This article lists current political parties in Poland, as well as former parties dating back as far as 1918. Since 1989, Poland has had a multi-party system, with numerous competing political parties. Individual parties do not manage to gain power alone, work with other parties to form coalition governments; the transition from a mono-party Communist regime to liberal democracy and pluralism resulted in new political parties mushrooming in the early 1990s. After the first free parliamentary elections in 1991 seats in the Sejm were divided among more than a dozen different parties; the existence of so many parties in the Sejm was seen by many as being counterproductive to the effectiveness of the parliament and a hindrance towards producing stable governments. Electoral reform was undertaken and an electoral threshold for the Lower House was instituted prior to the 1993 elections; the set threshold required a minimum vote of 5 % for 8 % for electoral coalitions. The threshold was set at the national, rather than divisional and had the effect of preventing many minor parties from winning seats in elections.
The threshold prevented independent candidates from gaining election to the Sejm. Since 1990, the left side of the political scene has been dominated by former Communists turned social democrats; the right has comprised Solidarity activists and supporters, but experienced deep divisions from the beginning, showed less cohesiveness than the left. The right were unable to create a single bloc which could act as a lasting counterweight to the left-wing monolith, but instead, kept merging and renaming. So, the parties of the right did manage to win government again from 1997-2001. Since the parliamentary elections of 2005, the right-wing parties have dominated the political scene, appear to be in their strongest position to date. Two important developments in the political landscape have taken place since 2005. Firstly, the SLD party is no longer one of the two major parties. Secondly, the main political battleground is no longer between the ex-Solidarity right versus the ex-Communist left; the new competing groupings are those of the Civic Platform.
The general public disapproval of politics and politicians as a whole has resulted in all major parties excluding the word "party" from their names, replacing it with words less associated with politics, such as "union", "platform", "league" or "alliance". Agudath Israel Bloc of National Minorities – Blok Mniejszosci Narodowych Bund Camp of National Unity – Obóz Zjednoczenia Narodowego, OZN Centrolew, "Center-Left" – coalition of parties. Chjeno-Piast – coalition of that included the Polish People's Party "Piast" and Christian Association of National Unity Christian Democracy – Labor Party – Chrześcijańska Demokracja Communist Party of Poland – Komunistyczna Partia Polski, KPP – Folkspartei – Jewish People's Party German Socialist Labour Party of Poland – Labor Party – Stronnictwo Pracy, SP National Democracy – Narodowa Demokracja, ND Popular National Union – Związek Ludowo-Narodowy, ZLN National Party – Stronnictwo Narodowe, SN National Radical Camp – Obóz Narodowo-Radykalny, ONR National Radical Camp ABC National Radical Camp Falanga – Obóz Narodowo-Radykalny Falanga or Falanga National Workers' Party – Narodowa Partia Robotnicza, NPR Nonpartisan Bloc for Cooperation with the Government – Bezpartyjny Blok Współpracy z Rządem, BBWR Peasant Party – Stronnictwo Chłopskie, SCh People's Party – Stronnictwo Ludowe, SL Polish People's Party PSL – Polish People's Party Polish People's Party "Piast" Polish People's Party "Wyzwolenie" Polish Socialist Party – Polska Partia Socjalistyczna, PPS Polish Socialist Party – Revolutionary Faction – Polska Partia Socjalistyczna – Frakcja Rewolucyjna Polish Socialist Party – Left – Polska Partia Socjalistyczna – Lewica Sanation – Sanacja Ukrainian National Democratic Alliance – Związek Chłopski ZCh Polish Social Democratic Party – Polska Partia Socjaldemokratyczna Polish Socialist Party – Polska Partia Socjalistyczna Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania – Socjaldemokracja Krolestwa Polskiego i Litwy, SDKPiL Polish Socialist Party of the Prussian Partition - Polska Partia Socjalistyczna Zaboru Pruskiego Polish Socialist Party – Revolutionary Faction - Polska Partia Socjalistyczna - Frakcja Rewolucyjna National-Democratic Party – Stronnictwo Narodowo-Demokratyczne National Workers' Union - Narodowy Związek Robotników Polish Socialist Party – Left - Polska Partia Socjalistyczna - Lewica Christian Democratic Party - Stronnictwo Chrześcijańskiej Demokracji Polish Socialist-Democratic Party of Galicia and Cieszyn Silesia - Polska Partia Socjalno-
The Royal Commission on Radio Broadcasting, otherwise known as the Aird Commission, was chaired by John Aird and examined Canada's broadcasting industry. The report released its findings in 1929 when it concluded that Canada was in need of a publicly funded radio broadcast system and a governing regulator for all broadcasting throughout the country; the Aird Report resulted in the 1932 creation of the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission, the forerunner of the CBC as well as the CRTC. From 1922-1932, the radio administration came under the Department of Fisheries. With only dozens of radio stations broadcasting within Canada, few Canadian households owning radios, the Radio Broadcasting industry was not a top agenda issue for the Federal Government in the 1920s. However, a series of controversial and ungoverned attacks over the airwaves, directed namely at the Catholic Church and Canadian Government, led it to be a matter of public and political importance; this led to debates on. These problems included the feeling that religious radio stations had "...emerged as a new weapon with which one religious group could bludgeon another...", that U.
