The Premier of British Columbia is the first minister for the Canadian province of British Columbia. The province was a British crown colony governed by the Governors of British Columbia before joining Canadian Confederation in 1871. Since it has had a unicameral Westminster-style parliamentary government, in which the premier is the leader of the party that controls the most seats in the legislative assembly; the premier is British Columbia's head of government, the Queen of Canada is its head of state and is represented by the Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia. The premier picks a cabinet from the elected members to form the Executive Council of British Columbia and presides over that body. Members are first elected to the legislature during general elections. General elections must be conducted every four years from the date of the last election. An election may take place if the governing party loses the confidence of the legislature by the defeat of a supply bill or tabling of a no-confidence motion.
Before 1903, British Columbia did not use a party system. Candidates ran as "Government", "Opposition", "Independent", or in formulations such as "Opposition independent", indicating their respective positions to the incumbent regime. British Columbia has had 35 individuals serve as premier since joining Confederation, of which 14 individuals had no party affiliation, three were Conservatives, eight were Liberals, four were Socreds, six were New Democrats; the first premier was John Foster McCreight, inaugurated in 1871. Joseph Martin spent the shortest time in office, at 106 days. At over twenty years, W. A. C. Bennett spent the longest time in office, is the only premier to serve in more than four parliaments; the incumbent premier is John Horgan, sworn in on July 18, 2017. No party affiliation British Columbia Conservative Party British Columbia Liberal Party British Columbia Social Credit Party British Columbia New Democratic Party As of February 2020, eight former premiers are alive, the oldest being Bill Vander Zalm.
The most recent former premier to die was Dave Barrett, on February 2, 2018. List of Leaders of the Opposition in British Columbia List of British Columbia premiers by time in office
Burchell's zebra is a southern subspecies of the plains zebra. It is named after naturalist William John Burchell. Common names include the bontequagga, Damaraland zebra, Zululand zebra. Burchell's zebra is the only subspecies of zebra which may be farmed for human consumption. Like most plains zebras and males are the same size, standing 1.1 to 1.4 meters at the shoulder. They weigh between 485 to 550 pounds. Year-round reproduction observed in this subspecies in Etosha National Park, concludes synchronization of a time budget between males and females explaining the lack of sexual dimorphism. Damara zebras are described as being striped on the head, the neck, the flanks, sparsely down the upper segments of the limbs fading to white. One or two shadow stripes rest between the broad stripes on the haunch; this main, distinguishing characteristic sets the Zuzuland Zebra apart from the other subspecies. Gray, observed a distinct dorsal line, the tail only bristly at the end, the body distinctly white.
The dorsal line is narrow and becomes broader in the hinder part, distinctly margined with white on each side. Like most plains zebras, Burchells live in small family groups; these can be either harem or bachelor groups, with harem groups consisting of one stallion and one to six mares and their most recent foals, bachelor groups containing two to eight unattached stallions. The males in bachelor herds are the younger or older stallions of the population, as they are most not experienced enough or strong enough to defend breeding rights to a group of females from challengers; these small groups congregate together in larger herds around water and food sources, but still maintain their identity as family units while in the population gatherings. The Burchell's zebra range was centered north of the Vaal/Orange river system, extending northwest via southern Botswana to Etosha and the Kaokoveld, southeast to Swaziland and KwaZulu-Natal. Now extinct in the middle portion, it survives at the northwestern and southeastern ends of the distribution.
Burchell's zebra migrates the longest distance of any terrestrial animal in Africa, traveling 160 miles one way. They migrate from the Chobe River in Namibia to Nxai Pan National Park in Botswana, their migration follows a straight north–south route entirely within the Kavango–Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area. Like other plains zebras, Burchell's zebras must have populated the African plains in impressive numbers. Associations of thousands have been reported; the wild herds were thought to have disappeared by 1910, the last known captive individual died in the Berlin Zoo in 1918. As European settlement spread northward from the Cape to colonial southern Rhodesia, this subspecies was thought to have been hunted to extinction; however and Bell concluded in their 2004 publication that "the extinct true Burchell's zebra" is a phantom. Careful study of the original zebra populations in Zululand and Swaziland, of skins harvested on game farms in Zululand and Natal, has revealed that a certain small proportion shows similarity to what now is regarded as typical burchellii.
The type localities of the two subspecies Equus quagga burchellii and Equus quagga antiquorum are so close to each other that they suggest that the two are in fact one, therefore the older of the two names should take precedence over the younger. They therefore say that the correct name for the southernmost subspecies must be burchellii, not antiquorum; the subspecies Equus quagga burchellii still exists in Etosha. Equus quagga burchellii can be found in a number of zoos in the United States including the following: the Cincinnati Zoo, Columbus Zoo, Naples Zoo, Nashville Zoo, Woodland Park Zoo, etc. Duncan, P.. 1992. Zebras and Horses: An Action Plan for the Conservation of Wild Equids. IUCN/SSC Equid Specialist Group. IUCN, Switzerland. Maas, P. 2005. "Burchell's Zebra – Equus quagga burchellii". The Extinction Website. Downloaded on 21 January 2006. Moehlman, P. D. 2002. Equids. Zebras and Horses. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Equid Specialist Group. IUCN, Switzerland Data related to Equus quagga burchellii at Wikispecies
Francis Gerald "Frank" Crapper was an Australian rules footballer who played with North Melbourne in the Victorian Football League. Crapper was a prolific full-forward for Eaglehawk in the Bendigo Football League, who had two stints at North Melbourne. Two brothers and Harry, played at Richmond and Melbourne respectively, he had come to the attention of North Melbourne scouts in 1930 when he became the first player in history to kick over 100 goals in a BFL season. Crapper was signed by North Melbourne but would only play three games for them in 1931 before returning to Eaglehawk. Crapper beat his own BFL record in 1932 when he kicked 129 goals, he bettered that effort in 1933 with 154 goals in the home and away 163 after finals. Both those tallies remain a league record; the forward kicked 10 goals from his six appearances. He kicked a big haul for his VFL club in the sixth round of the 1936 season, with nine goals against St Kilda, his eventual season tall of 29 goals was second only to Dudley Cassidy at North Melbourne.
Over the next three years he managed only five more games but did put in another memorable performance, kicking eight goals against Footscray on his 26th birthday. Despite his efforts he still finished on the losing team, as he had after his nine-goal haul from the previous season. Crapper served in the second World War