A jurist is someone who researches and studies jurisprudence. Such a person can work as an legal writer or law lecturer. In the United Kingdom, New Zealand, South Africa, in many other Commonwealth countries, the word jurist sometimes refers to a barrister, whereas in the United States of America and Canada it refers to a judge, thus a jurist, someone who studies and comments on law, stands in contrast with a lawyer, someone who applies law on behalf of clients and thinks about it in practical terms. There is a fundamental difference between that of a jurist. Many legal scholars and authors have explained that a person may be both a lawyer and a jurist, but a jurist is not a lawyer, nor a lawyer a jurist. Both must possess an acquaintance with the term "law"; the work of the jurist is the study and arrangement of the law—work which can be done wholly in the seclusion of the library. The work of the lawyer is the satisfaction of the wishes of particular human beings for legal assistance—work which requires dealing to some extent therefore with people in the office, in the court room, or in the market-place.
The term jurist has another sense, wider, synonymous with legal professional, i.e. anyone professionally involved with law and justice. In some other European languages, a word resembling jurist is used in this major sense; this is a sequential classification of some notable jurists. History of the legal profession History of the American legal profession Law professor Legal profession List of jurists Paralegal Media related to Jurists at Wikimedia Commons
Gresham College is an institution of higher learning located at Barnard's Inn Hall off Holborn in Central London, England. It does not award any degrees, it was founded in 1597 under the will of Sir Thomas Gresham, it hosts over 140 free public lectures every year. Since 2001, all lectures have been made available online. Sir Thomas Gresham, founder of the Royal Exchange, left his estate jointly to the City of London Corporation and to the Mercers' Company, which today support the college through the Joint Grand Gresham Committee under the presidency of the Lord Mayor of London. Gresham's will provided for the setting up of the College – in Gresham's mansion in Bishopsgate, on the site now occupied by Tower 42, the former NatWest Tower – and endowed it with the rental income from shops sited around the Royal Exchange, which Gresham had established; the early success of the College led to the incorporation of the Royal Society in 1663, which pursued its activities at the College in Bishopsgate before moving to its own premises in Crane Court in 1710.
The College remained in Gresham's mansion in Bishopsgate until 1768, moved about London thereafter until the construction in 1842 of its own buildings in Gresham Street EC2. Gresham College did not become part of the University of London on the founding of the University in the 19th century, although a close association between the College and the University persisted for many years. Since 1991, the College has operated at Barnard’s Inn Hall, Holborn EC1. Since 2000, the college welcomes visiting speakers who deliver lectures on topics outside its usual range, it hosts occasional seminars and conferences. Today the college provides in the region of 130 lectures a year, all of which are free and open to the public. Although many of the lectures are held in Barnard's Inn Hall, the majority are now held in the lecture hall at the Museum of London, for reasons of capacity. Since 2001, the college has been recording its lectures and releasing them online in what is now an archive of over 2,000 lectures.
Since 2007, lectures have been available through YouTube with 20,755,968 views as of August 2018. Annual lectures series of particular note hosted by the college include: the Gresham Special Lecture, the Annual Lord Mayor's Event, the Gray’s Inn Reading; the College does not enroll any awards no degrees. The seven original Gresham College Professorships that date back to the origins of the college are as follows: Astronomy Divinity Geometry Law Music Physic Rhetoric These original endowed chairs reflect the curriculum of the medieval university. Early distinguished Gresham College professors included Christopher Wren, who lectured on astronomy in the 17th century and Robert Hooke, Professor of Geometry from 1665 until 1704; the professors received £50 a year, the terms of their position were precise, for example: The geometrician is to read as followeth, every Trinity term arithmetique, in Michaelmas and Hilary terms theoretical geometry, in Easter term practical geometry. The astronomy reader is to read in his solemn lectures, first the principles of the sphere, the theory of the planets, the use of the astrolabe and the staff, other common instruments for the capacity of mariners.
