Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent. There is no consensus on the precise area it covers because the term has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical and socioeconomic connotations. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region". A related United Nations paper adds that "every assessment of spatial identities is a social and cultural construct". One definition describes Eastern Europe as a cultural entity: the region lying in Europe with the main characteristics consisting of Greek, Eastern Orthodox and some Ottoman culture influences. Another definition was created during the Cold War and used more or less synonymously with the term Eastern Bloc. A similar definition names the communist European states outside the Soviet Union as Eastern Europe. Majority of historians and social scientists view such definitions as outdated or relegated, but they are still sometimes used for statistical purposes. Several definitions of Eastern Europe exist today, but they lack precision, are too general, or are outdated.
These definitions vary both across cultures and among experts political scientists, as the term has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical and socioeconomic connotations. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region". A related United Nations paper adds that "every assessment of spatial identities is a social and cultural construct". While the eastern geographical boundaries of Europe are well defined, the boundary between Eastern and Western Europe is not geographical but historical and cultural; the Ural Mountains, Ural River, the Caucasus Mountains are the geographical land border of the eastern edge of Europe. In the west, the historical and cultural boundaries of "Eastern Europe" are subject to some overlap and, most have undergone historical fluctuations, which makes a precise definition of the western geographic boundaries of Eastern Europe and the geographical midpoint of Europe somewhat difficult; the East–West Schism divided Christianity in Europe, the world, into Western Christianity and Eastern Christianity.
Western Europe according to this point of view is formed by countries with dominant Roman Catholic and Protestant churches. Eastern Europe is formed by countries with dominant Eastern Orthodox churches, like Belarus, Greece, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Russia and Ukraine for instance; the schism is the break of communion and theology between what are now the Eastern and Western churches. This division dominated Europe for centuries, in opposition to the rather short-lived Cold War division of 4 decades. Since the Great Schism of 1054, Europe has been divided between Roman Catholic and Protestant churches in the West, the Eastern Orthodox Christian churches in the east. Due to this religious cleavage, Eastern Orthodox countries are associated with Eastern Europe. A cleavage of this sort is, however problematic; the fall of the Iron Curtain brought the end of the East-West division in Europe, but this geopolitical concept is sometimes still used for quick reference by the media or sometimes for statistical purposes.
Another definition was used during the 40 years of Cold War between 1947 and 1989, was more or less synonymous with the terms Eastern Bloc and Warsaw Pact. A similar definition names the communist European states outside the Soviet Union as Eastern Europe. Historians and social scientists view such definitions as outdated or relegated. Eurovoc, a multilingual thesaurus maintained by the Publications Office of the European Union, has entries for "23 EU languages", plus the languages of candidate countries. Of these, those in italics are classified as "Eastern Europe" in this source. UNESCO, EuroVoc, National Geographic Society, Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography, STW Thesaurus for Economics place the Baltic states in Northern Europe, whereas the CIA World Factbook places the region in Eastern Europe with a strong assimilation to Northern Europe, they are members of the Nordic-Baltic Eight regional cooperation forum whereas Central European countries formed their own alliance called the Visegrád Group.
The Northern Future Forum, the Nordic Investment Bank, the Nordic Battlegroup, the Nordic-Baltic Eight and the New Hanseatic League are other examples of Northern European cooperation that includes the three countries collectively referred to as the Baltic states. Estonia Latvia Lithuania The Caucasus nations of Armenia and Georgia are included in definitions or histories of Eastern Europe, they are located in the transition zone of Western Asia. They participate in the European Union's Eastern Partnership program, the Euronest Parliamentary Assembly, are members of the Council of Europe, which specifies that all three have
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
Wendell Lewis Willkie was an American lawyer and corporate executive, the 1940 Republican nominee for President. Willkie appealed to many convention delegates as the Republican field's only interventionist: although the U. S. remained neutral prior to Pearl Harbor, he favored greater U. S. involvement in World War II to support Britain and other Allies. His Democratic opponent, incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt, won the 1940 election with about 55% of the popular vote and took the electoral college vote by a wide margin. Willkie was born in Elwood, Indiana, in 1892, he served in World War I but was not sent to France until the final days of the war, saw no action. Willkie settled in Akron, where he was employed by Firestone, but left for a law firm, becoming one of the leaders of the Akron Bar Association. Much of his work was representing electric utilities, in 1929 Willkie accepted a job in New York City as counsel for Commonwealth & Southern Corporation, a utility holding company, he was promoted, became corporate president in 1933.
