

  • party members and individual supporters (via membership fees/dues/subscriptions and/or local/foreign small donations),
  • organisations, which share their political views (e.g. by trade union affiliation fees) or which stand to benefit from their activities (e.g. by local/foreign corporate donations) or
  • taxpayers respectively the general revenue fund (by grants that are called state aid, government or public funding).

Latest election results[edit]

Equal-area representation of Parliament results with each hexagon representing one seat
Equal-area representation of the State Assemblies' results with each hexagon representing one seat
e • d Summary of the 5 May 2013 Malaysian Dewan Rakyat election results
Party Vote Seats
Votes % Won % +/–
National Front[a] BN 5,237,699 47.38 133 59.91 Decrease7
United Malays National Organisation UMNO 3,252,484 29.42 88 39.64 Increase9
Malaysian Chinese Association MCA 867,851 7.85 7 3.15 Decrease8
Malaysian Indian Congress MIC 286,629 2.59 4 1.80 Increase1
United Traditional Bumiputera Party PBB 232,390 2.10 14 6.31 Steady
Malaysian People's Movement Party Gerakan 191,019 1.73 1 0.45 Decrease1
Sarawak United People's Party SUPP 133,603 1.21 1 0.45 Decrease5
United Sabah Party PBS 74,959 0.68 4 1.80 Increase1
Sarawak People's Party PRS 59,540 0.54 6 2.70 Steady
Sarawak Progressive Democratic Party SPDP 55,505 0.50 4 1.80 Steady
United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation UPKO 53,584 0.48 3 1.35 Decrease1
Liberal Democratic Party LDP 13,138 0.12 0 0.00 Decrease1
United Sabah People's Party PBRS 9,467 0.09 1 0.45 Steady
People's Progressive Party PPP 7,530 0.07 0 0.00 Steady
Parties in the informal coalition, Pakatan Rakyat (People's Pact) PR 5,623,984 50.87 89 40.09 Increase7
Democratic Action Party[b] DAP 1,736,267 15.71 38 17.12 Increase10
People's Justice Party[b] PKR 2,254,328 20.39 30 13.51 Decrease1
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party[b] PAS 1,633,389 14.78 21 9.46 Decrease2
State Reform Party STAR 45,386 0.41 0 0.00 Steady
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Front Berjasa 31,835 0.29 0 0.00 Steady
Sarawak Workers Party SWP 15,630 0.14 0 0.00 Steady
Sabah Progressive Party[c] SAPP 10,099 0.09 0 0.00 Decrease2
Love Malaysia Party PCM 2,129 0.02 0 0.00 Steady
Homeland Human's Wellbeing Party KITA 623 0.01 0 0.00 Steady
Malaysian United People's Party MUPP 257 0.00 0 0.00 Steady
Independents IND 86,935 0.79 0 0.00 Steady
Valid votes 11,054,577
Invalid/blank votes 202,570
Total votes (voter turnout: 84.84%) 11,257,147 100.00 222 100.00 Steady
Did not vote 2,010,855
Registered voters 13,268,002
Ordinary voters 12,885,434
Early voters 235,826
Postal voters 146,742
Voting age population (aged 21 years and above) 17,883,697
Malaysian population 29,628,392

Source: Election Commission of Malaysia
Source: Nohlen et al. [1]

  1. ^ Contested using dacing election symbol on the ballot papers.
  2. ^ a b c Parties in the informal coalition, People's Pact (Pakatan Rakyat). Contested using separate election symbol on the ballot papers.
  3. ^ Net seat change of component parties is –5. Sabah Progressive Party left the National Front after the 2008 election, which accounted for 2 more seats lost.

The parties[edit]

Parties represented in the Parliament and/or the state legislative assemblies[edit]

This is the list of coalitions and parties that have representation in the Parliament of Malaysia (Dewan Rakyat & Dewan Negara) and/or the state legislative assemblies, sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS).

Name Abbr. Leader Ideology Political
Registered Notes
Democratic Action Party
Parti Tindakan Demokratik
DAP Collective leadership Social democracy
Centre-left Socialist International
Progressive Alliance
1966 [A] [2]
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party
Parti Islam Se-Malaysia
PAS Abdul Hadi Awang Islamism
Islamic democracy
Right-wing Muslim Brotherhood
(Ikhwanul Muslimin)
1951 (established)
1955 (registered as political party)
[B] [3]
National Front
Barisan Nasional
BN Najib Razak Nationalism

