Guadeloupe is an insular region of France located in the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean. Administratively, it is an overseas region consisting of a single overseas department. With a land area of 1,628 square kilometres and an estimated population of 400,132 as of January 2015, it is the largest and most populous European Union territory in North America. Guadeloupe's main islands are Basse-Terre, Grande-Terre, Marie-Galante, La Désirade, the Îles des Saintes. Guadeloupe, like the other overseas departments, is an integral part of France; as a constituent territory of the European Union and the Eurozone, the euro is its official currency and any European Union citizen is free to settle and work there indefinitely. As an overseas department, however, it is not part of the Schengen Area; the official language is French, but Antillean Creole is spoken by the entire population except recent arrivals from metropolitan France. The island is called "Gwadada" by the locals.
The island was called "Karukera" by the Arawak people, who settled on there in the year 300. Christopher Columbus named the island Santa María de Guadalupe in 1493 after the Virgin Mary, venerated in the Spanish town of Guadalupe. Upon becoming a French colony, the Spanish name was retained though altered to French orthography and phonology. Archaeological evidence indicates that between 800 and 1000 AD drought led to a period with no habitation. Gradual resettlement occurred after 1000 AD. Christopher Columbus landed on the island in 1493. During the 17th century, the Caribs repelled Spanish settlers; the French Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique delegated Charles Liènard de l'Olive and Jean du Plessis d'Ossonville to colonize one or any of the region's islands, Martinique, or Dominica. They settled in Guadeloupe in 1635, took possession of the island, wiped out many of the natives crushing them in 1641. Tobacco cultivation in the early 1600s was sustained by European laborers. In 1654 80% of the population of Guadeloupe was of European origin.
In the 1600s African slaves were brought in, by 1671 13%. Of the population was of European origin. Guadeloupe produced more sugar than all the British islands combined, worth about £6 million a year; the British captured Guadeloupe in 1759. Britain had seized Canada in the war, debate took place in both Britain and France as to, more valuable, Canada or Guadeloupe. Britain decided Canada, although expensive to maintain, was of greater strategic value and returned Guadeloupe to France in the Treaty of Paris. In 1790, following the French Revolution, monarchists refused to obey the new laws of equal rights for the free people of color and declared independence in 1791. In 1793, a slave rebellion broke out, which made the upper classes turn to the British and ask them to occupy the island. Britain seized Guadeloupe in April 1794. In December 1794, republican governor Victor Hugues used military force, helped by the slave population, to force the British to surrender. Hugues ended slavery, but in 1802, Napoleon I of France restored it, sending a force to recapture the island.
In 1810 the British again seized the island. In the Treaty of Paris of 1814, Sweden ceded Guadeloupe to France, giving rise to the Guadeloupe Fund; the Treaty of Vienna definitively acknowledged French control of Guadeloupe. In 1848, slavery was abolished. Slaves were replaced by indentured servants imported from India to work in the sugar fields. An earthquake in 1843 caused the La Soufrière volcano to erupt. Guadeloupe lost 12,000 of its 150,000 residents in the cholera epidemic of 1865–66. In 1925, after the trial of Henry Sidambarom French nationality and the vote was granted to Indian citizens. In 1946, the colony of Guadeloupe became an overseas department of France. In 2007 the island communes of Saint-Martin and Saint-Barthélemy were detached from Guadeloupe and became two separate French overseas collectivities with their own local administration. In January 2009, labour unions and others known as the Liyannaj Kont Pwofitasyon went on strike for more pay; the strike lasted 44 days. Tourism suffered during this time and affected the 2010 tourist season as well.
The 2009 French Caribbean general strikes exposed deep ethnic and class tensions and disparities within Guadeloupe. Guadeloupe is an archipelago of more than 12 islands, as well as islets and rocks situated where the northeastern Caribbean Sea meets the western Atlantic Ocean, it is in the Leeward Islands, in the northern part of the Lesser Antilles, an island arc a volcanic arc. Most of the inhabitants live on a pair of islands, Basse-Terre Island and Grande-Terre, which form a butterfly shape, viewed from above, the two wings of which are separated by a narrow sea channel, the Salée River. More than half of Guadeloupe's land surface is on Basse-Terre. Western Basse-Terre has a rough volcanic relief while eastern Grande-Terre features rolling hills and flat plains. La Grande Soufrière is the highest mountain peak in the Lesser Antilles, with an elevation of 1,467 metres; the adjacent islands of La Désirade, Les Saintes, Marie-Galante are under jurisdiction of Guadeloupe. The Lesser Antilles are at the outer edge of the Caribbean Plate.