Roosevelt was sworn in as U. S. president soon after Willkie became head of C&S, announced plans for a Tennessee Valley Authority that would supply power in competition with C&S. Between 1933 and 1939, Willkie fought against the TVA before Congress, in the courts, before the public, he was unsuccessful, but sold C&S's property for a good price, gained public esteem. A longtime Democratic activist, Willkie changed his party registration to Republican in late 1939, he did not run in the 1940 presidential primaries, but positioned himself as an acceptable choice for a deadlocked convention. He sought backing from uncommitted delegates, while his supporters—many youthful—enthusiastically promoted his candidacy; as German forces advanced through western Europe in 1940, many Republicans did not wish to nominate an isolationist like Thomas E. Dewey, turned to Willkie, nominated on the sixth ballot over Ohio Senator Robert A. Taft. Willkie's support for aid to Britain removed it as a major factor in his race against Roosevelt, Willkie backed the president on a peacetime draft.
Both men took more isolationist positions towards the end of the race. Roosevelt won an unprecedented third term. After the election, Willkie made two wartime foreign trips as Roosevelt's informal envoy, as nominal leader of the Republican Party gave the president his full support; this angered many conservatives as Willkie advocated liberal or internationalist causes. Willkie ran for the Republican nomination in 1944, but bowed out after a disastrous showing in the Wisconsin primary in April, he and Roosevelt discussed the possibility of forming, after the war, a liberal political party, but Willkie died in October 1944 before the idea could bear fruit. Willkie is remembered for giving Roosevelt vital political assistance in 1940, which allowed the president to aid Britain in its time of crisis. Lewis Wendell Willkie was born in Elwood, Indiana, on February 18, 1892, the son of Henrietta and Herman Francis Willkie. Both of his parents were lawyers, his mother being one of the first women admitted to the Indiana bar.
His father was born in Germany and his mother was born in Indiana, to German parents. The Trisches settled in Kansas Territory but, as they were abolitionists, moved to Indiana after the territory was opened to slavery in the mid-1850s. Willkie was the fourth of six children, all intelligent, learned skills during the nightly debates around the dinner table that would serve him well. Although given the first name Lewis, Willkie was known from childhood by his middle name. Herman Willkie, who had come from Prussia with his parents at age four, was intensely involved in progressive politics, in 1896 took his sons to a torchlight procession for Democratic presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan, who had come to Elwood during his campaign; the Willkie boys had a sidewalk fight with Republican youths, though the Willkies won their battle, Bryan did not, defeated by former Ohio governor William McKinley. When Bryan ran again in 1900, he stayed overnight at the Willkie home, the Democratic candidate for president became the first political hero for the boy who would seek that office.
By the time Willkie reached age 14 and enrolled in Elwood High School, his parents were concerned about a lack of discipline and a slight stoop, they sent him to Culver Military Academy for a summer in an attempt to correct both. Willkie began to shine as a student in high school, inspired by his English teacher, he started preaching to Wendell to get to work and that kid went to town." Faced with a set of athletic brothers—Edward became an Olympic wrestler—Willkie joined the football team but had little success. He was class president his final year, president of the most prominent fraternity, but resigned from the latter when a sorority blackballed his girlfriend, Gwyneth Harry, as the daughter of immigrants. During Willkie's summer vacations from high school, he worked far from home. In 1909, aged 17, his journey took him from Aberdeen, South Dakota, where he rose from dishwasher to co-owner of a flophouse, to Yellowstone National Park, where he was fired after losing control of the horses drawing a tourist stagecoach.
Back in Elwood, Herman Willkie was representing striking workers at the local tin plate factory, in August journe
George Victor Voinovich was an American politician from the state of Ohio. A member of the Republican Party, Voinovich served as a United States Senator from 1999 to 2011, as the 65th governor of Ohio from 1991 to 1998, as the 54th mayor of Cleveland from 1980 to 1989, the last Republican to serve in that office. Voinovich spent more than 46 years in public service – first as assistant attorney general of Ohio in 1963, as the senior United States Senator representing Ohio, he is the 15th person to have served as both the governor of Ohio and a U. S. senator and one of only two people to have been the mayor of Cleveland, governor of Ohio and a United States Senator. He is the only person to have served as both chairman of the National Governors Association and president of the National League of Cities. In his 2004 reelection to the U. S. Senate, Voinovich garnered nearly 64 percent. Voinovich was born in Cleveland, the son of Josephine and George S. Voinovich, he was the oldest of six children.