S. stations unfairly dominated the airwaves despite an agreements to reserve some frequencies for Canadian stations. In December 1928, under the direction of Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King, P. J. Arthur formed the Aird Commission to report on federal broadcasting policy. Sir John Aird and his colleagues Charles A. Bowman, Esq. Augustin Frigon, D. Sc. and Donald Manson, Esq. set out to examine how radio broadcasting is done abroad and how it could be improved on home soil. Between April 17 and July 24, the commission heard 164 oral statements, took 124 written submissions, had the comments of nine provinces and controlled conventions. Travelling across Europe and the United States, the commission made several observations regarding the inner workings of radio stations and their ownership, it was noted that some of the best broadcasting was done in Germany and the United Kingdom, where they both made use of a public broadcaster. What they observed was a dependence on advertising revenue in many radio markets.
This dependence led the commission to come to the conclusion that when it came to matters of public importance, Canadians should have access to uninterrupted public broadcasting, free of solicitation. The latter notion was at times abandoned in hopes to stimulate Canadian businesses during the Great Depression. “We believe that private enterprise is to be commended for its effort to provide entertainment for the benefit of the public with no direct return of revenue. This lack of revenue has, tended more and more to force too much advertising upon the listener, it would appear to result in the crowding of stations into urban centres and the consequent duplication of services in such places, leaving other large populated areas ineffectively served.” -John Aird, Report of the Royal Commission on Radio Broadcasting, 1929 Without regulation, the commissioners feared that American radio stations would take over Canada. At this time, the United States was facing issues at their southern border with several “Border Blaster” signals taking listenership away from domestic stations.
The Commission sought to protect Canada from such activity. There were some disagreements amongst Commissioners regarding who should control this new proposed public broadcaster; this debate continued until 1932, when the J. C. P. C. Decided. Based on the report, a national company, the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission, was set up that would have power to operate and own all radio stations in Canada. Further control was given to the provinces to broadcast the content they want but within the provincial boundaries. After the Liberal government had fallen in the Election of 1930, the Aird Report fell into the hands of the new Prime Minister R. B. Bennett; this led to the passing of the Radio Broadcasting Act. This created the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission, predecessor to the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation as well as the Canadian Radio-Telecommunications Commission; this early CRBC was meant to serve as a free public broadcaster, under federal control for purposes of education and entertainment.
The CRBC served as the regulatory governing body for all private radio stations. Bennett’s Radio Broadcasting Act had proposed an eventual takeover of all private radio stations by the federal government, something which to this day has never materialized. At this time, one-third of Canadians owned a home radio receiver. There was a mandatory annual licensing fee for radio owners. Although it wasn’t free, it was considered an affordable means of entertainment for country suffering through the Great Depression; the set top taxes were not enough for the CRBC to survive off of alone, so there were allotted advertising slots for Canadian businesses. This was dually useful. After some controversial and partisan programming, the CRBC became a target from the liberal government who had just come back to power with Mackenzie King's most recent re-election in 1935. With 2 formal investigations in the mid-1930s from special Parliamentary Committees, the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission was disbanded.
