In Christian churches with episcopal polity, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop of a metropolis. The term referred to the bishop of the chief city of a historical Roman province, whose authority in relation to the other bishops of the province was recognized by the First Council of Nicaea; the bishop of the provincial capital, the metropolitan, enjoyed certain rights over other bishops in the province called suffragan bishops. The term is applied in a similar sense to the bishop of the chief episcopal see of an ecclesiastical province; the head of such a metropolitan see has the rank of archbishop and is therefore called the metropolitan archbishop of the ecclesiastical province. Metropolitan bishops preside over synods of the bishops of their ecclesiastical province, are granted special privileges by canon law and tradition. In some churches, such as the Church of Greece, a metropolis is a rank granted to all episcopal sees, their bishops are all called the title of archbishop being reserved for the primate.
See also: Catholic Church hierarchy and Diocesan bishop In the Latin Church, an ecclesiastical province, composed of several neighbouring dioceses, is headed by a metropolitan, the archbishop of the diocese designated by the Pope. The other bishops are known as suffragan bishops; the metropolitan's powers over dioceses other than his own are limited to supervising observance of faith and ecclesiastical discipline and notifying the Supreme Pontiff of any abuses. The metropolitan has the liturgical privilege of celebrating sacred functions throughout the province, as if he were a bishop in his own diocese, provided only that, if he celebrates in a cathedral church, the diocesan bishop has been informed beforehand; the metropolitan is obliged to request the pallium, a symbol of the power that, in communion with the Church of Rome, he possesses over his ecclesiastical province. This holds if he had the pallium in another metropolitan see, it is the responsibility of the metropolitan, with the consent of the majority of the suffragan bishops, to call a provincial council, decide where to convene it, determine the agenda.
It is his prerogative to preside over the provincial council. No provincial council can be called. All Latin Rite metropolitans are archbishops. Titular archbishops are never metropolitans; as of April 2006, 508 archdioceses were headed by metropolitan archbishops, 27 archbishops lead an extant archdiocese, but were not metropolitans, there were 89 titular archbishops. See Catholic Church hierarchy for the distinctions. In those Eastern Catholic Churches that are headed by a patriarch, metropolitans in charge of ecclesiastical provinces hold a position similar to that of metropolitans in the Latin Church. Among the differences is that Eastern Catholic metropolitans within the territory of the patriarchate are to be ordained and enthroned by the patriarch, who may ordain and enthrone metropolitans of sees outside that territory that are part of his Church. A metropolitan has the right to ordain and enthrone the bishops of his province; the metropolitan is to be commemorated in the liturgies celebrated within his province.
A major archbishop is defined as the metropolitan of a certain see who heads an autonomous Eastern Church not of patriarchal rank. The canon law of such a Church differs only from that regarding a patriarchal Church. Within major archiepiscopal churches, there may be ecclesiastical provinces headed by metropolitan bishops. There are autonomous Eastern Catholic Churches consisting of a single province and headed by a metropolitan. Metropolitans of this kind are to obtain the pallium from the Pope as a sign of his metropolitan authority and of his Church's full communion with the Pope, only after his investment with it can he convoke the Council of Hierarchs and ordain the bishops of his autonomous Church. In his autonomous Church it is for him to ordain and enthrone bishops and his name is to be mentioned after that of the Pope in the liturgy. In the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the title of metropolitan is used variously, in terms of rank and jurisdiction. In terms of rank, in some Eastern Orthodox Churches metropolitans are ranked above archbishops in precedence, while in others that order is reversed.