His father was of Serbian descent, his mother of Slovenian ancestry. Voinovich grew up in the Collinwood neighborhood of Cleveland and graduated from Collinwood High School in 1954, he was raised Catholic and was a lifelong member of his neighborhood parish, Our Lady of the Lake in Euclid. He earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in government in 1958 from Ohio University, where he was a member of the fraternity Phi Kappa Tau and served as president of the student body and the men's dormitory system. Voinovich received a law degree in 1961 from the Moritz College of Law at the Ohio State University. Voinovich began his political career in 1963 as an Assistant Attorney General of Ohio, he served as a member of the Ohio House of Representatives from 1967 until 1971. From 1971 until 1976, he served as County Auditor of Ohio. In 1971, he made an unsuccessful run for the Republican nomination for mayor of Cleveland against Ralph J. Perk, who went on to win the general election. From 1977 to 1978, Voinovich served as a member of the Cuyahoga County Board of Commissioners.
In 1978, he was elected lieutenant governor of Ohio as the running mate of James A. Rhodes. Voinovich was the first Ohio lieutenant governor not to be elected separately from the governor. By 1979, elections in Cleveland had become nonpartisan, with then-Mayor Dennis J. Kucinich about to enter a tough reelection campaign, Voinovich began to consider running for mayor again. On July 26, he entered the race, calling the decision "one of the most difficult in life", he remained lieutenant governor. Aside from Kucinich, Voinovich's opponents in the race included State Senator Charles Butts and city council majority leader Basil Russo; as the election drew closer, The Plain Dealer endorsed Voinovich. Voter turnout in the primary was greater than that of the 1977 race among Perk and Edward F. Feighan. In the 1979 nonpartisan primary election, Voinovich received 47,000 votes to Kucinich's 36,000. Russo and Butts did not qualify for the general election; the biggest surprise was Voinovich's showing in predominantly African American wards, where he was expected to finish last.
He trailed only Butts, with Kucinich last. On October 8, 1979, a few days after the primary, Voinovich's nine-year-old daughter Molly was struck by a van and killed; the event brought the Voinovich campaign to a virtual halt and made it difficult for Kucinich to attack his opponent. Still, he challenged Voinovich to a series of debates in various Cleveland neighborhoods. Voinovich declined the invitations, saying the debates would be unproductive, but they did debate on November 3 at the City Club. Voinovich won the election with 94,541 votes to Kucinich's 73,755. Voinovich was reelected twice in landslides. In 1981 he defeated former State Representative Patrick Sweeney, 107,472 to 32,940, to win Cleveland's first four-year mayoral term. In 1985 he defeated former councilman Gary Kucinich, 82,840 to 32,185. Voinovich was considered shy and a rather low-key politician, a description he adopted himself. Once elected, he met with Ohio Governor James Rhodes to solicit the state government's help in clearing up the city's debts.
Voinovich negotiated a debt repayment schedule and in October 1980, with the state serving as guarantor, eight local banks lent Cleveland $36.2 million, allowing the city to emerge from default. Still, the city's economy continued to decline and federal funding was cut. Two weeks earlier, voters turned down another 0.5 percent income tax increase. The opposition was led by Kucinich, keeping a low profile since losing the election. Voinovich said he would resubmit the tax issue on the February ballot to avoid facing a deficit in 1981; that time the voters approved the tax increase. By the time Voinovich was elected, Cleveland had become the butt of late night comedians' jokes about the Cuyahoga River and Mayor Ralph Perk's hair catching fire and as the only major American city to go bankrupt. Voinovich took an aggressive approach, he reversed a defensive attitude projected by the Cleveland media, going to "war... to save one of this country's greatest cities". Others soon jumped on board. For instance, The Smythe-Cramer Co. a local realty firm, tried to restore the city's former glory by running a series of ads with photographs of downtown Cleveland captioned "Take Another Look.