Today three further Professorships have been added to take account of areas not otherwise covered by the original Professorships: Commerce, established in 1985. Environment, established in 2014. Information Technology, established in 2015; the professors hold their positions for three years, extendable for a fourth year, give six lectures a year. There are regular visiting professors appointed to give series of lectures at the College, a large number of single-lecture speakers; the Gresham Special Lecture originated in 1988 as a free public lecture delivered by a prominent speaker. It was devised. 2016: The Rt Hon the Baroness Blackstone –'Universities: Some Policy Dilemmas' 2015: Dame Barbara Stocking DBE –'Women's Careers: From Oxfam to a Cambridge College' 2014: Stephen Hodder MBE –'Continuity and Development in Architecture' 2013: Sir Richard Peter Lambert –'The UK and the New Face of Europe' 2012: The Rt Hon John Bercow –'Parliament and the Public: Strangers or Friends?' 2011: Sir Adam Roberts –'Reinventing the Wheel: The cost of neglecting international history' 2010: Lord Phillips of Worth Matravers –'The Challenges of the New Supreme Court' 2009: Niall Ferguson –'The Ascent of money: An evolutionary approach to financial history' 2008: The Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams –'Early Christianity & Today: Some shared questions' 2007: Sir Roy Strong –'The Beauty of Holiness and its Perils' 2006: Baroness Kennedy of The Shaws –'Walking the Line: Preserving liberty in times of insecurity' 2005: Lord Winston –'Should we trust the scientists?'
2004: Lord Rees of Ludlow –'Science in a Complex World: Wonders and Threats' 2003: Sir Harold Kroto –'I think, therefore I am – a scientist' 2002: M. S. Swaminathan –'Towards Freedom from Hunger: A Global Food for Sustainable Development Initiative' 2001: Dr Charles Saumarez Smith –'Commerce and Culture in the Late Twentieth Century' 2000: Hans Küng –'A Global Ethics – A Challenge for the New Millennium' 1999: Baroness Williams of Crosby –'Snakes and Ladders: A reflection on a post-war political life' 1998: Sir Adrian Cadbury –'The Future for Governance: The rules of the game' 1997: Dr Ian Archer –'Thomas Gresham's London' 1996: Sir Peter
Sir Cyril Wyche PRS was an English lawyer and politician. He was born in Constantinople, where his father, Sir Peter Wyche, was the English Ambassador, he was educated at Christ Church, Oxford with Bachelor of Arts in 1653. He received his Master of Arts in 1655 and his Doctor of Civil Law in 1665. Between the time he received his MA and his DCL, he was knighted; this is so close in time to the English Restoration that he was certainly a Cavalier, may have served in the military for the Royalist cause. He was an original member of the Royal Society and served as President from 1683–1684, he joined the bar in 1670 and became Chief Secretary for Ireland in 1692. He was a Member of Parliament for several districts at different times, (MP for Callington, for East Grinstead, for Saltash, for Preston From the Sackler Archive of Fellows of the Royal Society, he married daughter of George Evelyn of Wootton and niece of John Evelyn, the diarist. Around 1690 he purchased Hockwold Hall at Norfolk, he died there and a monument to him can be found in the church of St. Peter in Hockwold.
Sir Cyril Wyche and the Popish Plot, 1678-80, Hugh Fenning, O. P. in Seanchas Ard Macha volume 19/2, pp. 53–62, 2002 Herbert Rix, "Wyche, Cyril", Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 63
Samuel Pepys was an administrator of the navy of England and Member of Parliament, most famous for the diary he kept for a decade while still a young man. Pepys had no maritime experience, but he rose to be the Chief Secretary to the Admiralty under both King Charles II and King James II through patronage, hard work, his talent for administration, his influence and reforms at the Admiralty were important in the early professionalisation of the Royal Navy. The detailed private diary that Pepys kept from 1660 until 1669 was first published in the 19th century and is one of the most important primary sources for the English Restoration period, it provides a combination of personal revelation and eyewitness accounts of great events, such as the Great Plague of London, the Second Dutch War, the Great Fire of London. Pepys was born in Salisbury Court, Fleet Street, London on 23 February 1633, the son of John Pepys, a tailor, Margaret Pepys, daughter of a Whitechapel butcher, his great uncle Talbot Pepys was Recorder and Member of Parliament for Cambridge in 1625.