Primates of autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches below patriarchal rank are designated as archbishops. In the Greek Orthodox Churches, archbishops are ranked above metropolitans in precedence; the reverse is true for some Slavic Orthodox Churches and for Romanian Orthodox Church, where metropolitans rank above archbishops and the title can be used for important regional or historical sees. In terms of jurisdiction, there are two basic types of metropolitans in Eastern Orthodox Church: real metropolitans, with actual jurisdiction over their ecclesiastical provinces, honorary metropolitans who
From the Italian unification and as Rome in 1871 became the capital of the new Kingdom of Italy, the Holy See lacked a territory, which it earlier had enjoyed since the early Middle Ages. This international-Catholic problem was solved through the 1929 Lateran Treaty; the Lateran Treaty was one of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 or Lateran Accords, agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See, settling the "Roman Question". They are named after the Lateran Palace, where they were signed on 11 February 1929; the Italian parliament ratified them on 7 June 1929. It recognized Vatican City as an independent state, with the Italian government, at the time led by Benito Mussolini as prime minister, agreeing to give the Roman Catholic Church financial compensation for the loss of the Papal States. In 1947, the Lateran Treaty was recognized in the Constitution of Italy as regulating the relations between the state and the Catholic Church; the Lateran Pacts are presented as three treaties: a 27-article treaty of conciliation, a three-article financial convention, a 45-article concordat.
However, the website of the Holy See presents the pacts as two, making the financial convention an annex of the treaty of conciliation. In this presentation, the pacts consisted of two documents, the first of which had four annexes: A political treaty recognising the full sovereignty of the Holy See in the State of Vatican City, thereby established, a document accompanied by the annexes: A plan of the territory of the Vatican City-State, with an area of 108.7 acres A list and plans of the buildings with extraterritorial privilege and exemption from expropriation and taxes A financial convention agreed on as a definitive settlement of the claims of the Holy See following the loss in 1870 of its territories and property. A concordat regulating relations between the Catholic Church and the Italian state During the unification of Italy in the mid-19th century, the Papal States resisted incorporation into the new nation as all the other Italian countries, except for San Marino, joined it; the nascent Kingdom of Italy invaded and occupied Romagna in 1860, leaving only Latium in the Pope's domains.
Latium, including Rome itself, was occupied and annexed in 1870. For the following sixty years, relations between the Papacy and the Italian government were hostile, the status of the Pope became known as the "Roman Question". Negotiations for the settlement of the Roman Question began in 1926 between the government of Italy and the Holy See, culminated in the agreements of the Lateran Pacts, signed—the Treaty says—for King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy by Benito Mussolini, Prime Minister and Head of Government, for Pope Pius XI by Pietro Gasparri, Cardinal Secretary of State, on 11 February 1929, it was ratified on 7 June 1929. The agreements were signed in hence the name by which they are known; the agreements included a political treaty which created the state of the Vatican City and guaranteed full and independent sovereignty to the Holy See. The Pope was pledged to perpetual neutrality in international relations and to abstention from mediation in a controversy unless requested by all parties.
In the first article of the treaty, Italy reaffirmed the principle established in the 4 March 1848 Statute of the Kingdom of Italy, that "the Catholic and Roman Religion is the only religion of the State". The attached financial agreement was accepted as settlement of all the claims of the Holy See against Italy arising from the loss of temporal power of the Papal States in 1870; the sum thereby given to the Holy See was less than Italy declared it would pay under the terms of the Law of Guarantees of 1871, by which the Italian government guaranteed to Pope Pius IX and his successors the use of, but not sovereignty over, the Vatican and Lateran Palaces and a yearly income of 3,250,000 lire as indemnity for the loss of sovereignty and territory. The Holy See, on the grounds of the need for manifested independence from any political power in its exercise of spiritual jurisdiction, had refused to accept the settlement offered in 1871, the Popes thereafter until the signing of the Lateran Treaty considered themselves prisoners in the Vatican, a small, limited area inside Rome.