It's Cleveland!" In May 1981, The Plain Dealer sent its Sunday subscribers bumper stickers reading, "New York's the Big Apple, but Cleveland's a Plum." The paper passed out thousands of "Cleveland's a P
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, located on the shore of Lake Erie in downtown Cleveland, Ohio and archives the history of the best-known and most influential artists, producers and other notable figures who have had some major influence on the development of rock and roll. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Foundation was established on April 20, 1983, by Atlantic Records founder and chairman Ahmet Ertegun. In 1986, Cleveland was chosen as the Hall of Fame's permanent home. Founder Ahmet Ertegun assembled a team that included attorney Suzan Evans, Rolling Stone magazine editor and publisher Jann S. Wenner, attorney Allen Grubman, record executives Seymour Stein, Bob Krasnow, Noreen Woods; the Foundation began inducting artists in 1986. The search committee considered several cities, including Philadelphia, Detroit, New York City, Cleveland. Cleveland lobbied for the museum, with civic leaders in Cleveland pledging $65 million in public money to fund the construction, citing that WJW disc jockey Alan Freed both coined the term "rock and roll" and promoted the new genre—and that Cleveland was the location of Freed's Moondog Coronation Ball credited as the first major rock and roll concert.
Freed was a member of the hall of fame's inaugural class of inductees in 1986. In addition, Cleveland cited radio station WMMS, which played a key role in breaking several major acts in the U. S. during the 1970s and 1980s, including David Bowie, who began his first U. S. tour in the city, Bruce Springsteen, Roxy Music, Rush among many others. A petition drive was signed by 600,000 fans favoring Cleveland over Memphis, Cleveland ranked first in a 1986 USA Today poll asking where the Hall of Fame should be located. On May 5, 1986, the Hall of Fame Foundation chose Cleveland as the permanent home of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum. Author Peter Guralnick said. Cleveland may have been chosen as the organization's site because the city offered the best financial package; as The Plain Dealer music critic Michael Norman noted, "It was $65 million... Cleveland wanted it here and put up the money." Co-founder Jann Wenner said, "One of the small sad things is we didn't do it in New York in the first place," but added, "I am delighted that the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum is in Cleveland."
During early discussions on where to build the Hall of Fame and Museum, the Foundation's board considered the Cuyahoga River. The chosen location was along East Ninth Street in downtown Cleveland by Lake Erie, east of Cleveland Stadium. At one point in the planning phase, when a financing gap existed, planners proposed locating the Rock Hall in the then-vacant May Company Building, but decided to commission architect I. M. Pei to design a new building. Initial CEO Dr. Larry R. Thompson facilitated I. M. Pei in designs for the site. Pei came up with the idea of a tower with a glass pyramid protruding from it; the museum tower was planned to stand 200 ft high, but had to be cut down to 162 ft due to its proximity to Burke Lakefront Airport. The building's base is 150,000 square feet; the groundbreaking ceremony took place on June 7, 1993. Pete Townshend, Chuck Berry, Billy Joel, Sam Phillips, Ruth Brown, Sam Moore of Sam and Dave, Carl Gardner of the Coasters and Dave Pirner of Soul Asylum all appeared at the groundbreaking.
The museum was dedicated on September 1, 1995, with the ribbon being cut by an ensemble that included Yoko Ono and Little Richard, among others, before a crowd of more than 10,000 people. The following night an all-star concert was held at the stadium, it featured Chuck Berry, Bob Dylan, Al Green, Jerry Lee Lewis, Aretha Franklin, Bruce Springsteen, Iggy Pop, John Fogerty, John Mellencamp, many others. In addition to the Hall of Fame inductees, the museum documents the entire history of rock and roll, regardless of induction status. Hall of Fame inductees are honored in a special exhibit located in a wing that juts out over Lake Erie. Since 1986, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame has selected new inductees; the formal induction ceremony has been held in New York City 26 times. As of 2018, the induction ceremonies alternate each year between New Cleveland; the 2009 and 2012 induction weeks were made possible by a public–private partnership between the City of Cleveland, the State of Ohio, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, local foundations, civic organizations and individuals.
Collectively these entities invested $5.8 million in 2009 and $7.9 million in 2012 to produce a week of events, including free concerts, a gospel celebration, exhibition openings, free admission to the museum, induction ceremonies filled with both fans and VIPs at Public Hall. Millions viewed the television broadcast of the Cleveland inductions; the economic impact of the 2009 induction week activities was more than $13 million, it provided an additional $20 million in media exposure for the region. The 2012 induction week yielded similar results. There are seven levels in the building. On the lower level is the Ahmet M. Ertegun Exhibition Hall, the museum's main gallery, it includes exhibits on the roots of roll. It featu
Cleveland Burke Lakefront Airport
Cleveland Burke Lakefront Airport is a public airport on the shore of Lake Erie, in the northeast part of downtown Cleveland, United States. It classified as a general aviation airport and is an FAA designated reliever to Cleveland Hopkins International Airport, Greater Cleveland's primary airport. In 2008, based on FAA data, Burke Lakefront was the fourth busiest airport in the state of Ohio after Cleveland Hopkins, John Glenn Columbus International and Akron-Canton, up from 7th in 2007, it is named after former Cleveland mayor and U. S. senator Thomas A. Burke; the airport is owned and operated by the city of Cleveland, which operates Hopkins. It serves a growing number of corporate jets and air taxi services. Burke handled 20,618 air taxi operations in 2005, 23,370 in 2006. BKL handled 18,595 air taxi operations in the first ten months of 2007. Burke Lakefront handles 87,000 operations per year.. The airport is used by professional sports team charter flights due to its proximity to FirstEnergy Stadium, Progressive Field, Quicken Loans Arena.