His father's first cousin Sir Richard Pepys was elected MP for Sudbury in 1640, appointed Baron of the Exchequer on 30 May 1654, appointed Lord Chief Justice of Ireland on 25 September 1655. Pepys was the fifth of eleven children, but child mortality was high and he was soon the oldest survivor, he was baptised at St Bride's Church on 3 March 1633. Pepys did not spend all of his infancy in London. In about 1644, Pepys attended Huntingdon Grammar School before being educated at St Paul's School, London, c. 1646–1650. He attended the execution of Charles I in 1649. In 1650, he went to the University of Cambridge, having received two exhibitions from St Paul's School and a grant from the Mercers' Company. In October, he was admitted as a sizar to Magdalene College. In 1654 or early in 1655, he entered the household of another of his father's cousins, Sir Edward Montagu, created the 1st Earl of Sandwich. Pepys married fourteen-year-old Elisabeth de St Michel, a descendant of French Huguenot immigrants, first in a religious ceremony on 10 October 1655 and in a civil ceremony on 1 December 1655 at St Margaret's, Westminster.
From a young age, Pepys suffered from bladder stones in his urinary tract—a condition from which his mother and brother John later suffered. He was never without pain, as well as other symptoms, including "blood in the urine". By the time of his marriage, the condition was severe. In 1657 Pepys decided to undergo surgery. Pepys consulted surgeon Thomas Hollier and, on 26 March 1658, the operation took place in a bedroom in the house of Pepys' cousin Jane Turner. Pepys' stone was removed and he resolved to hold a celebration on every anniversary of the operation, which he did for several years. However, there were long-term effects from the operation; the incision on his bladder broke open again late in his life. The procedure may have left him sterile, though there is no direct evidence for this, as he was childless before the operation. In mid-1658 Pepys moved near the modern Downing Street, he worked as a teller in the Exchequer under George Downing. On 1 January 1660, Pepys began to keep a diary.
He recorded his daily life for ten years. This record of a decade of Pepys' life is more than a million words long and is regarded as Britain’s most celebrated diary. Pepys has been called the greatest diarist of all time due to his frankness in writing concerning his own weaknesses and the accuracy with which he records events of daily British life and major events in the 17th century. Pepys wrote about the contemporary court and theatre, his household, major political and social occurrences. Historians have been using his diary to gain greater insight and understanding of life in London in the 17th century. Pepys wrote on subjects such as personal finances, the time he got up in the morning, the weather, what he ate, he talked at length about his new watch which he was proud of, a country visitor who did not enjoy his time in London because he felt that it was too crowded, his cat waking him up at one in the morning. Pepys's diary is one of a few sources which provides such length in details of everyday life of an upper-middle-class man during the seventeenth century.
Aside from day-to-day activities, Pepys commented on the significant and turbulent events of his nation. England was in disarray. Oliver Cromwell had died just a few years before, creating a period of civil unrest and a large power vacuum to be filled. Pepys had been a strong supporter of Cromwell, but he converted to the Royalist cause upon the Protector’s death, he was on the ship. He gave a firsthand account of events, such as the coronation of King Charles II and the Restoration of the British Monarchy to the throne, the Anglo-Dutch war, the Great Plague, the Great Fire of London. Pepys did not plan on his contemporaries seeing his diary, evident from the fact that he wrote in shorthand and sometimes in a "code" of various Spanish and Italian words (especially whe
Venkatraman "Venki" Ramakrishnan is an American and British structural biologist of Indian origin. In 2009 he shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Thomas A. Steitz and Ada Yonath, "for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome".. He was elected President of the Royal Society for a term of five years starting in 2015.. Since 1999, he has worked as a group leader at the Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology on the Cambridge Biomedical Campus, UK. Ramakrishnan was born in Chidambaram in Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu, India to C. V. Ramakrishnan and Rajalakshmi Ramakrishnan. Both his parents were scientists, his father was head of the Department of Biochemistry at the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. At the time of his birth, Ramakrishnan's father was away from India doing postdoctoral research with David E. Green at the University of Wisconsin–Madison in the US, his mother obtained a PhD in Psychology from McGill University in 1959 which she completed in only 18 months, was mentored by Donald O. Hebb.