To commemorate the successful conclusion of the negotiations, Mussolini commissioned the Via della Conciliazione, which would symbolically link the Vatican City to the heart of Rome. The Constitution of the Italian Republic, adopted in 1947, states that relations between the State and the Catholic Church "are regulated by the Lateran Treaties". In 1984, an agreement was signed. Among other things, both sides declared: "The principle of the Catholic religion as the sole religion of the Italian State referred to by the Lateran Pacts, shall be considered to be no longer in force"; the Church's position as the sole state-supported religion of Italy was ended, replacing the state financing with a personal income tax called the otto per mille, to which other religious groups and non-Christian have access. As of 2013, there are ten other religious groups with access; the revised concordat regulated the conditions under which civil effe
Pope Leo I
Pope Leo I known as Saint Leo the Great, was Pope from 29 September 440 and died in 461. Pope Benedict XVI said that Leo's papacy "...was undoubtedly one of the most important in the Church's history."He was a Roman aristocrat, was the first pope to have been called "the Great". He is best known for having met Attila the Hun in 452 and persuading him to turn back from his invasion of Italy, he is a Doctor of the Church, most remembered theologically for issuing the Tome of Leo, a document, a major foundation to the debates of the Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon. The Council of Chalcedon, the fourth ecumenical council, dealt with Christology, elucidated the orthodox definition of Christ's being as the hypostatic union of two natures and human, united in one person, "with neither confusion nor division", it was followed by a major schism associated with Monophysitism and Dyophysitism. According to the Liber Pontificalis, he was a native of Tuscany. By 431, as a deacon, he was sufficiently well known outside of Rome that John Cassian dedicated to him the treatise against Nestorius written at Leo's suggestion.
About this time Cyril of Alexandria appealed to Rome regarding a jurisdictional dispute with Juvenal of Jerusalem, but it is not clear whether the letter was intended for Leo, in his capacity of archdeacon, or for Pope Celestine I directly. Near the end of the reign of Pope Sixtus III, Leo was dispatched at the request of Emperor Valentinian III to settle a dispute between Aëtius, one of Gaul's chief military commanders, the chief magistrate Caecina Decius Aginatius Albinus. Johann Peter Kirsch sees this commission as a proof of the confidence placed in the able deacon by the Imperial Court. During his absence in Gaul, Pope Sixtus III died, on 29 September Leo was unanimously elected by the people to succeed him. Soon after assuming the papal throne Leo learned that in Aquileia, Pelagians were received into church communion without formal repudiation of their errors. Manichaeans fleeing the Vandals had secretly organized there, his attitude was as decided against the Priscillianists. Bishop Turibius of Astorga, astonished at the spread of the sect in Spain, had addressed the other Spanish bishops on the subject, sending a copy of his letter to Leo, who took the opportunity to write an extended treatise against the sect, examining its false teaching in detail and calling for a Spanish general council to investigate whether it had any adherents in the episcopate.
From a pastoral perspective he galvanized charitable works in a Rome beset by famines, an influx of refugees, poverty. He further associated the practice of fasting with charity and almsgiving on the occasion of the Quattro tempora. Leo drew many learned men about him and chose Prosper of Aquitaine to act in some secretarial or notarial capacity. Leo was a significant contributor to the centralisation of spiritual authority within the Church and in reaffirming papal authority; the bishop of Rome had become viewed as the chief patriarch in the Western church. On several occasions Leo was asked to arbitrate disputes in Gaul. Patroclus of Arles had received from Pope Zosimus the recognition of a subordinate primacy over the Gallican Church, asserted by his successor Hilary of Arles. An appeal from Chelidonius of Besançon gave Leo the opportunity to assert the pope's authority over Hilary, who defended himself stoutly at Rome, refusing to recognize Leo's judicial status. Feeling that the primatial rights of the bishop of Rome were threatened, Leo appealed to the civil power for support and obtained, from Valentinian III, a decree of 6 June 445, which recognized the primacy of the bishop of Rome based on the merits of Peter, the dignity of the city, the legislation of the First Council of Nicaea.