Many of the islands were formed as a result of the subduction of oceanic crust of the Atlantic Plate under the Caribbean Plate in the Lesser Antilles subduction zone. This process is responsible for volcanic and earthquake activity in the region. Guadeloupe was formed from multiple volcanoes. There is an act
Calvados is a department in the Normandy region in northwestern France. It takes its name from a cluster of rocks off the English Channel coast. Calvados is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, it was created from a part of the former province of Normandy. The name "Orne inférieure" was proposed for the department, but it was decided to call the area Calvados after a group of rocks off its coast. One popular legend ascribes its etymology to the Salvador, a ship from the Spanish Armada that sank by the rocks near Arromanches-les-bains in 1588, it is more however, that the name Calvados was derived from calva dorsa, meaning bare backs, in reference to two sparsely vegetated rocks off its shore. After the allied victory at Waterloo the department was occupied by Prussian troops between June 1815 and November 1818. On 6 June 1944, the Allied forces landed on the beaches of the Bay of the Seine in what became known as the Battle of Normandy. Calvados belongs to the region of Normandy and is surrounded by the departments of Seine-Maritime, Eure and Manche.
To the north is the Baie de la Seine, part of the English Channel. On the east, the Seine River forms the boundary with Seine-Maritime. Calvados includes the Bessin area, the Pays d'Auge and the area known as the "Suisse normande"; the most notable places in Calvados include Deauville and the elegant 19th-century casino resorts of the coast. Agriculture dominates the economy of Calvados; the area is known for producing butter, cheese and Calvados, the apple spirit that takes its name from the area. The President of the General Council is the centrist Jean-Léonce Dupont, the former dominant figure of the right and centre in the department; the Conseil General of Calvados and Devon County Council signed a Twinning Charter in 1971 to develop links with the English county of Devon. The inhabitants of Calvados are called "Calvadosiens" and "Calvadosiennes". In 1999, Calvados had 648,299 inhabitants. Age distribution in Calvados: 75 years and older: 7.2% 60–74 years old: 13.16% 40–59 years old: 25.52% 20–39 years old: 28.53% 0–19 years old: 25.6% The Bayeux Tapestry is on display in Bayeux and makes the city one of the most-visited tourist destinations in Normandy.
Juno Beach Centre at Courseulles-sur-Mer, commemorates the D-Day landing of the Canadian liberation forces at Juno Beach during World War II in 1944. The cult of Saint Thérèse de Lisieux brings large numbers of people on pilgrimage to Lisieux, where she lived in a Carmelite convent; every September, Deauville hosts the Festival of the American Movie and the beach resort of Cabourg hosts the Festival of the Romantic Movie. Annually, the city of Caen celebrates the festival of the electronical cultures called "Nordik Impakt" & The festival of Beauregard, just around Caen; the local dialect of the Norman language is known as Augeron. It is spoken by a minority of the population. Calvados is one of the most visited areas in France because of its seaside resorts which are among the most prestigious in France with their luxurious hotels, green countryside, castles, the quiet, the chalk cliffs, the typical Norman houses, the history of William the Conqueror, Bayeux, the famous D-day beaches and numerous museums about the Second World War.
The culinary specialties from the verdant countryside of Calvados are abundant: cider, calvados and Pont-l'Évêque cheeses. One of the advantage of Calvados is to be near large urban centers. Calvados is therefore preferred for holidays and for weekends and sometimes considered as the countryside of Paris. Calvados, via the port of Ouistreham, is an entrance to the continent from Britain. There are two airports: Deauville-Saint Gatien; the department of Calvados has several popular tourist areas: the Bessin, the Plain of Caen, the Bocage Virois, the Côte de Nacre, the Côte Fleurie and the Pays d'Auge. Several beaches of Calvados are popular for water sports, including Cabourg and Merville-Franceville-Plage. Tourist capacity: 7,818 hotel rooms 13,734 camping sites 1,176 beds 619 rural gites This ranking takes into account all the municipalities having over 10% of second homes in the departement of Calvados. 80% of owners are from the Paris area, 10% are English and 10% are local. According to the general census of the population of 1 January 2006, 18.9% of housing available in the department were second homes.