The broadcasting element of the CRBC was succeeded by what we know today as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation in 1936. The regulatory element of the CRBC and the CBC evolved into
Carnival of Souls is a 1962 American independent horror film written and directed by Herk Harvey, starring Candace Hilligoss. Its plot follows a young woman whose life is disturbed after a car accident, she relocates to a new city, where she finds herself unable to assimilate with the locals, becomes drawn to the pavilion of an abandoned carnival. Director Harvey appears in the film as a ghoulish stranger who stalks her throughout. Filmed in Lawrence and Salt Lake City, Carnival of Souls was shot on a budget of $33,000, Harvey employed various guerrilla filmmaking techniques to finish the production, it was Harvey's only feature film, did not gain widespread attention when released as a double feature with The Devil's Messenger in 1962. Set to an organ score by Gene Moore, the film has been contemporarily noted by critics and film scholars for its cinematography and foreboding atmosphere; the film has a large cult following and is screened at film and Halloween festivals, has been cited as a wide-ranging influence on numerous filmmakers, including David Lynch, George A. Romero, Lucrecia Martel.
In Kansas, Mary Henry is riding in a car with two other young women when some men challenge them to a drag race. As they speed across a bridge, their car plunges into the river; the police spend hours dredging the fast-running water without success. Mary miraculously surfaces. Mary moves to Salt Lake City, where she has been hired as a church organist. While driving through the desert, Mary's radio picks up strange organ music and she has visions of a ghoulish, pasty-faced figure, she glimpses a large, abandoned pavilion on the shores of the Great Salt Lake, which seems to beckon to her in the twilight. A gas station attendant tells her the pavilion was first a bathhouse a dance hall, a carnival before it closed. In town, Mary rents a room, she meets the proprietor. Mary goes to the church where she will be playing the organ. At the Church she plays the organ for the first time. At the minister's offer, Mary takes a ride out to the pavilion at the lake, she is stopped from entering by the minister.
When she returns to her lodgings Mary meets a man, the only other lodger, who wants to become better acquainted. The blonde newcomer though is not interested; that night, she becomes upset when she sees The Man retreats to her room. Soon, Mary begins experiencing terrifying interludes when she becomes invisible and inaudible to the rest of the world, as if she is not there; when The Man appears in front of her in a park, she flees, right into the arms of a Dr. Samuels, he tries acknowledging he is not a psychiatrist. Mary's new employer, the minister, is put off when she declines a reception to meet the congregation; when she practices for the first time, she finds herself shifting from a hymn to eerie music. In a trance, she sees The Man and other ghouls dancing at the pavilion; the minister, hearing the strange music, insists upon her resignation. Terrified of being alone, Mary agrees to go out with John; when they return home, he smooth-talks his way into her room. When she sees The Man in the mirror, she tells John.
He leaves. After going back to Samuels' office, Mary believes. However, Mary is confronted by his fellow ghouls, she tries frantically to escape, boarding a bus to leave town, only to find that all the passengers are ghouls. It is just a nightmare. In the end, she is drawn back to the pavilion, where she finds her tormentors dancing, a pale version of herself paired with The Man; when she runs away, the ghouls chase her onto the beach. She collapses; the following day, the minister, police go to the pavilion to look for Mary. They find her footprints in the sand and they end abruptly. Back in Kansas, her car is pulled from the river. Mary's body is in the front seat alongside the other two women. Harvey was a director and producer of industrial and educational films based in Lawrence, where he worked for the Centron Corporation. While returning to Kansas after shooting a Centron film in California, Harvey developed the idea for Carnival of Souls after driving past the abandoned Saltair Pavilion in Salt Lake City, Utah.