Faced with this decree, Hilary submitted to the pope, although under his successor, Leo divided the metropolitan rights between Arles and Vienne. In 445, Leo disputed with Patriarch Dioscorus, St Cyril's successor as Patriarch of Alexandria, insisting that the ecclesiastical practice of his see should follow that of Rome on the basis that Mark the Evangelist, the disciple of St Peter and the founder of the Alexandrian Church, could have had no other tradition than that of the prince of the apostles; the fact that the African province of Mauretania Caesariensis had been preserved to the empire and thus to the Nicene faith during the Vandal invasion and, in its isolation, was disposed to rest on outside support, gave Leo an opportunity to assert his authority there. In 446 he wrote to the Church in Mauretania in regard to a number of questions of discipline, stressing the point that laymen were not to be appointed to the episcopate. In a letter to the bishops of Campania and Tuscany he required the observance of all his precepts and those of his predecessors.
Because of the earlier line of division between the western and eastern parts of the Roman Empire, Illyria was ecclesiastically subject to Rome. Pope Innocent I had const
The Annuario Pontificio is the annual directory of the Holy See of the Catholic Church. It lists all officials of the Holy See's departments, it gives complete lists with contact information of the cardinals and Catholic bishops throughout the world, the dioceses, the departments of the Roman Curia, the Holy See's diplomatic missions abroad, the embassies accredited to the Holy See, the headquarters of religious institutes, certain academic institutions, other similar information. The index includes, along with all the names in the body of the book, those of all priests who have been granted the title of "Monsignor"; as the title suggests, the red-covered yearbook, compiled by the Central Statistics Office of the Church and published by Libreria Editrice Vaticana, is in Italian. The 2015 edition had more than 2,400 pages and cost €78. According to the Pontifical Yearbook of 2017, the number of Catholics in the world increased to 1,284,810,000 at the end of 2015. A yearbook of the Catholic Church was published, with some interruptions, from 1716 to 1859 by the Cracas printing firm in Rome, under the title Information for the Year...
From 1851, a department of the Holy See began producing a different publication called Hierarchy of the Holy Catholic Apostolic Church Worldwide and in Every Rite, with historical notes, which took the title Annuario Pontificio in 1860, but ceased publication in 1870. This was the first yearbook published by the Holy See itself, but its compilation was entrusted to the newspaper Giornale di Roma; the publishers "Fratelli Monaldi" began in 1872 to produce their own yearbook entitled The Catholic Hierarchy and the Papal Household for the Year... with an appendix of other information concerning the Holy See. The Vatican Press took this over in 1885, it bore the indication "official publication" from 1899 to 1904, but this ceased when, giving the word "official" a more restricted sense, the Acta Sanctae Sedis, forerunner of the Acta Apostolicae Sedis, was declared the only "official" publication of the Holy See. In 1912, it resumed the title Annuario Pontificio. From 1912 to 1924, it included not only lists of names, but brief illustrative notes on departments of the Roman Curia and on certain posts within the papal court, a practice to which it returned in 1940.
For some years, beginning in 1898, the Maison de la Bonne Presse publishing house of Paris produced a similar yearbook in French called Annuaire Pontifical Catholique, not compiled by the Holy See. This contained much additional information, such as detailed historical articles on the Swiss Guards and the Papal Palace at the Vatican. According to the Annuario Pontificio 2012 the statistical data given in the yearbook regarding archdioceses and dioceses are furnished by the diocesan curias concerned and reflect the diocesan situation on 31 December of the year prior to the date on the yearbook, unless there is another indication; the data recorded are shown in the following order next to these abbreviations: Su – area in square kilometers of the diocesan territory pp – population of the diocese ct – number of Catholics pr – parishes and quasi-parishes ch – churches or mission stations sd – secular priests resident in the diocese dn – diocesan priests ordained during the year sr – religious priests resident in the diocese rn – religious priests ordained during the year dp – permanent deacons sm – seminarians taking courses of philosophy and theology rm – members of men's religious institutes rf – members of women's religious institutes ie – educational institutes ib – charitable institutes ba – baptisms Catholic Church by country History of the papacy Vatican Publishing House Martyrologium Romanum Editio Typica Altera Secretary of State, Annuario Pontificio 2018.