Aquatic sports are played on the coasts and beaches, for example, kite surfing and beach volleyball. Stade Malherbe Caen is a professional football team from Caen, who play in Ligue 1. Arrondissements of the Calvados department Cantons of the Calvados department Communes of the Calvados department Calvados Stratégie – Calvados Development Agency Economic news from Calvados General Council website Prefecture website Calvados at Curlie Encyclopædia Britannica's guide to D-Day
French Communist Party
The French Communist Party is a communist party in France. Although its electoral support has declined in recent decades, the PCF retains a strong influence in French politics at the local level. In 2012, the PCF claimed 138,000 members including 70,000; this would make it the third largest party in France in terms of membership after the Republicans and the Socialist Party. Founded in 1920 by the majority faction of the socialist French Section of the Workers' International, it participated in three governments: in the provisional government of the Liberation, it was the largest party on the left in France in a number of national elections, from 1945 to 1960, before falling behind the Socialist Party in the 1970s. The PCF has lost further ground to the Socialists since that time. Since 2009 the PCF has been a leading member of the Left Front, alongside Jean-Luc Mélenchon's Left Party. During the 2017 presidential election, the PCF supported Mélenchon's candidature; the PCF is a member of the Party of the European Left, its MEPs sit in the European United Left–Nordic Green Left group.
The French Communist Party originated in 1920, when a majority of members resigned from the socialist French Section of the Workers' International party to set up the French Section of the Communist International, with Ludovic-Oscar Frossard as its first secretary-general. The new SFIC defined itself as democratic centralist; the 1920s saw a number of splits within the party over relations with other left-wing parties and over adherence to Comintern's dictates. The party entered the French parliament, but promoted strike action and opposed colonialism. Pierre Sémard, leader from 1924 to 1928, sought alliances with other parties. With the rise of Fascism after 1934 the PCF supported the Popular Front, which came to power under Léon Blum in 1936; the party supported the Spanish Republicans, opposed the 1938 Munich agreement with Hitler. The party was banned by the government of Édouard Daladier as a result of the German–Soviet Non-aggression Pact, due to its membership in the Comintern, which opposed the War.
The leadership, threatened with execution, fled abroad. After the German invasion of 1940 the party began to organise opposition to the occupation. Shortly before Germany invaded the Soviet Union the next year, the PCF formed, in May 1941, the National Front movement within the broader Resistance, together with the armed Francs-Tireurs et Partisans group. At the same time the PCF began to work with de Gaulle's "Free France" government in exile, took part in the National Council of the Resistance. By the time the German occupation ended in 1944, the party had become a powerful force in many parts of France, it was among the leading parties in elections in 1945 and 1946, entered into the governing Tripartite alliance, which pursued social reforms and statism. However, amid concerns within France and abroad over the extent of communist influence, the PCF was excluded from government in May 1947. Under pressure from Moscow, the PCF thereafter distanced itself from other parties and focused on agitation within its trade union base.
For the rest of the Fourth Republic period the PCF, led by Thorez and Jacques Duclos, remained politically isolated, still taking a Stalinist line, though retaining substantial electoral support. Although the PCF opposed de Gaulle's formation of the Fifth Republic in 1958, the following years saw a rapprochement with other left-wing forces and an increased strength in parliament. With Waldeck Rochet as its new secretary-general, the party supported François Mitterrand's unsuccessful presidential bid in 1965. During the student riots and strikes of May 1968, the party supported the strikes while denouncing the revolutionary student movements. After heavy losses in the ensuing parliamentary elections, the party adopted Georges Marchais as leader and in 1973 entered into a "Common Programme" alliance with Mitterrand's reconstituted Socialist Party. Under the Common Programme, the PCF lost ground to the PS, a process that continued after Mitterrand's victory in 1981. Allotted a minor share in Mitterrand's government, the PCF resigned in 1984 as the government turned towards fiscal orthodoxy.
