This article lists political parties in the United Kingdom. Before the middle of the 19th century, politics in the United Kingdom was dominated by the Whigs and the Tories; these were not political parties in the modern sense but somewhat loose alliances of interests and individuals. The Whigs included many of the leading aristocratic dynasties committed to the Protestant succession, drew support from elements of the emerging industrial interests and wealthy merchants, while the Tories were associated with the landed gentry, the Church of England and the Church of Scotland. By the mid 19th century, the Tories had evolved into the Conservative Party, the Whigs had evolved into the Liberal Party; the concept of right and left came from France, where the supporters of a monarchy sat on the right wing of the National Assembly, republicans on the left. In the late 19th century the Liberal Party began to lean towards the left. Liberal Unionists split off from the Liberals over Irish Home Rule and moved closer to the Conservatives over time.
The Liberals and Conservatives dominated the political scene until the 1920s, when the Liberal Party declined in popularity and suffered a long stream of resignations. It was replaced as the main anti-Tory opposition party by the newly emerging Labour Party, which represented an alliance between the labour movement, organised trades unions and various socialist societies. Since the Conservative and Labour parties have dominated British politics, have alternated in government since. However, the UK is not quite a two-party system; the Liberal Democrats were the third largest party until the 2015 general election when they were overtaken by the Scottish National Party in terms of seats and UK political party membership, by the UK Independence Party in terms of votes. The UK's First Past, it can, allow parties with concentrations of supporters in the constituent countries to flourish. In the 2015 election there was widespread controversy when UKIP and the Green Party of England and Wales received 4.9 million votes yet only gained one seat each in the House of Commons.
After that election, UKIP, the Liberal Democrats, the Green Party of England and Wales, together with its Scottish and Northern Ireland affiliated parties, the Scottish National Party and Plaid Cymru, delivered a petition signed by 477,000 people to Downing Street demanding electoral reform. Since 1997, proportional representation-based voting systems have been adopted for elections to the Scottish Parliament, the National Assembly for Wales, the Northern Ireland Assembly, the London Assembly and the UK's seats in the European Parliament. In these bodies, other parties have had success. Traditionally political parties have been private organisations with no official recognition by the state; the Registration of Political Parties Act 1998 changed that by creating a register of parties. Membership of political parties has been in decline in the UK since the 1950s, falling by over 65% from 1983 to 2005; the Electoral Commission's Register of Political Parties lists the details of parties registered to fight elections in the United Kingdom, including their registered name.
Under current electoral law, including the Registration of Political Parties Act, the Electoral Administration Act 2006, the Political Parties and Referendums Act 2000, only registered party names can be used on ballot papers by those wishing to fight elections. Candidates who do not belong to a registered party can use "independent" or no label at all; as of 2 August 2019 the Electoral Commission showed the number of registered political parties in Great Britain and Northern Ireland as 408. Two parties dominate politics in the House of Commons; each one operates throughout Great Britain. Conservative and Unionist Party, centre-right Labour Party, centre-left Co-operative Party Following the 2019 United Kingdom general election, the number of seats for each party in the House of Commons is: Conservative and Unionist Party - 365 Labour Party - 202 Scottish National Party - 47 Liberal Democrats - 11 Democratic Unionist Party - 8 Sinn Féin - 7 Plaid Cymru - 4 Social Democratic and Labour Party - 2 Green Party of England and Wales - 1 Alliance Party of Northern Ireland - 1No other party had any elected representation in the House of Commons.
This is a list of notable minor parties. Many parties are registered with the Electoral Commission but do not qualify for this list as they have not received significant independent coverage. Social Democratic Party Peace Party Libertarian Party Pirate Party UK National Health Action Party Young People's Party UK Populist Party 4 Freedoms Party Advance Together Renew Party Something New UK European Union Party Whig Party Socialist Party of Great Britain Communist Party of Britain Revolutionary Communist Party of Britain Workers' Revolutionary Party New Communist Party Socialist Workers Party Socialist Equality Party Communist League Communist Party of Britain Communist Party of Great Britain Independ
Joshua Bonehill-Paine is an English far-right nationalist, internet troll, convicted criminal from Yeovil, Somerset. Styling himself as a "nationalist, fascist and supporter of white rights", he ran a blog called The Daily Bale which published several racist and anti-immigration hoaxes, as well as false accusations against his opponents, he has described himself as "a proud anti-semite". Bonehill-Paine's online activity has led to criminal charges being brought against him for harassment, antisemitic commentary and hoaxing, including a 2013 online hoax that led to the owners of a Leicester pub receiving death threats, other false accusations, for which he received a suspended prison sentence, he was described as an "internet troll" by the prosecutor at a 2014 court hearing. He was arrested in June 2015 for inciting racial hatred against Jews, for which he was found guilty in December, receiving a jail sentence of three years and four months. In 2016, he was sentenced to two years in prison for racially-aggravated harassment to be served in addition to his first sentence, was serving his sentence at HM Prison Wayland.