Vatican City: Vatican Publishing House. ISBN 978-88-266-0127-4
Pope Callixtus I
Pope Callixtus I called Callistus I, was the Bishop of Rome from c. 218 to his death c. 222 or 223. He lived during the reigns of the Roman Emperors Elagabalus and Alexander Severus. Eusebius and the Liberian catalogue gave him five years of episcopate, he is venerated as a saint by the Catholic Church. His contemporaries and enemies and Hippolytus of Rome the author of Philosophumena, relate that Callixtus, as a young slave from Rome, was put in charge of collected funds by his master Carpophorus, funds which were given as alms by other Christians for the care of widows and orphans. According to the tale, Callixtus jumped overboard to avoid capture but was rescued and taken back to his master, he was released at the request of the creditors, who hoped he might be able to recover some of the money, but was rearrested for fighting in a synagogue when he tried to borrow money or collect debts from some Jews. Philosophumena claims that, denounced as a Christian, Callixtus was sentenced to work in the mines of Sardinia.
He was released with other Christians at the request of Hyacinthus, a eunuch presbyter, who represented Marcia, the favourite mistress of Emperor Commodus. At this time his health was so weakened that his fellow Christians sent him to Antium to recuperate and he was given a pension by Pope Victor I. In 199, Callixtus was ordained a deacon by Pope Zephyrinus and appointed superintendent of the Christian cemetery on the Appian Way; that place, to this day called the Catacombs of St. Callixtus, became the burial-ground of many popes and was the first land property owned by the Church. Emperor Julian the Apostate, writing to a pagan priest, said: Christians have gained most popularity because of their charity to strangers and because of their care for the burial of their dead. In the third century, nine Bishops of Rome were interred in the Catacomb of Callixtus, in the part now called the Capella dei Papi; these catacombs were rediscovered by the archaeologist Giovanni Battista de Rossi in 1849.
In 217, when Callixtus followed Zephyrinus as Bishop of Rome, he started to admit into the church converts from sects or schisms who had not done penance. He fought with success the heretics, established the practice of absolution of all sins, including adultery and murder. Hippolytus found Callixtus's policy of extending forgiveness of sins to cover sexual transgressions shockingly lax and denounced him for allowing believers to regularize liaisons with their own slaves by recognizing them as valid marriages; as a consequence of doctrinal differences, Hippolytus was elected as a rival bishop of Rome, the first antipope. The Basilica di Santa Maria in Trastevere was a titulus. In an apocryphal anecdote in the collection of imperial biographies called the Augustan History, the spot on which he had built an oratory was claimed by tavern keepers, but Alexander Severus decided that the worship of any god was better than a tavern, hence the structure's name; the 4th-century basilica of Ss Callixti et Iuliani was rebuilt in the 12th century by Pope Innocent II and rededicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary.
The 8th-century Chiesa di San Callisto is close by, with its beginnings as a shrine on the site of his martyrdom, attested in the 4th-century Depositio martyrum and so is to be historical. It is possible that Callixtus was martyred around 222 or 223 during a popular uprising, but the legend that he was thrown down a well has no historical foundation, though the church does contain an ancient well. According to the apocryphal Acts of Saint Callixtus, Asterius, a priest of Rome, recovered the body of Callixtus after it had been tossed into a well and buried Callixtus' body at night. Asterius was arrested for this action by the prefect Alexander and killed by being thrown off a bridge into the Tiber River, he was buried in the cemetery of Calepodius on the Aurelian Way and his anniversary is given by the 4th-century Depositio Martirum and by subsequent martyrologies on 14 October. The Catholic Church celebrates his optional memorial on 14 October, his relics were transferred in the 9th century to Santa Maria in Trastevere.
