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List of presidents of the National Assembly of France

This article lists Presidents of the French Parliament or, as the case may be, of its lower chamber. The National Constituent Assembly was created in 1789 out of the Estates-General. It, the revolutionary legislative assemblies that followed – the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention, had a rotating Presidency. With the establishment of the Directory in 1795, there were two chambers of the French legislature; the lower, the Council of Five Hundred had a rotating chairmanship. Under Napoleon I, the Legislative Corps had all authority to enact laws, but was a rubberstamp body, lacking the power to debate legislation. With the restoration of the monarchy, a bicameral system was restored, with a Chamber of Peers and a Chamber of Deputies; the Chamber of Deputies, for the first time, had presidents elected for a substantial period of time. With the revolution of 1848, the monarchical assemblies were dissolved and replaced again with a unicameral National Assembly, which Napoleon III replaced with a new version of his uncle's Legislative Corps.

With the establishment of the Third Republic, the name of Chamber of Deputies was restored. The Chamber of Deputies was renamed the National Assembly in the constitution of the Fourth Republic, is still known as that. Presidents of the National Constituent Assembly rotated in short periods. Presidents of the Legislative Assembly rotated in short periods. L'Assemblée Nationale Legislative Bold indicates second term as President. CoPS refers to Committee of Public Safety CoGS refers to Committee of General Security Le Conseil des Cinq-Cents

Jahangir Siddiqui

Jahangir Siddiqui is a Pakistani businessman and philanthropist. In 1971, Siddiqui founded Jahangir Co.. Ltd, which by growth and acquisition became the JS Group of companies. Today, the JS Group of companies includes businesses that are a part of JS Financial, JS Industrial, JS Infocom, JS Property, JS Resources and JS Transportation. JS Financial is the oldest of the group's businesses, includes Jahangir Siddiqui & Co. Ltd. JS Global Capital Limited, JS Bank Limited, JS Investments Limited and Bank Islami. To raise money to start the company after his father's initial refusal to lend him Rs 6,000 to start a business, Siddiqui secretly stole and sold his family's car to a junk dealer for Rs1,800, along with the family's two-year stock of wheat and coal, all of which were stored in the family's house at the time; when discussing this start as a businessman, Siddiqui said, "Positive thinking distinguishes an entrepreneur from the rest of the crowd. He’s never deterred by difficult circumstances.”On May 15, 1962, with the support of his family, Siddiqui became a local distributor of ice cream and Coca-Cola.

In 1966, he completed a bachelor's degree in commerce, began training as a chartered accountant in 1967. His interest in stock markets led him to start his own company in October 1971. By the time he retired from the company in 2003, JS Group comprised a range of businesses with over 18,000 employees. Siddiqui and his wife Mahvash went on to found the Mahvash & Jahangir Siddiqui Foundation, a charitable, non-profit organization focusing on healthcare, sustainable development through social enterprise and emergency relief in Pakistan. In December 2010, Siddiqui was placed on the Exit Control List for alleged land grabbing in Karachi which alleged that Jahangir Siddiqui had illegally occupied a plot of 1,000 square yards in Karachi in connivance with the owner of an estate agency, using forged documents. Additional Executive District Officer Revenue Mustafa Jamal Qazi maintained that it had become a practice that land, awarded to the government was being grabbed by "land mafia...for its vested interests."

Pakistan's Anti-Corruption Establishment arrested several in conjunction with the case in December. Siddiqui sued a group of individuals, including the Anti-Corruption Establishment director and a member of EDO Revenue for defamation, indicating that the Citizens-Police Liaison Committee had evaluated land in 2001 and found the ownership of the property legal. In response to the defamation claim, the Sindh High Court issued notices to the defendants, they were summoned to appear before the court on 5 January 2011; the court issued a restraining order preventing the defendants from "media attack" pending settlement of the matter. The Pakistan Observer characterised these events as a "character assassination campaign" against Siddiqui. On 29 November 2011 the court ruled that the allegations were "false and baseless" and that such cases should not be filed in the future, he is the brother of the television director and businessperson Sultana Siddiqui, the uncle of her son, businessman Shunaid Qureshi


RC Bègles XIII are a French Rugby league club based in Bègles, Gironde in the Aquitaine region. The club plays in the Aquitaine regional League of the French National Division 2. Home games are played at the Stade Denis Mallet; the clubs first honours arrived in 2006 when they lifted the Paul Dejean Cup after beating SU Cavaillon XIII in the final 30-23. Not long after the club was relegated to the bottom tier National Division 2 where they played in the Aquitaine region. In season 2010/11 they reached, but lost, the regional final against AS Clairac XIII and did the same again in 2013/14 this time losing to US Pujols XIII. Season 2015/16 saw the club move across to the Midi-Pyrenees region. Paul Dejean Cup: 2006 President: Alain Martin Address: RC Bègles XIII, cité de la Mairie, 33130 Bégles Tel: 06 83 80 86 18 Email: National Division 2 Official Website

Fort de Plappeville

The Fort de Plappeville, or Feste Alvensleben, is a military fortification located to the northwest of Metz in the commune of Plappeville. As part of the first ring of the fortifications of Metz, it is an early example of a Séré de Rivières system fort. While it did not see action during World War I, it was the scene of heavy fighting between American forces and German defenders at the end of the Battle of Metz, in 1944. After Second World War it became a training center for the French Air Force. Fort'Alvensleben' has been abandoned since 1995; the Fort de Plappeville is part of the first ring of the Metz fortifications, built during the Second Empire by Napoleon III. The works began in 1867, it was designed by Raymond Adolphe Séré de Rivières, who oversaw the initial stages of the Metz fortifications. The fort was not complete in 1870 when war was declared between Germany; the defensive system would be completed and improved by German engineers between 1871 and 1898. The fort had a garrison of about 1600 men.

