List of political parties in Malaysia

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This is a list of political parties in Malaysia, including existing and historical ones.


Under the current legislation, all political parties (termed "Political Associations") must be registered under the Societies Act.

Election expenses[edit]

The Election Offences Act (1954) regulate the maximum expenses allowed for candidates vying for parliamentary seats and for state seats during the campaign period (excluding before the nomination day and after election day), the permissible campaign expenditure set by the Election Offences Act (1954) is RM100,000 per candidate for state seats, and RM200,000 per candidate for federal seats. According to this guideline, with 505 state seats and 222 parliamentary seats in the 2013 general election, the maximum amount that Barisan Nasional was allowed to spend was only about RM95 million. Due to the lack of record and regulations, Malaysian politicians may not even know how much they spent on their campaigns or overspending the expenditure than permitted by law. Another related problem was the secrecy surrounding political funds and their use, although many politicians, including members of newly appointed cabinets, voluntarily disclosed their personal finances, such disclosure is not compulsory and many sources of revenue remain obscure.

Election deposits[edit]

The deposit was RM10,000 to contest a parliamentary seat, or RM5,000 to contest a state assembly seat, the deposit is used to pay for infringements of election laws and is returned after polling day unless the candidate loses and fails to garner more than 12.5 percent or one-eighth of the votes cast. Additionally it is required that each candidate provide a RM5,000 deposit for cleaning up banners and posters after the election.

Political donations[edit]

Political donations are legal in Malaysia. There is no limit, and parties are not obliged to disclose the source of the funding, which makes political donations a vague subject but still entirely legal in the country. All political donations are allowed to be given into accounts of individuals and accounts of the political party. Anonymous donors and foreigners may request to not to reveal their identities.

Political parties are funded by contributions from:

  • party members and individual supporters (via membership fees/dues/subscriptions and/or local/foreign small donations),
  • organisations, which share their political views (e.g. by trade union affiliation fees) or which stand to benefit from their activities (e.g. by local/foreign corporate donations) or
  • taxpayers respectively the general revenue fund (by grants that are called state aid, government or public funding).

Latest election results[edit]

e • d Summary of the 9 May 2018 Malaysian Dewan Rakyat election results
Party Vote Seats
Votes % Won % +/–
Pakatan Harapan[a] PH 5,615,822[1] 45.56 113 52.25 Increase 45
People's Justice Party PKR 2,096,776 17.10 47 22.52 Increase 17
Democratic Action Party[b] DAP 2,098,068 17.38 42 18.92 Increase 4
Malaysian United Indigenous Party PPBM 696,087 5.77 13 5.86 Increase 13
National Trust Party[c] AMANAH 648,274 5.37 11 4.95 Increase 11
Sabah Heritage Party (Pakatan Harapan ally) WARISAN 280,520 2.32 8 3.61 Increase 8
Barisan Nasional[d] BN 4,080,797 33.80 79 35.59 Decrease 54
United Malays National Organisation UMNO 2,548,251 21.10 54 24.32 Decrease 34
United Traditional Bumiputera Party PBB 220,479 1.83 13 5.86 Decrease 1
Sarawak People's Party PRS 59,218 0.49 3 1.35 Decrease 3
Malaysian Indian Congress MIC 167,061 1.39 2 1.35 Decrease 2
Progressive Democratic Party PDP 59,853 0.50 2 0.90 Decrease 2
Malaysian Chinese Association MCA 639,165 5.30 1 0.45 Decrease 6
Sarawak United People's Party SUPP 122,540 1.01 1 0.45 Steady
United Sabah Party PBS 49,994 0.41 1 0.45 Decrease 3
United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation UPKO 57,062 0.47 1 0.45 Decrease 2
United Sabah People's Party PBRS 57,062 0.10 1 0.45 Steady
Malaysian People's Movement Party Gerakan 128,973 1.07 0 0 Decrease 1
Liberal Democratic Party LDP 8,996 0.07 0 0 Steady
People's Progressive Party myPPP 7,422 0.06 0 0 Steady
Gagasan Sejahtera GS 2,050,686 16.98 18 8.11 Decrease 3
Malaysian Islamic Party PAS 2,041,580 16.91 18 8.11 Decrease 3
Malaysian National Alliance Party[e] IKATAN 9,025 0.07 0 0 Steady
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Front Berjasa 81 0.00 0 0 Steady
United Sabah Alliance USA 66,902 0.55 1 0.45 Increase 1
Homeland Solidarity Party STAR 21,361 0.18 1 0.45 Increase 1
Sabah People's Hope Party PHRS 37,708 0.31 0 0 Steady
Sabah Progressive Party SAPP 6,090 0.05 0 0 Steady
Sabah People's Unity Party PPRS 1,743 0.01 0 0 Steady
Love Sabah Party PCS 8,603 0.07 0 0 Steady
Socialist Party of Malaysia PSM 3,782 0.03 0 0 Decrease 1
Malaysian People's Party PRM 2,372 0.02 0 0 Steady
Malaysian United Party MUP 2,102 0.02 0 0 Steady
State Reform Party STAR 1,299 0.01 0 0 Steady
Sabah Native Co-operation Party Anak Negeri 1,173 0.00 0 0 Steady
People’s Alliance For Justice of Peace PEACE 1,005 0.00 0 0 Steady
Penang Front Party PFP 892 0.00 0 0 Steady
New Sarawak Native People's Party PBDSB 538 0.00 0 0 Steady
Love Malaysia Party PCM 502 0.00 0 0 Steady
Land of the Hornbill Party PBK 392 0.00 0 0 Steady
People's Alternative Party PAP 302 0.00 0 0 Steady
Independents IND 70,770 0.59 3 1.35 Increase 3
Valid votes 12,082,431[1]
Invalid/blank votes 217,083[1]
Total votes (voter turnout: 82.32%) 12,299,514 100.00 222 100.00 TBA
Did not vote 2,641,110
Registered voters[f] 14,940,624
Ordinary voters[f] 14,636,716
Early voters[f] 300,255
Postal voters[f] 3,653
Voting age population[g] (aged 21 years and above) 18,359,670
Malaysian population[h] 32,258,900