List of Catholic saints List of popes St. Calixtus, or Callistus, Martyr St. Callistus I Callistus I. in the Ecumenical Lexicon of Saints Collected works of Migne Patrologia Latina Callistus I. in the Ecumenical Lexicon of Saints Collected works by Migne Patrologia Latina
In Christianity, an archbishop is a bishop of higher rank or office. In some cases, such as the Lutheran Church of Sweden and the Church of England, the title is borne by the leader of the denomination. Like popes, metropolitans, cardinal bishops, diocesan bishops, suffragan bishops, archbishops are in the highest of the three traditional orders of bishops and deacons. An archbishop may be granted the title or ordained as chief pastor of a metropolitan see or another episcopal see to which the title of archbishop is attached. Episcopal sees are arranged in groups in which one see's bishop has certain powers and duties of oversight over the others, he is known as the metropolitan archbishop of. In the Catholic Church, canon 436 of the Code of Canon Law indicates what these powers and duties are for a Latin Church metropolitan archbishop, while those of the head of an autonomous Eastern Catholic Churches are indicated in canon 157 of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches; as well as the much more numerous metropolitan sees, there are 77 Roman Catholic sees that have archiepiscopal rank.
In some cases, such a see is the only one in a country, such as Luxembourg or Monaco, too small to be divided into several dioceses so as to form an ecclesiastical province. In others, the title of archdiocese is for historical reasons attributed to a see, once of greater importance; some of these archdioceses are suffragans of a metropolitan archdiocese. Others are subject to the Holy See and not to any metropolitan archdiocese; these are "aggregated" to an ecclesiastical province. An example is the Archdiocese of Hobart in Australia, associated with the Metropolitan ecclesiastical province of Melbourne, but not part of it; the ordinary of such an archdiocese is an archbishop. Until 1970, a coadjutor archbishop, one who has special faculties and the right to succeed to the leadership of a see on the death or resignation of the incumbent, was assigned to a titular see, which he held until the moment of succession. Since the title of Coadjutor Archbishop of the see is considered sufficient and more appropriate.
The rank of archbishop is conferred on some bishops. They hold the rank not because of the see that they head but because it has been granted to them personally; such a grant can be given when someone who holds the rank of archbishop is transferred to a see that, though its present-day importance may be greater than the person's former see, is not archiepiscopal. The bishop transferred is known as the Archbishop-Bishop of his new see. An example is Gianfranco Gardin, appointed Archbishop-Bishop of Treviso on 21 December 2009; the title borne by the successor of such an archbishop-bishop is that of Bishop of the see, unless he is granted the personal title of Archbishop. The distinction between metropolitan sees and non-metropolitan archiepiscopal sees exists for titular sees as well as for residential ones; the Annuario Pontificio marks titular sees of the former class with the abbreviation Metr. and the others with Arciv. Many of the titular sees to which nuncios and heads of departments of the Roman Curia who are not cardinals are assigned are not of archiepiscopal rank.
In that case the person, appointed to such a position is given the personal title of archbishop. They are referred to as Archbishop of the see, not as its Archbishop-Bishop. If an archbishop resigns his see without being transferred to another, as in the case of retirement or assignment to head a department of the Roman Curia, the word emeritus is added to his former title, he is called Archbishop Emeritus of his former see; until 1970, such archbishops were transferred to a titular see. There can be several Archbishops Emeriti of the same see: The 2008 Annuario Pontificio listed three living Archbishops Emeriti of Taipei. There is no Archbishop Emeritus of a titular see: An archbishop who holds a titular see keeps it until death or until transferred to another see. In the Anglican Communion, retired archbishops formally revert to being addressed as "bishop" and styled "The Right Reverend", although they may be appointed "archbishop emeritus" by their province on retirement, in which case they retain the title "archbishop" and the style "The Most Reverend", as a right.