Envisioned in 1927 as a part of a plan for Cleveland's lakefront, a lakefront airport to include "landing places for land and amphibious planes," was included as part of Cleveland's "Official Lakefront Development Plan" in 1946 announced by City Manager William R. Hopkins. Cleveland Burke Lakefront Airport opened in 1947 as the United States' first downtown airport and as its first municipally owned-and-operated airport. Designed to serve as a supplemental airfield for Cleveland Hopkins International Airport, it featured a 2,000-foot dirt runway and a small operations facility and hangar. A federal grant in 1950 from the Federal Airport Act permitted the installation of a 5,200-foot hard-surface runway in 1957. A terminal, control tower, passenger concourses were constructed between 1957 and 1968. In the 1970s, the airport expanded with new buildings, a new control tower, an additional runway and Aviation High School; the main terminal of the airport was renovated in 1993 to handle air charter service.
In 1998, the larger runway was rehabilitated and an instrument landing system was installed, allowing planes to land in poor weather. The airline Destination One provided scheduled charter service between BKL and airports near the downtowns of Detroit and Cincinnati, to Hilton Head, SC. However, this service was short-lived. Wright Airlines was based at BKL before declaring bankruptcy. In 1979, Midway Airlines operated service from BKL to MDW in Chicago, before moving their operations to Hopkins. In September 2015, Cincinnati based airline Ultimate Air Shuttle announced twice daily service to Cincinnati-Lunken; the airport was the site of the annual Grand Prix of Cleveland, last held in 2007, a Champ Car race which required the airport to be shut down. Burke Lakefront Airport was the only airport in the country to host such a major car race which required careful maintenance of the runways in order to keep them safe for cars at high speeds; every Labor Day weekend, the airport hosts the annual Cleveland National Air Show attended by 60,000 to 100,000 visitors.
On the evening of Thursday, October 25, 2012 President Barack Obama held a rally on the tarmac in front of Air Force One for the 2012 Presidential election. He was greeted according to various Cleveland news outlets. Cleveland Burke Lakefront Airport covers an area of 450 acres which contains two asphalt paved runways: 6L/24R measuring 6,198 x 150 ft and 6R/24L measuring 5,197 x 100 ft; the airfield is capable of handling large jets including, 737s, 757s, A320s along with the smaller general aviation aircraft operations. Signature Flight Support serves as the airport's fixed-base operator. In 2005, the airport had 96,658 aircraft operations, an average of 264 per day: 76% general aviation, 24% air taxi, 1% military and <1% scheduled commercial. There are three flight schools located on the grounds of Burke Lakefront; these schools are, Inc.. Zone Aviation, Precision Helicopters. Zone Aviation offers FAA approved full motion flight simulation with Redbird Flight Simulations FMX AATD simulator; the International Women's Air & Space Museum is located throughout the terminal at BKL.
As of 2007, there are 74 aircraft based at this airport. These aircraft include 38 single-engine aircraft, 13 multi-engine aircraft, 13 helicopters and 10 jets. In percent form 51.3% of the based aircraft are single-engine, 17.5% are multi-engine, 17.5% helicopter and 13.5% jet. General Aviation aircraft rentals can be made to qualifying pilots at T&G Flying Club or Zone Aviation. Flights can be chartered through a number of companies operating out of the airport. Burke-Lakefront is a class D Airspace. In addition to airport traffic, Burke Lakefront tower and approach control provide radar separation to medivac helicopters en route to University Hospitals of Cleveland and Cleveland Clinic which fall within the airspace that extends from the surface to 3000 feet above mean sea level. Cleveland Hopkins class B Airspace lies above and to the southwest of the Burke Lakefront class D. Burke-Lakefront serves as an international airport and is available for entry by international travelers. US Customs and immigration clearance are available with two hour prior notice.