Lalita Ramakrishnan, his younger sister, is professor of immunology and infectious diseases at the Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. Ramakrishnan moved to Vadodara in Gujarat at the age of three, where he had his schooling at Convent of Jesus and Mary, except for spending 1960–61 in Adelaide, Australia. Following his pre-science at the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, he did his undergraduate studies in the same university on a National Science Talent Scholarship, graduating with a Bachelor of Science degree in Physics in 1971. At the time, the physics course at Baroda was new, based in part on The Berkeley Physics Course and The Feynman Lectures on Physics. After graduation he moved to the U. S. where he obtained his Doctor of Philosophy degree in Physics from Ohio University in 1976 for research into the ferroelectric phase transition of potassium dihydrogen phosphate supervised by Tomoyasu Tanaka. He spent two years studying biology as a graduate student at the University of California, San Diego while making a transition from theoretical physics to biology.
Ramakrishnan began work on ribosomes as a postdoctoral fellow with Peter Moore at Yale University. After his post-doctoral fellowship, he could not find a faculty position though he had applied to about 50 universities in the U. S, he continued to work on ribosomes from 1983-95 as a staff scientist at Brookhaven National Laboratory. In 1995 he moved to the University of Utah as a Professor of Biochemistry, in 1999, he moved to his current position at the Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, where he had been a sabbatical visitor during 1991-92 on a Guggenheim Fellowship. In 1999, Ramakrishnan's laboratory published a 5.5 Angstrom resolution structure of the 30S subunit. The following year, his laboratory determined the complete molecular structure of the 30S subunit of the ribosome and its complexes with several antibiotics; this was followed by studies that provided structural insights into the mechanism that ensures the fidelity of protein biosynthesis. In 2007, his laboratory determined the atomic structure of the whole ribosome in complex with its tRNA and mRNA ligands.
Since 2013, he has used cryo-EM to determine new ribosome structures. Ramakrishnan is known for his past work on histone and chromatin structure; as of 2015 his most cited papers have been published in Nature and Cell. In an interview in July 2018, he said that Britain's decision to leave the European Union was hurting Britain's reputation as a good place to work in science, commenting "It's hard for the science community to see any advantages in Brexit, they are pretty blunt about that." He saw advantages to both the UK and the EU for Britain to continue to be engaged in Galileo and Euratom, unlike the European Medicines Agency, are not EU agencies. Ramakrishnan fears. Ramakrishnan wrote, "A deal on science is in the best interests of Europe as a whole and should not be sacrificed as collateral damage over disagreements on other issues. If we are going to tackle global problems like climate change, human disease and food security, we can't do so in isolation. There is no scenario where trashing our relationships with our closest scientific collaborators in the EU gets us closer to these goals."
Ramakrishnan was elected a Member of the European Molecular Biology Organization in 2002, a Fellow of the Royal Society in 2003, a Member of the U. S. National Academy of Sciences in 2004. In 2007, Ramakrishnan was awarded the Louis-Jeantet Prize for Medicine and the Datta Lectureship and Medal of the Federation of European Biochemical Societies. In 2008, he won the Heatley Medal of the British Biochemical Society. Since 2008, he is a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge and a foreign Fellow of the Indian National Science Academy, he was elected an Honorary Fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences in 2010, has received honorary degrees from the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, University of Utah and University of Cambridge. He is an Honorary Fellow of Somerville College, Oxford. In 2009, Ramakrishnan was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry along with Thomas A. Steitz and Ada Yonath, he received India's second highest civilian honor, the Padma Vibhushan, in 2010. Ramakrishnan was knighted in the 2012 New Year Honours for services to Molecular Biology, but does not use the title'Sir'.