to Right-wing

1973 [4]
Malaysian Indian Muslim Congress
Kongres India Muslim Malaysia
KIMMA Syed Ibrahim Kader Islamism
Centre-right N/A 1977 [5]
Socialist Party of Malaysia
Parti Sosialis Malaysia
PSM Mohd Nasir Hashim Socialism Left-wing N/A 1998 [D] [6]
People's Justice Party
Parti Keadilan Rakyat
PKR / KeADILan Wan Azizah Wan Ismail Social liberalism Centre to
Liberal International
2003 [7]
Love Sabah Party
Parti Cinta Sabah
PCS Nicholas James Guntobon Sabah regionalism N/A 2013
National Trust Party
Parti Amanah Negara
AMANAH Mohamad Sabu Islamic socialism
Islamic modernism
Islamic democracy
Centre-left N/A 2015 [C] [8]
Malaysian Indian United Party
Parti Bersatu India Malaysia
MIUP Nallakaruppan Solaimalai Hindu nationalism
Dravidian parties
Right-wing N/A 2007
Malaysian United Indigenous Party
Parti Pribumi Bersatu Malaysia
PPBM/BERSATU Muhyiddin Yassin Malay nationalism
Centre-right N/A 2016 [9]
Sabah Heritage Party
Parti Warisan Sabah
WARISAN Shafie Apdal Sabah regionalism N/A 2016 [10]
Sabah People's Hope Party
Parti Harapan Rakyat Sabah
PHRS Lajim Ukin Sabah regionalism N/A 2016

A The term "collective leadership" is used to describe the party's Central Executive Committee since its establishment in 1966.[1][2]
B The Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party entered into a coalition with the former Alliance Party in 1972 and subsequently joined the Barisan Nasional coalition when it was founded in 1974. It withdrew from the coalition in 1977.[3]
C In August 2015, 6 Members of Parliament of the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) declare to join the Malaysians Workers' Party (PPM), later renamed National Trust Party (Amanah).[4]
D In the 2013 Malaysian General Election, the Socialist Party of Malaysia won one seat of Dewan Rakyat (Sungai Siput) under a PKR ticket.

Barisan Nasional component parties[edit]

The list is sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS).

Name Abbr. Leader Ideology Political
Registered Notes
People's Progressive Party
Parti Progresif Penduduk
myPPP M. Kayveas Liberalism Centre N/A 1956 [11]
Sarawak United People's Party
Parti Rakyat Bersatu Sarawak
SUPP Sim Kui Hian Nationalism
Sarawak regionalism
Centre N/A 1959 [12]
Malaysian Indian Congress
Kongres India Malaysia
MIC Subramaniam Sathasivam Nationalism
Social conservatism
Dravidian parties
Right-wing N/A 1963 [13]
Malaysian Chinese Association
Persatuan Cina Malaysia
MCA Liow Tiong Lai Chinese nationalism
Social conservatism
Right-wing N/A 1963 [14]
Malaysian People's Movement Party
Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia
Mah Siew Keong Liberalism Centre Liberal International
Alliance of Democrats
Council of Asian
Liberals and Democrats
1968 [15]
United Bumiputera Heritage Party
Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu
PBB Adenan Satem Nationalism
Sarawak regionalism
Right-wing N/A 1973 [16]
United Sabah Party
Parti Bersatu Sabah
PBS Joseph Pairin Kitingan Nationalism
Sabah regionalism
Centre N/A 1985 [A] [17]
United Malays National Organisation
Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu
Najib Razak Ketuanan Melayu
Social conservatism
Economic liberalism
Right-wing N/A 1988 [B] [18]
Liberal Democratic Party
Parti Liberal Demokratik
LDP Teo Chee Kang Liberal democracy
Sabah regionalism
Centre N/A 1988 [19]
United Sabah People's Party
Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah
PBRS Joseph Kurup Nationalism
Sabah regionalism
Right-wing N/A 1994 [20]
United Pasokmomogun
Kadazandusun Murut Organisation

Pertubuhan Pasokmomogun
Kadazandusun Murut Bersatu
UPKO Madius Tangau Nationalism
Sabah regionalism
Right-wing N/A 1999 [21]
Sarawak Progressive Democratic Party
Parti Demokratik Progresif Sarawak
SPDP Tiong King Sing Nationalism
Sarawak regionalism
Right-wing N/A 2002 [22]
Sarawak People's Party
' Parti Rakyat Sarawak
PRS James Jemut Masing Nationalism
Sarawak regionalism
Centre N/A 2004 [23]
Parti Nasional Penduduk Malaysia

A UMNO, which was founded in 1946 was deregistered in 1988 and the Prime Minister of Malaysia formed a new party known as United Malays National Organisation (Baru) on 16 February 1988. The term "Baru" or "New" was removed by a constitutional amendment on July of the same year.
B The United Sabah Party (Parti Bersatu Sabah) was a member of Barisan Nasional from its establishment until its withdrawal from the coalition in 1990. The party rejoined the coalition in 2002.[5]

Parties without representation in the Parliament and the state legislative assemblies[edit]

This is the list of coalitions and parties that do not have representation in the Parliament of Malaysia (Dewan Rakyat & Dewan Negara) and the state legislative assemblies, sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS).