Source: Election Commission of Malaysia (SPR)[2]

  1. ^ Contested using People's Justice Party election symbol on the ballot papers.
  2. ^ Contested using rocket election symbol on the ballot papers in East Malaysia.
  3. ^ Contested using white mountain election symbol on the ballot papers in Batu Sapi, Sabah.
  4. ^ Contested using dacing election symbol on the ballot papers.
  5. ^ Contested using green moon election symbol on the ballot papers in the election.
  6. ^ a b c d Abdullah, Mohd. Hashim (10 April 2018). Urusan Pilihan Raya Umum ke-14 (in Malay). SPR Media Statement. Retrieved on 8 May 2018.
  7. ^ The estimates are correct as at February 2018. See Zulkipli, Nur Lela (12 February 2018). 3.6 juta orang muda belum daftar pengundi (in Malay). Berita Harian. Retrieved on 9 May 2018.
  8. ^ Malaysia (6 February 2018). Perangkaan Demografi Suku Tahun Keempat (ST4) 2017, Malaysia (in Malay). Department of Statistics Malaysia Media Statement. Retrieved on 9 May 2018.

The parties[edit]

Parties represented in the Parliament and/or the state legislative assemblies[edit]

This is the list of coalitions and parties that have representation in the Parliament of Malaysia (Dewan Rakyat & Dewan Negara) and/or the state legislative assemblies, sorted by seats held in the Dewan Rakyat, the lower house of the Parliament of Malaysia.

Coalitions and electoral pacts[edit]

Pakatan Harapan[edit]

The list is sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS).

Barisan Nasional[edit]

The list is sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS).

Gabungan Parti Sarawak[edit]

The list is sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS).

Gagasan Sejahtera[edit]

The list is sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS).

United Sabah Alliance[edit]

The list is sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS).

Parties without representation in the Parliament and the state legislative assemblies[edit]

This is the list of active coalitions and parties that do not have representation in the Parliament of Malaysia (Dewan Rakyat & Dewan Negara) and the state legislative assemblies, sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS). Parties that are part of a coalition that is represented are not listed here even if the party itself is not represented.

Parties registered with the ROS and EC[edit]

Political parties registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS) and with the Election Commission (EC).

Parties registered with the ROS but not with the EC[edit]

Political parties registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS) but not with the Election Commission (EC), they are therefore unable to contest in elections using their own symbols. Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah is one such party and has only contested elections using the Barisan Nasional symbol.

Historical parties[edit]

These organisations have never been or are no longer registered as political bodies, and can thus no longer contest elections. Parties that were registered in British Malaya but operated solely in the territory of Singapore are also excluded from this list. Parties that have been renamed but still exist today as registered political parties are also excluded from this list. A number of these may still exist as organisations in some form, but none are recognised as political parties.