Under Marchais the party maintained its traditional communist doctrines and structure. Extensive reform was undertaken after 1994; this did little to stem the party's declining popularity, although it entered government again in 1997 as part of the Plural Left coalition. Elections in 2002 gave worse results than for the PCF. Under Marie-George Buffet, the PCF turned away from parliamentary strategy and sought broader social alliances. To maintain a presence in parliament after 2007 the party's few remaining deputies had to join others in the Democratic and Republican Left group. Subsequently a broader electoral coalition, the Left Front, was formed including the PCF, the Left Party, United Left, others; the FG has brought the French communists somewh
Ain is a department named after the Ain River on the eastern edge of France. It bordered by the rivers Saône and Rhône. Ain is composed of four geographically different areas which – each with its own characteristics – contribute to the diversity and the dynamic economic development of the department. In the Bresse agriculture and agro-industry are dominated by the cultivation of cereals, cattle breeding and cheese production as well as poultry farming. In the Dombes, pisciculture assumes greater importance. Due to the alphabetical numbering of French departments, Ain is assigned the number "01" as its department number; the first inhabitants settled in the territory of today's Ain about 15000 BC. The Menhir of Pierrefiche in Simandre-sur-Suran dates from the mid-Neolithic era, in the fourth or third millennium BC; the late-second century BC Calendar of Coligny bears the longest surviving Gaulish inscription. In the year 58 BC Julius Caesar's military action against the Helvetians advancing through Gaul on the territory of today's Ain marked the beginning of the Gallic Wars.
Under the Merovingians, the four historic regions of the modern département belonged to the Kingdom of Burgundy. In the beginning of the 6th century AD the diocese of Belley was created, the first bishropric in the region. Abbeys of the order of Saint Benedict were established in the valleys. In 843 the Treaty of Verdun assigned the territories that comprise the Ain to the kingdom of Lothar I; the first big fiefdoms emerge between 895 and 900 in Bâgé-le-Châtel, which formed the nucleus of the pays of Bresse, in Coligny. Numerous castles were erected in a low rolling terrain, not otherwise defended. In the 12th century the Romanesque architecture prospered. In the 11th century the Counts of Savoy and Valromey settled in the region of Belley. In 1272, when Sibylle de Bâgé, sole heir, married Amadeus V, Count of Savoy, they added the Bresse to their domains, – by the Treaties of Paris in 1355 – the territories of Dauphiné and Gex on the right bank of the Rhône. In the beginning of the 15th century the whole region of Ain is united under the house of Savoy.
New monasteries are founded in the cities, churches are constructed or reshaped according to the Gothic style of architecture. In the beginning of the 16th century – the Duchy of Savoy was at the peak of its power – Ain was inherited by Margaret of Habsburg, the widow of Philibert II, Duke of Savoy. In Brou she erected a monastery in late-Gothic style. Bourg-en-Bresse became. After Margaret's death Francis I of France, a nephew of the Dukes of Savoy, claimed the Duchy for himself and conquered it in 1536; the Treaty of Lyon of 17 January 1601 ends the conflict. Ain now belonged to Burgundy. In the 17th century sculpture and literature prosper. During the 18th century streets and small industries emerge. On 28 March 1762 the Count of Eu, son of the Duke of Maine, cedes the region of Dombes to Louis XV. In 1790, during the French Revolution, the departments of Ain and Léman are created. Ain is subdivided into 49 cantons and 501 communes; the Revolution does not claim many victims in the department, but it destroys numerous valuable historical monuments.
During the first French Consulate the districts are abolished. The Congress of Vienna dissolves the department of Léman and assigns the arrondissement Gex to the department of Ain. During the French Revolution and the First Empire a large number of churches were destroyed, but in 1823 the diocese of Belley is refounded; the Curé of Ars becomes famous. During the Second Empire numerous churches are reconstructed, agriculture changes profoundly, the railway expands. Due to its distance from the frontline the department is spared the destruction of World War I. However, the majority of the vineyards can no longer disappear. Industrialization of the department starts in Bellegarde. Construction of the Barrage de Génissiat starts in 1937. World War II vehemently strikes the department of Ain and takes its toll: 600 people are deported, half of them do not return; the monument of the Maquis in Cerdon, the memorial of the children of Izieu and the museum of the resistance and deportation in Nantua commemorate this tragic era.