Half-buried in a slope, the fort dominates the valley of the Moselle. Conceived to resist distant artillery fire, it has a system of ditches evocative of the fortifications of Vauban; the fort resembles the contemporary Fort de Queuleu and the Fort de Saint-Julien, using a bastioned layout that would be superseded in forts begun a few years later. The fort's barracks differ from those at Saint-Quentin and Queleu, are located under the artillery platform of cavalier. Batteries on the Plappeville plateau, equipped with artillery turrets, complete the defense of the principal fort. Two of the most important armored batteries have four armored turrets with 150mm guns. A powder explosion in 1871 caused extensive damage to the barracks and required their reconstruction. Armored observation points were installed in 1885. During the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine by Germany, the fort was renamed Feste Alvensleben and became a training camp for Prussian officers. From 1914 to 1918 it was used as a rest station for soldiers traveling along the front from Verdun.

Its military equipment was upgraded to the standards current at the time. In November 1918, the fort was reoccupied by the French army. After the armistice of 1940 the fort was occupied by German forces. On 7 September Heinrich Himmler reviewed the troops of the 1st SS Division in the fort's place d'armes; the occasion was the presentation of a new standard to the SS formation, organized for the visit of the Reichsführer to Metz at the request of General Sepp Dietrich. The fort became a disciplinary camp for the Wehrmacht. At the beginning of September 1944 the fort's defense was reorganized and integrated into the defense of Metz. Like the Fort du Mont Saint-Quentin, Fort Driant and Fort Jeanne d'Arc, the Fort de Plappeville first saw combat between September and November 1944 during the Battle of Metz; the Fort de Plappeville, placed under the command of Colonel Vogel of the artillery, as well as Fort du Mont Saint Quentin, commanded by Colonel von Stossel, provided mutual artillery support and impeded the American advance along the valley of the Moselle to the west of Metz.

During the Battle of Metz the buried fortifications resisted American artillery attack well attacks with incendiary weapons. The forts fell after a series of violent assaults. Encircled by the 378th Regiment of the U. S. 95th Infantry Division, the Fort de Plappeville repelled a number of attacks. Colonel Vogel refused to surrender; the Fort de Plappeville surrendered on 8 December 1944, with 200 men to the U. S. 5th Infantry Division, two weeks after the surrender of German troops in Metz. After the Second World War, in 1949, the fort was transferred to the French air force and became a military instruction center for new recruits at Metz-Frescaty Air Base. Abandoned since 1995, the fort has been vandalized; this article incorporates text translated from the corresponding French Wikipedia article as of April 23, 2010. Fort de Plappeville/Fort Alvensleben Fort de Plappeville and other fortresses at metz - homepage in german language

White point

A white point is a set of tristimulus values or chromaticity coordinates that serve to define the color "white" in image capture, encoding, or reproduction. Depending on the application, different definitions of white are needed to give acceptable results. For example, photographs taken indoors may be lit by incandescent lights, which are orange compared to daylight. Defining "white" as daylight will give unacceptable results when attempting to color-correct a photograph taken with incandescent lighting. An illuminant is characterized by its relative spectral power distribution; the white point of an illuminant is the chromaticity of a white object under the illuminant, can be specified by chromaticity coordinates, such as the x, y coordinates on the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram. Illuminant and white point are separate concepts. For a given illuminant, its white point is uniquely defined. A given white point, on the other hand does not uniquely correspond to only one illuminant. From the used CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram, it can be seen that all non-spectral colors, including colors described as white, can be produced by infinitely many combinations of spectral colors, therefore by infinitely many different illuminant spectra.

Although there is no one-to-one correspondence between illuminants and white points, in the case of the CIE D-series standard illuminants, the spectral power distributions are mathematically derivable from the chromaticity coordinates of the corresponding white points. Knowing the illuminant's spectral power distribution, the reflectance spectrum of the specified white object, the numerical definition of the observer allows the coordinates of the white point in any color space to be defined. For example, one of the simplest illuminants is the "E" or "Equal Energy" spectrum, its spectral power distribution is flat, giving the same power per unit wavelength at any wavelength. In terms of both the 1931 and 1964 CIE XYZ color spaces, its color coordinates are, where k is a constant, its chromaticity coordinates are =. If the color of an object is recorded under one illuminant it is possible to estimate the color of that object under another illuminant, given only the white points of the two illuminants.