Name Abbr. Leader Ideology Political
Registered Notes
Malaysian Ceylonese Congress
Kongres Ceylonese Malaysia
MCC NKS Tharmaseelan Hindu nationalism Right-wing N/A 1970 [24]
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Front
Barisan Jemaah Islamiah Se-Malaysia
BERJASA Mohd Yusoff Haron Islamism
Islamic democracy
Centre-right N/A 1977
Sabah National Party
Parti Kebangsaan Sabah
PKS Thomas Anggan Nationalism
Sabah regionalism
Right-wing N/A 1978
Punjabi Party of Malaysia
Parti Punjabi Malaysia
PPM Gurjeet Singh Rhande Conservatism
Centre-right N/A 1986 [A] [6]
Community Coalition Congress
Kongres Penyatuan Masyarakat
CCC Islamism
Islamic democracy
Centre-right N/A 1988
Malaysian People's Party
Parti Rakyat Malaysia
PRM Rohana Ariffin Democratic socialism
Left-wing nationalism
Left-wing N/A 1989 [25]
All Malaysian Indian Progressive Front
Barisan Kemajuan India Se-Malaysia
AMIPF M. Sambanthan Hindu nationalism
Dravidian parties
Right-wing N/A 1990
Sabah Progressive Party
Parti Maju Sabah
SAPP Yong Teck Lee Progressivism
Sabah regionalism
Centre N/A 1994 [26]
Malaysian Democratic Party
Parti Demokratik Malaysia
MDP Wee Choo Keong Social democracy Centre-left N/A 1998
Love Malaysia Party
Parti Cinta Malaysia
PCM Tang Weng Chew Conservatism
Right-wing N/A 2009
Malaysia Makkal Sakti Party
Parti Makkal Sakti Malaysia
MMSP R. S. Thanenthiran Hindu nationalism
Dravidian parties
Right-wing N/A 2009
Human Rights Party
Parti Hak Asasi
HRP P. Uthayakumar Human right Centre N/A 2009 [27]
Sabah People's Front
Barisan Rakyat Sabah
SPF Berman Angkap Social conservatism
Sabah regionalism
Centre N/A 2010
Homeland Human's Wellbeing Party
Parti Kesejahteraan Insan Tanah Air
KITA Masrum Dayat Secularism
Social justice
Centre-left N/A 2010 [B]
Malaysian United People's Party
Parti Bersatu Rakyat Malaysia
MUPP Shuhaidin Langkap Nationalism
Right-wing N/A 2011
Sarawak Workers Party
Parti Pekerja Sarawak
SWP Larry Sng Wei Shien Social democracy
Liberal socialism
Sarawak regionalism
Centre-left N/A 2012 [28]
National Alliance Party
Parti Ikatan Bangsa Malaysia
IKATAN Abdul Kadir Sheikh Fadzir Nationalism
Social justice
Social democracy
Right-wing N/A 2012 [29]
United Sabah National Organisation Party (New)
Parti Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Sabah
Bersatu (Baru)
USNO Baru Sabah regionalism N/A 2013
The Idea with Sabah People's Party
Parti Gagasan Bersama Rakyat Sabah
Bersama Sabah regionalism N/A 2013
Sabah National People's Unity Organisation
Pertubuhan Perpaduan Rakyat Kebangsaan
Perpaduan Sabah regionalism N/A 2013
Sabah Truth Party
Parti Kebenaran Sabah
Kebenaran Bentan Alamin Sabah regionalism N/A 2013
Sabahan Bugis United Party
Parti Bersatu Bugis Sabah
PBBS Sabah regionalism N/A 2013
Sabah People's Economy Party
Parti Ekonomi Rakyat Sabah
PERS Sabah regionalism N/A 2013
Sabah Prosperous Party of Unity Front
Parti Sejahtera Angkatan Perpaduan Sabah
Sapu Sabah regionalism N/A 2013
Sabah Peace Party
Parti Damai Sabah
SPP Sabah regionalism N/A 2013
Sabah People's Co-operation Party
Parti Kerjasama Rakyat Sabah
PAKAR Zainal Nasiruddin Sabah regionalism N/A 2013
Sabah People's Unity Party
Parti Perpaduan Rakyat Sabah
PPRS Mohd Arshad Abd Mualap Sabah regionalism N/A 2013
Land of the Hornbills Party
Parti Bumi Kenyalang
PBK Yu Chang Ping Sarawak regionalism N/A 2013
New Sarawak Native People's Party
Parti Bansa Dayak Sarawak Baru
PBDS Baru Sarawak regionalism N/A 2013
Economic Sarawak United People's Party
Parti Ekonomi Rakyat Sarawak Bersatu
PERSB Salleh Mahali Conservatism
Sarawak regionalism
N/A 2013
Justice of the Peace Coalition People's Party
Parti Rakyat Gabungan Jaksa Pendamai
PRGJP Social conservatism
Sarawak regionalism
N/A 2013
Malaysian Indian Justice Party
Parti Keadilan India Malaysia
MIJP V. Krishna Hindu nationalism
Dravidian parties
N/A 2013
New Generation Party
Parti Generasi Baru
NewGen S. Gobi Krishnan Youth politics
N/A 2013
Malaysian National Party
Parti Nasional Malaysia
MNP Nationalism N/A 2013
Malaysian Citizen National Party
Parti Nasional Penduduk Malaysia
MCNP Nationalism N/A 2013
United People's Party
Parti Rakyat Bersatu
UPP Wong Soon Koh Sarawak regionalism Centre N/A 2014
People's Alternative Party
Parti Alternatif Rakyat
PAP Zulkifli Mohd Noor Centrism
Liberal democracy
N/A 2015