In the second half of the 20th century the industrialization of the department proceeds, favored by a narrow street and railway network. Ain is a department of geographic contrasts: In the north the plain of Bresse is bordered by the river Saône and rises towards the north-east. In the south-east the territory of the Dombes has more than a thousand lakes. In the east the mountain chain of the southern Jura overlooks the plain of Bresse; the busy transport axes to Italy and Switzerland crisscross the valleys. The Gex region is separated from the rest of the department by the last eastern mountain chain of the Jura where the highest elevation in the department, the Crêt de la Neige, can be found. Gex belongs geographically to the Lake Geneva basin; the river Saône represents the western border of the department. It is fed by three smaller rivers: the Veyle and the Chalaronne; the river Rhône represents the departments border in the south. Its main tributaries are the Suran
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government consists of legislature and judiciary. Government is a means by which organizational policies are enforced, as well as a mechanism for determining policy; each government has a kind of a statement of its governing principles and philosophy. The philosophy chosen is some balance between the principle of individual freedom and the idea of absolute state authority. While all types of organizations have governance, the word government is used more to refer to the 200 independent national governments on Earth, as well as subsidiary organizations. Prevalent forms of government include monarchy, timocracy, democracy and tyranny; the main aspect of any philosophy of government is how political power is obtained, with the two main forms being electoral contest and hereditary succession. A government is the system to govern a community; the word government derives from the Greek verb κυβερνάω.
The Columbia Encyclopedia defines government as "a system of social control under which the right to make laws, the right to enforce them, is vested in a particular group in society". While all types of organizations have governance, the word government is used more to refer to the 200 independent national governments on Earth, as well as their subsidiary organizations. In the Commonwealth of Nations, the word government is used more narrowly to refer to the ministry, a collective group of people that exercises executive authority in a state or, metonymically, to the governing cabinet as part of the executive. Government is sometimes used in English as a synonym for governance; the moment and place that the phenomenon of human government developed is lost in time. About 5,000 years ago, the first small city-states appeared. By the third to second millenniums BC, some of these had developed into larger governed areas: Sumer, Ancient Egypt, the Indus Valley Civilization, the Yellow River Civilization.
The development of agriculture and water control projects were a catalyst for the development of governments. For many thousands of years when people were hunter-gatherers and small scale farmers, humans lived in small, non-hierarchical and self-sufficient communities. On occasion a chief of a tribe was elected by various rituals or tests of strength to govern his tribe, sometimes with a group of elder tribesmen as a council; the human ability to communicate abstract, learned information allowed humans to become more effective at agriculture, that allowed for increasing population densities. David Christian explains how this resulted in states with laws and governments: As farming populations gathered in larger and denser communities, interactions between different groups increased and the social pressure rose until, in a striking parallel with star formation, new structures appeared, together with a new level of complexity. Like stars and states reorganize and energize the smaller objects within their gravitational field.
Starting at the end of the 17th century, the prevalence of republican forms of government grew. The Glorious Revolution in England, the American Revolution, the French Revolution contributed to the growth of representative forms of government; the Soviet Union was the first large country to have a Communist government. Since the fall of the Berlin Wall, liberal democracy has become an more prevalent form of government. In the nineteenth and twentieth century, there was a significant increase in the size and scale of government at the national level; this included the development of the welfare state. In political science, it has long been a goal to create a typology or taxonomy of polities, as typologies of political systems are not obvious, it is important in the political science fields of comparative politics and international relations. Like all categories discerned within forms of government, the boundaries of government classifications are either fluid or ill-defined. Superficially, all governments have an ideal form.
The United States is a constitutional republic, while the former Soviet Union was a socialist republic. However self-identification is not objective, as Kopstein and Lichbach argue, defining regimes can be tricky. For example, elections are a defining characteristic of an electoral democracy, but in practice elections in the former Soviet Union were not "free and fair" and took place in a one-party state. Voltaire argued that "the Holy Roman Empire is neither Holy, nor Roman, nor an Empire". Many governments that call themselves a "democratic republic" are not democratic, nor a republic. Communist dictatorships have been prone to use this term. For example, the official name of North Vietnam was "The Democratic Republic of Vietnam". China uses a variant, "The People's Republic of China", thus in many practical classifications it would not be considered democratic. Identifying a form of government is difficult because many political systems originate as socio-economic movements and are carried into governments by parties naming themselves after those movements.
Experience with those movements in power, the strong ties they may have to particular forms of government, can cause them to b