If the image is "uncalibrated", the white point has to be estimated. However, if one wants to white balance, this may not be necessary. Expressing color as tristimulus coordinates in the LMS color space, one can "translate" the object's color according to the Von Kries transform by scaling the LMS coordinates by the ratio of the maximum of the tristimulus values at both white points; this provides a rough estimate. Another method, sometimes preferred uses a Bradford transform or another chromatic adaptation transform. To calculate the color of an object under another illuminant, not how it will be perceived, it is necessary to record multi-spectral or hyper-spectral color information

Martha Ballard

Martha Moore Ballard was an American midwife and healer. Unusually for the time, Ballard kept a diary with thousands of entries over nearly three decades, which has provided historians with invaluable insight into frontier-women's lives. Ballard was made famous by the publication of A Midwife's Tale: The Life of Martha Ballard based on her diary, 1785–1812 by historian Laurel Thatcher Ulrich in 1990. Martha Moore was born in Oxford, Province of Massachusetts on the 9th of February 1735, to the family of Elijah Moore and Dorothy Learned Moore. Nothing is known about her childhood and education, but it is known that her family had medical links, she married Ephraim Ballard in 1754. The couple had nine children between 1756 and 1779, but lost three of them to a diphtheria epidemic in Oxford between June 17 and July 5, 1769. Ballard delivered 816 babies over the 27 years that she wrote her diary and was present at more than 1,000 births, her diary recorded her administering medicines and remedies, which she made herself from local plants and from ingredients bought from a local physician.

Ballard was sometimes called to observe autopsies and recorded 85 instances of what she called "desections" in her diary. She took testimonies from unwed mothers, used in paternity suits, she testified in 1789 in a high-profile case of a judge accused of raping a minister's wife. In addition to her medical and judicial responsibilities, Ballard carried out tasks such as trading and social visits, she and her family experienced difficult times during 1803–1804, when her husband was imprisoned for debt and her son was indicted for fraud. Ballard's obituary was published on June 9, 1812 in the American Advocate and stated: Died in Augusta, Mrs Martha, consort of Mr Ephraim Ballard, aged 77 years. Ballard was related to Clara Barton, known for her American Civil War work and for founding the American Red Cross. Clara was the granddaughter of Dorothy Barton. From when she was 50 until her death in 1812, Martha Ballard kept a diary that recorded her work and domestic life in Hallowell on the Kennebec River, District of Maine.

The log of daily events, written with a quill pen and homemade ink, records numerous babies delivered and illnesses treated as she travelled by horse or canoe around the Massachusetts frontier in what is today the state of Maine. For 27 years, she wrote in the diary daily by candlelight when her family had gone to bed; the diary consists with entries that start with the weather and the time. Many of her early records are short and choppy, but her entries are longer and detailed, her writing illustrates tragedies within her own family and local crimes and scandals. One includes the comment that children in New England are allowed to choose their romantic interest if they were in the same economic class, rare for the time. Many of the people mentioned in the diary do not appear on official records, such as censuses or deeds and probate, so the diary helps to provide insight into the lives of ordinary people who might otherwise have remained invisible; because of the scale of the diary, scholars have been able to use digital tools to mine it for information.

Such studies have revealed, for instance, that because Ballard's deliveries spike between February and April, her neighbours are most to be having sex between May and July. The last birth that Ballard attended was on April 26, 1812. Ballard's final diary entry, from 1812, states: "made a prayer adapted to my case." After Ballard's death, the diary was kept by Dolly Lambard. The diary was passed on to Dolly's daughters, Sarah Lambard and Hannah Lambard Walcott after Dolly's death in 1861. Sarah Lambard and Hannah Lambard gifted the diary to Ballard's great-great-granddaughter, Mary Hobart, one of the first female US physicians to graduate from the New York Infirmary for Women and Children in 1884, the same year that she received the diary. In 1930, Hobart donated the diary to the Maine State Library in Augusta. Maine State Library promised Hobart a transcript of the diary. Charles Elventon Nash included parts of the diary in a proposed two-volume history of Augusta, kept in a descendant's home for 60 years before the descendant offered it to the Maine State Library.

Edith Hary took the papers and published The History of Augusta: First Settlements and Early Days As A Town Including The Diary of Mrs. Martha Moore Ballard in 1961. In July 1982, E. Wheaton of the Maine State Archive created a microfilm copy of the diary. Robert R. McCausland and Cynthia MacAlman McCausland spent ten years producing a verbatim transcription on the diary, which they made available online as well as for purchase in hard-copy. For many years, Martha Ballard's diary was not considered to be of scholarly interest since it was dismissed as repetitive and ordinary. However, historian Laurel Thatcher Ulrich saw potential in the diary, realising how rare Ballard's first-hand account was after having researched a previous book on women in early New England. After eight years of research, Ulrich produced A Midwife's Tale: The Life of Martha Ballard based on her diary, 1785–1812; each chapter in A Midwife's Tale represents one aspect of the life of a woman in the late 18th century. The overriding theme is the nature of women's work in the community.

Ulrich stated that: When I was able to connect Martha's work to her world, I could begin to create stories. Supporting documents construct Ulrich's interpretation