In the same year, he was awarded the Sir Hans Krebs Medal by the FEBS. In 2014, he was awarded the XLVI Jiménez-Díaz Prize by the Fundación Conchita Rába
Joseph Williamson (politician)
See Joseph Williamson for the Joseph Williamson famous for creating pointless tunnels in Liverpool Sir Joseph Williamson, PRS was an English civil servant and politician who sat in the House of Commons of England variously between 1665 and 1701 and in the Irish House of Commons between 1692 and 1699. He was Secretary of State for the Northern Department 1674–79. Williamson was born at Bridekirk, near Cockermouth in Cumberland, where his father called Joseph, was vicar, his father died when he was young, his mother remarried the Reverend John Ardery. His humble origins were referred to unkindly in life by his enemies after he married into the aristocracy, he was educated at St. Bees School, Westminster School and Queen's College, Oxford, of which he became a fellow. In 1660 he entered the service of the Secretary of State for the Southern Department, Sir Edward Nicholas, retaining his position under the succeeding secretary, Sir Henry Bennet, afterwards Earl of Arlington, he made himself indispensable to Arlington, due to his enormous capacity for hard work, which resulted in his employer delegating most the routine work of the department to him.
He was involved with the foundation of the London Gazette in 1665. Williamson was elected Member of Parliament for Thetford in 1669 and held the seat until 1685. No less than three previous attempts to enter Parliament had been unsuccessful, due to an increasing "backlash" against Government candidates. Samuel Pepys in his celebrated Diary records that when Williamson appeared at the hustings in 1666, he was shouted down by cries of "No courtiers!" In 1672 he was knighted. During the Third Anglo-Dutch War, he drew up plans for the Zealand Expedition, intended to land a newly formed English Army in the Netherlands; the strategy was abandoned after the naval defeat at the Battle of Texel and the Treaty of Westminster which ended the war. In 1673 and 1674 he represented his country at the Congress of Cologne, in the latter year he became Secretary of State for the Northern Department, having purchased this position from Arlington for £6,000, a sum that he required from his successor when he left office in 1679.
He served as Master of The Clothworkers' Company in 1676–77. In 1677, he became the second President of the Royal Society, but his main interests, after politics, were in antiquarian rather than in scientific matters; as Secretary of State he continued Arlington's policy of friendship towards France, hostility towards the Netherlands. William III of Orange developed a deep aversion to Williamson: apart from their opposing policies he is said to have found the tone of Williamson's dispatches unbearably offensive. Just before his removal from the post of Secretary of State, he was arrested on a charge of being implicated in the Popish Plot, but he was at once released by order of Charles II. Williamson was a particular target of the informers because he was one of the few Ministers who disbelieved in the Plot: when Israel Tonge first approached him with "information", who believed, with some reason, that Tonge was insane, gave him a "rude repulse"; as for the other informers, several of whom were members of London's criminal underworld, his efficient intelligence service no doubt told him everything necessary about their characters.
For this reason, the King, sceptical about the Plot's reality, wished to retain his services, at least in the short term. The actual charge made against Williamson, of commissioning Roman Catholic army officers, was spurious since these officers were intended for foreign service. Williamson's nerve began to give way under the strain of the Plot, he became a political liability. Charles dismissed him after he gave orders to search Somerset House, the Queen's official residence, without the King's permission. I do not wish to be served by a man who fears anyone more than me". Danby was suspected by many of having a part in Williamson's downfall, as he was said to have taken offence at Williamson's recent marriage to Lady Clifton, a wealthy widow and cousin of the King, his marriage, at the beginning of the Popish Plot, should on the face of it have strengthened him politically: his wife was Katherine Stewart, Baroness Clifton, daughter of George Stewart, 9th Seigneur d'Aubigny, sister of Charles Stewart, 3rd Duke of Richmond, of a junior branch of the Stuart dynasty.