Before 1949[edit]

1950 - 1959[edit]

1960 - 1969[edit]

1970 - 1979[edit]

1980 - 1989[edit]

1990 - 1999[edit]

2000 - 2009[edit]

2010 - present[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Koh Aun Qi (15 May 2018). "Discrepancies in media reports of GE14 popular vote". Malaysiakini. Retrieved 15 May 2018. 
  2. ^ "Dashboard PRU 14". Pilihan Raya Umum Malaysia 14 (in Malay). Election Commission of Malaysia. Retrieved 11 May 2018. 
  3. ^ Tawie, Sulok (2018-06-12). "Sarawak ruling parties quit BN". Malay Mail. Kuala Lumpur. Retrieved 2018-06-12. 
  4. ^ "PBS quits BN and joins STAR in new coalition". The Star Online. Kota Kinabalu. 2018-05-13. Retrieved 2018-05-22. 
  5. ^ Babulal, Veena; Parzi, Mohd Nasaruddin (2018-05-26). "MyPPP turmoil heats up two separate factional assemblies over the weekend". Retrieved 2018-06-04. 
  6. ^ Patrick, Sennyah; Chow Kum Hor (10 November 2002). "Parti Punjabi willing to wait for admission into BN". New Straits Times. The New Straits Times Press (M) Berhad. Retrieved 24 June 2008. 
  7. ^ "Parti Punjabi forced to amend constitution". New Straits Times. The New Straits Times Press (M) Berhad. 3 October 2002. Retrieved 24 June 2008. 
  8. ^ Sahat, Yusri (2006-11-05). "Saberkas pelopori penubuhan UMNO Kedah" [Saberkas led towards the establishment of UMNO Kedah]. Utusan Malaysia (in Malay). Kuala Lumpur. Retrieved 2015-05-25. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Tan, Kim Hong (2009-02-20). "The Labour Party of Malaya, 1952–1972". Aliran Monthly. Aliran Kesedaran Rakyat. Retrieved 2018-05-25. 
  10. ^ "Malayan Democratic Union is formed - Singapore History". 
  11. ^ "Pan-Malayan Council of Joint Action is formed - Singapore History". 
  12. ^ Hashim, Wan (2011). Hubungan Etnik di Malaysia [Race Relations in Malaysia] (in Malay language). Kuala Lumpur: ITBM. ISBN 9789830685793. 
  13. ^ a b Mueller, Dominick M (2014). Islam, Politics and Youth in Malaysia: The Pop-Islamist Reinvention of PAS. Routledge. pp. 51–52. ISBN 9781317912989. 
  14. ^ "New Youth Party Formed". The Straits Times. Singapore. 1948-01-22. 
  15. ^ "Labour Party for Malacca". Morning Tribune. Singapore. 1948-09-08. 
  16. ^ Ong, Anna (2017-02-01). "Tun Dato' Seri Dr Lim Chong Eu". Penang Trail Blazers. Retrieved 2018-05-22. 
  17. ^ "Perak Labour Party Meeting". Straits Times. Singapore. 1952-07-19. Retrieved 2018-05-25. 
  18. ^ "Negri to form labour party". Straits Times. Singapore. 1952-12-11. Retrieved 2018-05-25. 
  19. ^ "Son of Perak who brought pride to his state". The Star. Kuala Lumpur. 2015-09-01. Retrieved 2018-05-25. 
  20. ^ "New labour party in Province". Straits Times. Singapore. 1953-09-22. Retrieved 2018-05-25. 
  21. ^ Sarawak party joins Pakatan, 10 January 2010, MalaysianMirror
  22. ^ "Snap secara rasmi sertai Pakatan Rakyat". Malaysiakini. Retrieved 11 May 2016. 
  23. ^ SNAP now fourth PR member, 20 April 2010, MalaysianMirror
  24. ^ SNAP quits Pakatan
  25. ^ Sandhu, KS; Mani, A (1993). Indian Communities in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 581–582. ISBN 9789812304186. 
  26. ^ Kroef, Justus M. (2012). Communism in Malaysia and Singapore: A Contemporary Survey. Berlin, Germany: Springer. ISBN 9789401504997. 
  27. ^ "Chinese form new political party - UMCO". Straits Times. Singapore. 1966-11-10. 
  28. ^ a b Ong, Wei Chong (2010-08-23). Securing the Population from Insurgency and Subversion in the Second Emergency (1968-1981) (PhD). University of Exeter. Retrieved 2018-05-28. 
  29. ^ Yusoff, Kamarul Zaman (2017-12-24). "Abdul Hadi semarakkan kembali obor perjuangan PAS" [Abdul Hadi reignited the struggle of PAS]. Harakah Daily (in Malay). Kuala Lumpur. Retrieved 2018-05-30. 

External links[edit]