Since the city owned Burke-Lakefront was designed for higher usage and future need, some city government agencies and private businesses unrelated to aviation currently
The Hough riots were riots in the predominantly African-American community of Hough in Cleveland, which took place from July 18 to 23, 1966. During the riots, four African Americans were killed and 50 people were injured. There were numerous incidents of arson and firebombings. City officials at first blamed black nationalist and communist organizations for the riots, but historians dismiss these claims today, arguing that the cause of the Hough Riots were poverty and racism; the riots caused rapid population loss and economic decline in the area, which lasted at least five decades after the riots. During the 1950s, middle-class whites left the neighborhood of Hough in Cleveland and working-class African Americans moved in. By 1966, more than 66,000 people, nearly 90 percent of them African American, lived in Hough. Most businesses in the area remained white-owned, however. Residents of the Hough neighborhood complained extensively of inferior and racially segregated public schools, poor delivery of welfare benefits, a lack of routine garbage collection, no street cleaning, too few housing inspections.
Recreational facilities in Hough were nonexistent except for minimal equipment at a few school playgrounds. Hough was a small area, but the population density in the neighborhood was one of the highest in Cleveland. Housing was substandard in Hough, with a fifth of all housing units considered dilapidated and absentee landlords were common; the deindustrialization of Cleveland hit the African American community hard, unemployment was over 17 percent. Median income for black residents was just 65 percent the median income of whites. Although Hough contained just 7.3 percent of Cleveland's population, it had more than 19 percent of its welfare cases. Single mothers bore one-third of the children in Hough in 1966, infant mortality was twice as high as the rest of the city. High unemployment and the rapid deterioration of the neighborhood created extensive racial tension in Hough. Although the city had engaged in some urban renewal housing projects in Hough, these had displaced more people than they housed and those displaced had received little to no help in finding new housing.
Moreover, failed urban renewal to the east of Hough had displaced several thousand poor families, most of whom moved into Hough. A racially segregated Cleveland Division of Police led to interracial tension in the city. Twenty percent of Cleveland's major crimes were committed in Hough though it had just 7 percent of the city's population. Only 165 of Cleveland's 2,100 police officers were African American, the city declined to promote black patrolmen, the police had a reputation for exhibiting "crude racism" and ignoring the needs of the black community; the police were perceived as unwilling to enforce the law and slow to respond in black communities, police harassment of African Americans was the norm. Subsequently, African Americans in Cleveland tended to distrust the police. There had been several incidents of brutality committed by the police in Cleveland in the last few years, which worsened the tension between the police and the city's African American citizens. In 1963 and 1964, the United Freedom Movement, a coalition of African American civil rights groups, led a nine-month protest campaign against poor-quality, racially segregated schools and racial discrimination against blacks by labor unions.
Cleveland Mayor Ralph S. Locher, white, dismissed these concerns; this was not unusual: The political culture of Cleveland had long been dominated by the mayor, city council, big business, the larger newspapers, a few powerful white ethnicities. The city had a long history of ignoring social ills, while favoring small government. African American protests in the past had been small and died out swiftly, progress was achieved through traditional behind-the-scenes deal-making; the school protests were Cleveland's first large, lengthy racial protests, the failure to achieve significant progress taught the black community that negotiation and legal action produced only limited results. Although 10 of the city council's 22 members were African American, black council members were seen as too conservative and out of touch with the vast majority of Cleveland's African Americans. Throughout the first half of 1966, there had been a large number of incidents indicating unrest in the neighborhood. In April 1966, the United States Commission on Civil Rights held hearings in Cleveland, during which time it gathered extensive evidence about employment discrimination, police brutality, poor housing, ongoing school segregation, racism in the community.
Televised locally, "the hearings revealed that the city's racial powder keg was about to explode". The Seventy-Niner's Café was a white-owned bar located on the southeast corner of E. 79th Street and Hough Avenue, popular with African American residents of the community. Seventy-Niner's suffered from a number of problems, including drug dealing, the sale of stolen goods, prostitution, the owners had begun barring certain individuals from the establishment. Local prostitutes Margaret Sullivan and her friend, were among those, banned. Sullivan died on July 16. On July 17, Louise attempted to leave a box at the bar so patrons could donate money for the care of Sullivan's children; the owners refused to permit the collection. Louise returned about 5 PM on Monday, July 18; the owners argued with her using defamatory and racist language, she was thrown out. A short while lat