A former public schoolboy and a Conservative Party member, Bonehill-Paine was sentenced to a 12-month community order with 100 hours' unpaid work and supervision by the probation service, following an incident on 11 March 2011 in which he broke into and burgled a police station in Chard, using his Conservative Party membership card, while drunk. He was discovered by a constable outside the station in the early hours wearing a police uniform, noted their poor security, he resisted efforts to arrest him, assaulting two officers in the process, was found guilty of the offences of burglary and criminal damage pleading guilty to criminal damage committed on 30 March to a flower bed in Yeovil. In 2013, Bonehill-Paine announced plans to lead a "Stand Strong" march in Woolwich, a month after the murder of Lee Rigby, describing it as a protest against "extremism and oppression". In February 2014, Bonehill-Paine appeared in court in Yeovil on charges of malicious communications on Facebook which he had made about the UK Independence Party leader Nigel Farage in the previous October.
That September, Bonehill-Paine announced that he was in the process of registering a political party in Yeovil, called the National British Resistance party. He described it as having "ambitions to replace the British National Party and gain mainstream support", with the intention of contesting elections in 2015; that year, he released a video of himself speaking at a BNP meeting, delivering a call to "rise up and stand up as one white race united" to a small group of people in a pub. By 2015, he was a member of National Action. Bonehill-Paine's blog, The Daily Bale, ran hoax stories. A story from The Daily Bale went viral in August 2013, falsely reporting that The Globe pub in Leicester had refused to admit members of the armed forces, so as not to offend immigrants. People who had read the story threatened the pub with its staff with murder. Bonehill-Paine stated in an interview that his intention was to create "a shocking campaign" that people would "share on social media". Security expert Graham Cluley called the stunt "utterly irresponsible and frankly moronic".
In April 2014, Bonehill-Paine was sentenced to 180 hours of unpaid work and two years supervision for malicious communications over this incident. A year for breaching this community order, magistrates added another 10 hours of unpaid work to the sentence. In February 2014, a hoax story about a six-year-old girl from Croydon being kidnapped by an Asian child grooming gang was shared on social media. A September 2014 story made false claims about an Asian youth punching a baby and throwing it against a wall, which Bonehill-Paine said had been written by an English Defence League member and published "without researching the actual article first"; the next month, Bonehill-Paine's blog spread a hoax that a Somali immigrant with Ebola had gone missing in Leicester. A fake NHS poster making this claim was publicised by Bonehill-Paine's website distributed by one of his supporters in Leicester, seen in a medical centre in the city. In October 2014, he pleaded guilty to charges of malicious communications and harassment relating to articles on his Daily Bale blog falsely claiming that innocent people were paedophiles, drug dealers or religious zealots.
During one hearing, he took issue with being called an "Internet troll" by the prosecutor, Dafydd Paxton. Sentencing was postponed until 12 January 2015 due to other "very serious" investigations involving him, including alleged incitement to racial hatred against a Member of Parliament, postponed again until 5 February; the hearing took place on 9 February 2015, when he was given a three-month prison sentence suspended for 18 months, in addition to 80 hours' unpaid work and ten sessions of "education and employment". He was ordered to pay £85 costs and a victim surcharge of £80. In February 2015, Bonehill-Paine was due to be charged in St Albans under s.38 of the Public Order Act 1986, the "contamination of goods", for publishing an article on his website suggesting that fruit and vegetables from Tesco were infected with Ebola. The offence carries a maximum 10-year sentence. In October 2015, he was tried at Stevenage Magistrates' Court for "misusing a public computer network to propagate grossly offensive, obscene or menacing material" in two online articles, one being the Tesco Ebola hoax and the other encouraging the immediate killing of disabled babies for the purpose of eugenics.
Guerra de Sexos was the second annual Guerra de Sexos professional wrestling event produced by the International Wrestling Revolution Group. It took place on February 2012, at Arena Naucalpan in Naucalpan, State of Mexico; the event title refers to the main event match, a steel cage match that featured male wrestlers, female wrestlers, Exótico wrestlers and Mini-Estrellas all competing against each other. The last person in the cage would be forced to either remove their wrestling mask, or if unmask have their hair shaved off; the Under card featured two wrestlers from Asistencia Asesoria y Administracion, El Texano, Jr. and Toscano, who appeared due to IWRG's working relationship with AAA. Starting as far back as at least 2000, the Mexican wrestling promotion International Wrestling Revolution Group has held several annual events where the main event was a multi-man steel cage match where the last wrestler left in the cage would be forced to either remove their wrestling mask or have their hair shaved off under Lucha de Apuestas, or "bet match", rules.
Starting in 2011 IWRG began holding a special version of the steel cage match concept under the name Guerra de Sexos, or "War of the Sexes", as they held a show centered on an inter-gender steel cage match main event that saw men and women fight each other with their mask or hair on the line. At times IWRG included Mini-Estrella competitors and Exótico wrestlers in the cage as well; the inter-gender aspects of the show distinguishes the Guerra de Sexos events from other Steel cage matches held throughout the year such as the IWRG El Castillo del Terror, IWRG Guerra del Golfo or IWRG Prison Fatal shows. The Guerra de Sexos shows, as well as the majority of the IWRG shows in general, are held in "Arena Naucalpan", owned by the promoters of IWRG and their main arena; the 2011 Guerra de Sexos show was the first year IWRG promoted a show under that name. The event featured four professional wrestling matches with different wrestlers involved in pre-existing scripted feuds and storylines. Wrestlers were portrayed as either heels or faces as they followed a series of tension-building events, which culminated in a wrestling match or series of matches.