"When I got back to Lawrence, I asked my friend and co-worker at Centron Films, John Clifford, a writer there, how he'd like to write a feature," Harvey recalled. "The last scene, had to be a whole bunch of ghouls dancing in that ballroom. He wrote it in three weeks."In New York City, Harvey discovered then-twenty-year-old actress Candace Hilligoss, who had trained with Lee Strasberg, cast her in the lead role of Mary Henry. Hilligoss had been offered a role in the Richard Hilliard-directed horror film Psychomania, but opted for the role in Carnival of Souls, she stated that at the time, she took the role as a "take-the-money-and-run type of situation". Harvey shot Carnival of Souls in three weeks on location in Salt Lake City. Harvey took three weeks off from his job at Centron in order to direct the film, starting with an initial production budget of $17,000; the $17,000 cash budget was raised by Harvey asking local businessmen if they were willing to invest $500 in Harvey's production. The other $13,000 of the total $30,000 budget was deferred.
Chryste Dionne Gaines is an American athlete who competed in the 100 metres. A 1988 graduate of South Oak Cliff High School in Dallas, Gaines competed for the United States in the 1996 Summer Olympics held in Atlanta, Georgia, U. S. in the 4 x 100 metres where she won the gold medal with teammates Olympic 100m champion Gail Devers, Inger Miller and Gwen Torrence who won the Olympic 200m in Barcelona and a bronze in the 100m in Atlanta. She returned to Sydney for the 2000 Summer Olympics as the sole survivor of the 4 x 100 meters, this time she lined up with double sprint gold medalist Marion Jones and fellow Americans Torri Edwards and Nanceen Perry but could only come away with the bronze medal. In 2003, Gaines was issued a Public Warning and had her results disqualified for the detection of Modafinil; the same year she was investigated as part of the BALCO scandal and in 2004 she received a two-year doping ban. She had been asked to return her bronze medal won at the Sydney Olympic Games in 2000 as well as other achievements due to steroid use.
She and five other members of the 2000 team would appeal the IOC's decision to force them to return their 2000 medals in July 2010. List of doping cases in athletics Notes SourcesEvans, Hilary. "Chryste Gaines". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved 2015-09-06. Chryste Gaines at World Athletics Chryste Gaines at the International Olympic Committee
The PP-91 KEDR is a 9mm submachine gun developed from a prototype from the 1970s and since 1994 adopted by the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs. The PP-91 is a designed, easy to manufacture selective fire submachine gun designed by Yevgeny Dragunov, it is blowback operated and fires from a closed bolt, allowing for more accurate shooting than would be possible from an open bolt design. Ammunition is fed from a double column box magazine and it is supplied with folding shoulder stock. Constructed from stamped sheet steel, it weighs in near 1.57 kg. The safety/selector lever is located on the right hand side and allows for semi-automatic single shots and automatic fire at the rate of 800 rounds per minute; the effective range of the PP-91 is between 50-100m. The weapon allows for the use of a laser sight and a suppressor. PP-71 - a prototype SMG developed for the Ministry of Defense in the framework of the ROC "Bouquet" and tested in 1969-1972. Not commercially produced. PP-91-01 "KEDR-B" - SMG with an integrated silencer, chambered for 9×18 mm PM PP-9 "Klin" chambered for 9×18 mm PMM, produced in 1996-2002.
For the Interior Ministry. It features improved ballistics, the increased weight of the gate and the presence of helical grooves in the chamber. PP-919 "Kedr-2" - was developed in 1994-1996. Chambered for 9×19mm Parabellum for the Federal Tax Police Service. In 2009 was presented a prototype of the PP-2011 "KEDR-PARA" chambered for 9 × 19 mm 7N21. "Pistol-carbine" PKSK - semi-automatic version chambered for 9×17 mm K, designed for private security, with a 10-round magazine. Produced in small batches since April 1998. KMO-9 "Korsak" - a prototype semi-automatic version with a long barrel chambered for 9×21mm, is designed as a civilian sporting and hunting weapons training. PST "Corporal" - semi-automatic version for private security agencies under the cartridge 10 × 23 mm T, with a 10-round magazine. PDT-9T "Yesaul" - semi-automatic version chambered for the non-lethal 9mm P. A. with a 10-round magazine."Yesaul-2" - a prototype full-automatic version chambered for the non-lethal 9mm P. A. with a 20-round magazine PDT-13T "Yesaul-3" - semi-automatic version chambered for the non-lethal.45 Rubber, with a 10-round magazine "Kedr-MD" - sub-machine gun to fire only blank cartridges, designed to order film concern "Mosfilm" in 2006, just made 5 pieces.