Archbishop Desmond Tutu is a prominent example, as Archbishop Emeritus of Cape Town. Former archbishops who have not received the status of archbishop emeritus may still be informally addressed as "archbishop" as a courtesy, unless they are subsequently appointed to a bishopric, in which case, the courtesy ceases. While there is no difference between the official dress of archbishops, as such, that of other bishops, Roman Catholic metropolitan archbishops are distinguished by the use in liturgical ceremonies of the pallium, but only within the province over which they have oversight. Roman Catholic bishops and archbishops are styled "The Most Reverend" and addressed as "Your Excellency" in most cases. In English-speaking countries, a Catholic archbishop is addressed as "Your Grace", while a Catholic bishop is addressed as "Your Lordship". Before December 12, 1930, the title "Most Reverend" was only for archbishops, while bishops were styled as "Right Reverend"; this practice is still followed by Catholic bishops in the United Kingdom to mirror that of
Pope Victor I
Pope Victor I was Bishop of Rome and hence a pope, in the late second century. He was of Berber origin; the dates of his tenure are uncertain, but one source states he became pope in 189 and gives the year of his death as 199. He was the first bishop of Rome born in the Roman Province of Africa—probably in Leptis Magna, he was considered a saint. His feast day was celebrated on 28 July as "St Victor I, Pope and Martyr"; the primary sources vary over the dates assigned to Victor’s episcopate, but indicate it included the last decade of the second century. Eusebius puts his accession in the tenth year of Commodus, accepted by Lipsius as the correct date. Jerome’s version of the Chronicle puts his accession in the reign of Pertinax, or the first year of Septimius Severus, while the Armenian version puts it in the seventh year of Commodus; the Liber Pontificalis dates his accession to the consulate of Commodus and Glabrio, while the Liberian Catalogue, a surviving copy of the source the Liber Pontificalis drew upon for its chronology, is damaged at this point Concerning the duration of his episcopate, Eusebius, in his History, does not state directly the duration of his episcopate, but the Armenian version of Eusebius' Chronicle gives it as twelve years.
The Liberian Catalogue gives his episcopate a length of nine years two months and ten days, while the Liber Pontificalis states it was ten years and the same number of months and days. Eusebius in his History states Zephyrinus succeeded him "about the ninth year of Severus", while the Liber Pontificalis dates it to the consulate of Laternus and Rufinus. Lipsius, considering Victor in connection with his successors, concludes that he held office between nine and ten years, therefore gives as his dates 189–198 or 199. According to an anonymous writer quoted by Eusebius, Victor excommunicated Theodotus of Byzantium for teaching that Christ was a mere man. However, he is best known for his role in the Quartodeciman controversy. Prior to his elevation, a difference in dating the celebration of the Christian Passover/Easter between Rome and the bishops of Asia Minor had been tolerated by both the Roman and Eastern churches; the churches in Asia Minor celebrated it on the 14th of the Jewish month of Nisan, the day before Jewish Passover, regardless of what day of the week it fell on, as the Crucifixion had occurred on the Friday before Passover, justifying this as the custom they had learned from the apostles.
Synods were held on the subject in various parts—in Judea under Theophilus of Caesarea and Narcissus of Jerusalem, in Pontus under Palmas, in Gaul under Irenaeus, in Corinth under its bishop, Bachillus, at Osrhoene in Mesopotamia, elsewhere—all of which disapproved of this practice and issued by synodical letters declaring that "on the Lord's Day only the mystery of the resurrection of the Lord from the dead was accomplished, that on that day only we keep the close of the paschal fast". Despite this disapproval, the general feeling was that this divergent tradition was not sufficient grounds for excommunication. Victor alone was intolerant of this difference, severed ties with these ancient churches, whose bishops included such luminaries as Polycrates of Ephesus. List of Catholic saints List of popes Josef Rist. "VICTOR I.". In Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. 12. Herzberg: Bautz. Cols. 1334–1337. ISBN 3-88309-068-9. Pope St. Victor I Handl A.. Viktor I. von Rom und die Etablierung des “monarchischen” Episkopats in Rom.
Sacris Erudiri: a Journal on the Inheritance of Early and Medieval Christianity, 55, 7-56. "Pope St. Victor I". Catholic Encyclopedia. 1913. San Vittore I Papa e martire - 28 luglio Victor I. in the Ecumenical Lexicon of Saints Collected works of Migne Patrologia Latina Victor I. in the Ecumenical Lexicon of Saints Complete works by Migne Patrologia Latina