A The Punjabi Party of Malaysia was established in 1986[6] but only registered with the Elections Commission in 2003.[7]
B AKIM was later renamed as Malaysian People's Welfare Party (KITA) on 13 December 2010 by its new chairman, Zaid Ibrahim.

Shirt colours[edit]

The candidates and supporters of the various political parties tend to wear the following shirt colours while making their rounds in various wards or campaigning.

Party Shirt colour
Barisan Nasional Blue
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party Green and white
Democratic Action Party White
People's Justice Party Light blue
National Trust Party Orange

Historical parties[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Devan Nair steps down". The Straits Times. 31 July 1967. p. 8. 
  2. ^ Liew Chin Tong (18 October 2013). "What Utusan doesn't know about DAP". The Rocket. 
  3. ^ Hooker, M. B. (1983). Islam in South-East Asia. Boston: Brill Archive. pp. 203–204. ISBN 90-04-06844-9. 
  4. ^ Ram Anan (31 August 2015). "GHB to take over dormant Workers Party". The Malaysian Insider. Retrieved 31 August 2015. 
  5. ^ "Parti Bersatu Sabah (PBS)". 5 June 2008. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 24 June 2008. 
  6. ^ a b Patrick, Sennyah; Chow Kum Hor (10 November 2002). "Parti Punjabi willing to wait for admission into BN". New Straits Times. The New Straits Times Press (M) Berhad. Retrieved 24 June 2008. 
  7. ^ "Parti Punjabi forced to amend constitution". New Straits Times. The New Straits Times Press (M) Berhad. 3 October 2002. Retrieved 24 June 2008. 
  8. ^ Staar, Richard Phillip; M. Drachkovitch, Milorad; H. Gann, Lewis (1975). Yearbook of International Communist Affairs. Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press. p. 376. ISBN 0-8179-1461-7. 
  9. ^ "Malayan Democratic Union is formed - Singapore History". 
  10. ^ "Pan-Malayan Council of Joint Action is formed - Singapore History". 
  11. ^ Weiner, Myron; Ergun Özbudun (1987). Competitive Elections in Developing Countries. Durham: Duke University Press. p. 129. ISBN 0-8223-0766-9. 
  12. ^ Sarawak party joins Pakatan, 10 January 2010, MalaysianMirror
  13. ^ "Snap secara rasmi sertai Pakatan Rakyat". Malaysiakini. Retrieved 11 May 2016. 
  14. ^ SNAP now fourth PR member, 20 April 2010, MalaysianMirror
  15. ^ SNAP quits Pakatan
  16. ^ "Kejayaan pilihan raya 2008 dirintis dari episod 1986:". 
  17. ^ "iMOL Archives - PKR抯 watershed election". Retrieved 11 May 2016. 
  18. ^ Malaysiakini : PKR launched, promises to be truly multi-racial
  19. ^ "In Search of the Elusive Dayak Political Unity". Bernama. 3 October 2002. Archived from the original on 24 May 2011. Retrieved 14 May 2006. 
  20. ^ "It's All Systems Go For Sarawak BN". Bernama. 9 February 2008. Retrieved 24 June 2008. [permanent dead link]
  21. ^ "University Students Form New Party". People are the boss. Retrieved 11 May 2016. 
  22. ^ "ANNOUNCEMENT OF HUMAN RIGHTS PARTY (HRP), MALAYSIA. | Human Rights Party Malaysia". Archived from the original on 11 March 2010. 

External links[edit]