KSO-9 "Krechet" - semi-automatic civilian carbine variant with long barrel, AR-15 type stock, 10-round magazines and chambered for 9x19 cartridge. Saw limited production in 2014-2015 few numbers were made. Russia: MVD and security guards List of Russian weaponry Media related to PP-91 Kedr at Wikimedia Commons Official website Kedr PP-91 / Klin PP-9 submachine gun - Modern Firearms
In mechanics, the normal force F n is the component of a contact force, perpendicular to the surface that an object contacts. For example, the surface of a floor or table that prevents an object from falling. In this instance normal is used in the geometric sense and means perpendicular, as opposed the common language use of normal meaning common or expected. For example, a person standing still on flat ground is supported by a ground reaction force that consists of only a normal force. If the person stands on a slope and does not slide down it the total ground reaction force can be divided into two components: a normal force perpendicular to the ground and a frictional force parallel to the ground. In another common situation, if an object hits a surface with some speed, the surface can withstand it, the normal force provides for a rapid deceleration, which will depend on the flexibility of the surface and the object. In a simple case such as an object resting upon a table, the normal force on the object is equal but in opposite direction to the gravitational force applied on the object, that is, N = m g, where m is mass, g is the gravitational field strength.
The normal force here represents the force applied by the table against the object that prevents it from sinking through the table and requires that the table is sturdy enough to deliver this normal force without breaking. However, it is easy to assume that weight are action-reaction force pairs. In this case, the normal force and weight need to be equal in magnitude to explain why there is no upward acceleration of the object. For example, a ball that bounces upwards accelerates upwards because the normal force acting on the ball is larger in magnitude than the weight of the ball. Where an object rests on an incline, the normal force is perpendicular to the plane the object rests on. Still, the normal force will be as large as necessary to prevent sinking through the surface, presuming the surface is sturdy enough; the strength of the force can be calculated as: N = m g cos where N is the normal force, m is the mass of the object, g is the gravitational field strength, θ is the angle of the inclined surface measured from the horizontal.
The normal force is one of the several forces. In the simple situations so far considered, the most important other forces acting on it are friction and the force of gravity. In general, the magnitude of the normal force, N, is the projection of the net surface interaction force, T, in the normal direction, n, so the normal force vector can be found by scaling the normal direction by the net surface interaction force; the surface interaction force, in turn, is equal to the dot product of the unit normal with the Cauchy stress tensor describing the stress state of the surface. That is: N = n N = n = n. or, in indicial notation, N i = n i N = n i T j n j = n i n k τ j k n j. The parallel shear component of the contact force is known as the frictional force; the static coefficient of friction for an object on an inclined plane can be calculated as follows: μ s = tan for an object on the point of sliding where θ is the angle between the slope and the horizontal. As explained before, the normal force is a contact force, that is, the resultant of the forces between the constituents of the actual constraint, the constituents of the object.
When the object and the constraint are pressed against each other, the van der Waals force, a force that grows large quickly, opposes this and for this reason, the two objects cannot penetrate each other. If the two objects are separated by a small distance, the normal force disappears; this is because the intermolecular force vanishes past the point of equilibrium. In an elevator either stationary or moving at constant velocity, the normal force on the person's feet balances the person's weight. In an elevator, accelerating upward, the normal force is greater than the person's ground weight and so the person's perceived weight increases. In an elevator, accelerating downward, the normal force is less than the person's ground weight and so a passenger's perceived weight decreases. If a passenger were to stand on a weighing scale, such as a conventional bathroom scale, while riding the elevator, the scale will be reading the normal force it delivers to the passenger's feet, will be different than the person's ground weight if the elevator cab is accelerating up or down.
The weighing scale measures normal force (which varie