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List of popes

This chronological list of popes corresponds to that given in the Annuario Pontificio under the heading "I Sommi Pontefici Romani", excluding those that are explicitly indicated as antipopes. Published every year by the Roman Curia, the Annuario Pontificio attaches no consecutive numbers to the popes, stating that it is impossible to decide which side represented at various times the legitimate succession, in particular regarding Pope Leo VIII, Pope Benedict V and some mid-11th-century popes; the 2001 edition of the Annuario Pontificio introduced "almost 200 corrections to its existing biographies of the popes, from St Peter to John Paul II". The corrections concerned dates in the first two centuries and the family name of one pope; the term pope is used in several Churches to denote their high spiritual leaders. This title in English usage refers to the head of the Catholic Church; the Catholic pope uses various titles by tradition, including Summus Pontifex, Pontifex Maximus, Servus servorum Dei.

Each title has been added by unique historical events and unlike other papal prerogatives, is not incapable of modification. Hermannus Contractus may have been the first historian to number the popes continuously, his list ends in 1049 with Pope Leo IX as number 154. Several changes were made to the list during the 20th century. Antipope Christopher was considered legitimate for a long time. Pope-elect Stephen was considered legitimate under the name Stephen II until the 1961 edition, when his name was erased. Although these changes are no longer controversial, a number of modern lists still include this "first Pope Stephen II", it is probable that this is because they are based on the 1913 edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia, in the public domain. A significant number of these popes have been recognized as saints, including 48 out of the first 50 consecutive popes, others are in the sainthood process. Of the first 31 popes, 28 died as martyrs. 51 popes and 6 antipopes have been members of religious orders, including 12 members of third orders.

They are listed by order as follows: A number of anomalies in the list given above need further explanation: Felix II, Boniface VII, John XVI, Benedict X and Alexander V are not listed because they are all considered antipopes. The numbering of popes named Felix has been amended to omit antipope Felix II. Additionally, there was an antipope Felix V. There has never been a pope John XX as a result of confusion of the numbering system in the 11th century. Pope-elect Stephen, who died before being consecrated, has not been on the Vatican's official list of popes since 1961, but appears on lists dating from before 1960; the following popes called Stephen are now numbered as Pope Stephen II to Pope Stephen IX, rather than Stephen III to Stephen X. When Simon de Brion became pope in 1281, he chose to be called Martin. At that time, Marinus I and Marinus II were mistakenly considered to be Martin II and Martin III and so, Simon de Brion became Pope Martin IV. Pope Donus II, said to have reigned about 974, never existed.

The belief resulted from the confusion of the title dominus with a proper name. Pope Joan never existed; the status of Antipope John XXIII was uncertain for hundreds of years, was settled in 1958 when Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli announced his own name as John XXIII. Baldassare Cossa, Antipope John XXIII, served as a Cardinal of the reunited church before his death in 1419 and his remains are found in the Florence Baptistery; those who adhere to Sedevacantism say that there have been no legitimate popes since Pius XII or John XXIII. This is; the Popes listed here can be visualized based on their birthplaces on the Pope Birthplace Map The Early Papacy: To the Synod of Chalcedon in 451, Adrian Fortescue, Ignatius Press, 2008. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes, John N. D. Kelly, Oxford University Press, 1986. Catholicism, Henri de Lubac, Ignatius Press, 1988. Rome and the Eastern Churches, Aidan Nichols, Ignatius Press, 2010. I Papi. Venti secoli di storia, Pontificia Amministrazione della Patriarcale Basilica di San Paolo, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2002.

Rome Sweet Home, Scott Hahn, Ignatius Press, 1993. Enciclopedia dei Papi, AA. VV. Istituto dell'Enciclopedia italiana, 2000. Catholic Online: The List of Popes Popes & Anti-Popes

Ponder, Texas

Ponder is a town in Denton County, United States. The population was 1,395 at the 2010 census; the community has the name of the local Ponder family. Local legend holds that Bonnie and Clyde either robbed the Ponder State Bank or attempted to rob it, only to discover it had gone broke the week before. However, this is not listed in the Barrow Gang's activities; the robbery in question may have been committed by the more successful Eddie Bentz. Ponder is located at 33°10′47″N 97°17′9″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 3.2 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 507 people, 191 households, 148 families residing in the town; the population density was 159.7 people per square mile. There were 205 housing units at an average density of 64.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 94.08% White, 0.99% African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.39% Asian, 2.37% from other races, 1.97% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.52% of the population.

There were 191 households out of which 35.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 70.2% were married couples living together, 6.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.0% were non-families. 18.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.03. In the town the population was spread out with 26.2% under the age of 18, 5.5% from 18 to 24, 35.9% from 25 to 44, 23.7% from 45 to 64, 8.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $54,107, the median income for a family was $61,250. Males had a median income of $47,750 versus $29,545 for females; the per capita income for the town was $23,922. About 1.4% of families and 0.9% of the population were below the poverty line, not including those under the age of 18 or 65 or over.

Ponder is served by the Ponder Independent School District and Little Lions Learning Center as well as Lil Einsteins Academy. Joe McQueen, jazz musician, born in Ponder

1976 United States presidential election in Illinois

The 1976 United States presidential election in Illinois was held on November 2, 1976. All 50 states and The District of Columbia, were part of the 1976 United States presidential election. State voters chose 26 electors to the Electoral College, who voted for vice president. In 1972 Illinois had, like the rest of the nation outside Massachusetts and the District of Columbia, voted for Richard Nixon who carried every county except college-dominated Jackson, although Democrat George McGovern ran 3% above his national vote percentage. In the following Democratic primaries, the divided party would give a plurality in Illinois to favorite son Adlai Stevenson III, with Georgia Governor Jimmy Carter second. By the second week of September polls were showing Carter ahead of incumbent President Gerald Ford by 14%, but running much weaker in the emerging “Rust Belt” industrial states – his lead in Illinois would be estimated at four percentage points. A few days another poll had Ford ahead in the “Land of Lincoln”, but another poll had the incumbent President narrowly behind.

Defeated Republican primary candidate and future President Ronald Reagan helped Ford in his fall campaign in Illinois, although Carter preceded him in visiting the state – doing so for the first time on September 24. Ford’s running mate Bob Dole followed Carter to the state and said that Carter had “3 positions on every issue” during a tour through Rock Island and Decatur. At this time it was thought that Ford was helped by the strong GOP gubernatorial campaign of James R. Thompson. At the beginning of October, Illinois was viewed as “too close to call”, before Carter paid a second visit to the state – with the support of Chicago Mayor Richard Daley viewed essential to his chances of carrying the state’s electoral votes due to the coolness of the northern and central parts of the state toward a Southern Evangelical Democrat. Carter would subsequently move ahead, but the state remained close as election day neared, with South Side black voters considered a critical aspect of Carter’s hopes.

Gerald Ford won Illinois with 50.10 percent of the vote, but lost the general election to Jimmy Carter of Georgia. Ford’s win was due to his large majorities in the traditionally Republican collar counties, chiefly DuPage, which he won by a margin ten thousand votes greater than his statewide total margin. Carter did well in Cook County and Dixie Southern Illinois, but his majorities there were much smaller than New Deal era Democrats had won; this is the last election where a Democrat won the White House without carrying Illinois, the most recent presidential election when Illinois would vote more Republican than the nation