Her first husband, by whom she had several children, was Henry O'Brien, Lord Ibrackan, an old friend of Williamson. Despite the obvious advantages of the match, John Evelyn reported that it was unpopular, it weakened Williamson politically. Since Katherine as well as her first husband was an old friend of Williamson she was not a surprising choice as a bride. More in an age of marked class distinctions, it was considered improper that the sister of a Royal Duke should marry a country clergyman's son, her children are said to have objected to the marriage. Danby, who thought that Katherine would be a good match for his own son, was suspected of having had a hand in Williamson's downfall. After a period of comparative inactivity Sir Joseph represented England at the Congress of Nijmegen, in 1698 h
Botany called plant science, plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist; the term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek word βοτάνη meaning "pasture", "grass", or "fodder". Traditionally, botany has included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. Nowadays, botanists study 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants, 20,000 are bryophytes. Botany originated in prehistory as herbalism with the efforts of early humans to identify – and cultivate – edible and poisonous plants, making it one of the oldest branches of science. Medieval physic gardens attached to monasteries, contained plants of medical importance, they were forerunners of the first botanical gardens attached to universities, founded from the 1540s onwards.
One of the earliest was the Padua botanical garden. These gardens facilitated the academic study of plants. Efforts to catalogue and describe their collections were the beginnings of plant taxonomy, led in 1753 to the binomial system of Carl Linnaeus that remains in use to this day. In the 19th and 20th centuries, new techniques were developed for the study of plants, including methods of optical microscopy and live cell imaging, electron microscopy, analysis of chromosome number, plant chemistry and the structure and function of enzymes and other proteins. In the last two decades of the 20th century, botanists exploited the techniques of molecular genetic analysis, including genomics and proteomics and DNA sequences to classify plants more accurately. Modern botany is a broad, multidisciplinary subject with inputs from most other areas of science and technology. Research topics include the study of plant structure and differentiation, reproduction and primary metabolism, chemical products, diseases, evolutionary relationships and plant taxonomy.
Dominant themes in 21st century plant science are molecular genetics and epigenetics, which are the mechanisms and control of gene expression during differentiation of plant cells and tissues. Botanical research has diverse applications in providing staple foods, materials such as timber, rubber and drugs, in modern horticulture and forestry, plant propagation and genetic modification, in the synthesis of chemicals and raw materials for construction and energy production, in environmental management, the maintenance of biodiversity. Botany originated as the study and use of plants for their medicinal properties. Many records of the Holocene period date early botanical knowledge as far back as 10,000 years ago; this early unrecorded knowledge of plants was discovered in ancient sites of human occupation within Tennessee, which make up much of the Cherokee land today. The early recorded history of botany includes many ancient writings and plant classifications. Examples of early botanical works have been found in ancient texts from India dating back to before 1100 BC, in archaic Avestan writings, in works from China before it was unified in 221 BC.
Modern botany traces its roots back to Ancient Greece to Theophrastus, a student of Aristotle who invented and described many of its principles and is regarded in the scientific community as the "Father of Botany". His major works, Enquiry into Plants and On the Causes of Plants, constitute the most important contributions to botanical science until the Middle Ages seventeen centuries later. Another work from Ancient Greece that made an early impact on botany is De Materia Medica, a five-volume encyclopedia about herbal medicine written in the middle of the first century by Greek physician and pharmacologist Pedanius Dioscorides. De Materia Medica was read for more than 1,500 years. Important contributions from the medieval Muslim world include Ibn Wahshiyya's Nabatean Agriculture, Abū Ḥanīfa Dīnawarī's the Book of Plants, Ibn Bassal's The Classification of Soils. In the early 13th century, Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati, Ibn al-Baitar wrote on botany in a systematic and scientific manner. In the mid-16th century, "botanical gardens" were founded in a number of Italian universities – the Padua botanical garden in 1545 is considered to be the first, still in its original location.
These gardens continued the practical value of earlier "physic gardens" associated with monasteries, in which plants were cultivated for medical use. They supported the growth of botany as an academic subject. Lectures were given about the plants grown in the gardens and their medical uses demonstrated. Botanical gardens came much to northern Europe. Throughout this period, botany remained subordinate to medicine. German physician Leonhart Fuchs was one of "the three German fathers of botany", along with theologian Otto Brunfels and physician Hieronymus Bock. Fuchs and Brunfels broke away from the tradition of copying earlier works to make original observations of their own. Bock created his own system of plant classification. Physician Valerius Cordus authored a botanically and pharmacologically important herbal Historia Plantarum in 1544 and a pharmacopoeia of lasting importance, the Dispensatorium