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List of presidents of the Senate of France

This article lists the presidents of the Senate of France and assimilated chambers. The Senate of France is the upper house of the French Parliament, it is presided over by a president. Although there had been Senates in both the First and Second Empires, these had not technically been legislative bodies, but rather advisory bodies on the model of the Roman Senate. France's first experience with an upper house was under the Directory from 1795 to 1799, when the Council of Ancients was the upper chamber. With the Restoration in 1814, a new Chamber of Peers was created, on the model of the British House of Lords. At first it contained hereditary peers, but following the July Revolution of 1830, it became a body to which one was appointed for life; the Second Republic returned to a unicameral system after 1848, but soon after the establishment of the Second Empire in 1852, a Senate was established as the upper chamber. In the Fourth Republic, the Senate was renamed the Council of the Republic, but its function was the same.

With the new constitution of the Fifth Republic in 1959, the older name of Senate was restored. The President of the Senate, in addition to his duties as presiding officer of the upper house of parliament, is according to the Constitution of the Fifth Republic, first in line of succession in case of death or resignation of the president, thus becoming Acting President of the Republic until a new election can be held; this has occurred twice. Alain Poher, the President of the French Senate, served as Acting President of France from 28 April until 20 June 1969 and again from 3 April until 27 May 1974. Presidents of the Council of Ancients: Presidents of the Sénat conservateur: Presidents of the Sénat conservateur: Presidents of the Chamber of Peers: Presidents of the Chamber of Peers: Presidents of the Senate: Presidents of the Senate: Presidents of the Council of the Republic: Political party MRP Radical Presidents of the Senate: Political party Radical CD.


A sporangium is an enclosure in which spores are formed. It can be multicellular. All plants and many other lineages form sporangia at some point in their life cycle. Sporangia can produce spores by mitosis, but in nearly all land plants and many fungi, sporangia are the site of meiosis and produce genetically distinct haploid spores. In some phyla of fungi, the sporangium plays a role in asexual reproduction, may play an indirect role in sexual reproduction; the sporangium contains haploid nuclei and cytoplasm. Spores are formed in the sporangiophore by encasing each haploid nucleus and cytoplasm in a tough outer membrane. During asexual reproduction, these spores are dispersed via germinate into haploid hyphae. Although sexual reproduction in fungi varies between phyla, for some fungi the sporangium plays an indirect role in sexual reproduction. For Zygomycota, sexual reproduction occurs when the haploid hyphae from two individuals join to form a zygosporangium in response to unfavorable conditions.

The haploid nuclei within the zygosporangium fuse into diploid nuclei. When conditions improve the zygosporangium germinates, undergoes meiosis and produces a sporangium, which releases spores. In mosses and hornworts, an unbranched sporophyte produces a single sporangium, which may be quite complex morphologically. Most non-vascular plants, as well as many lycophytes and most ferns, are homosporous; some bryophytes, most lycophytes, some ferns are heterosporous. These plants produce microspores and megaspores, which give rise to gametophytes that are functionally male or female, respectively. In some cases, both kinds of spores are produced in the same sporangium, may develop together as part of a spore tetrad. However, in most heterosporous plants there are two kinds of sporangia, termed microsporangia and megasporangia. A few ferns and some lycophytes are heterosporous with two kinds of sporangia, as are all the seed plants. Sporangia can associated with leaves. In ferns, sporangia are found on the abaxial surface of the leaf and are densely aggregated into clusters called sori.

Sori may be covered by a structure called an indusium. Some ferns have their sporangia scattered along reduced leaf segments or along the margin of the leaf. Lycophytes, in contrast, bear their sporangia on the adaxial surface of leaves or laterally on stems. Leaves that bear sporangia are called sporophylls. If the plant is heterosporous, the sporangia-bearing leaves are distinguished as either microsporophylls or megasporophylls. In seed plants, sporangia are located within strobili or flowers. Cycads form their microsporangia on microsporophylls. Megasporangia are formed into ovules, which are borne on megasporophylls, which are aggregated into strobili on separate plants. Conifers bear their microsporangia on microsporophylls aggregated into papery pollen strobili, the ovules, are located on modified stem axes forming compound ovuliferous cone scales. Flowering plants contain microsporangia in the anthers of stamens and megasporangia inside ovules inside ovaries. In all seed plants, spores are produced by meiosis and develop into gametophytes while still inside the sporangium.

The microspores become microgametophytes. The megaspores become megagametophytes. Categorized based on developmental sequence and leptosporangia are differentiated in the vascular plants. In a leptosporangium, found only in ferns, development involves a single initial cell that becomes the stalk and spores within the sporangium. There are around 64 spores in a leptosporangium. In a eusporangium, characteristic of all other vascular plants and some primitive ferns, the initials are in a layer. A eusporangium is larger, its wall is multi-layered. Although the wall may be stretched and damaged, resulting in only one cell-layer remaining. A cluster of sporangia that have become fused in development is called a synangium; this structure is most prominent in Psilotum and Marattiaceae such as Christensenia and Marattia. A columella is a sterile structure that supports the sporangium of some species. In fungi, the columella, which may be branched or unbranched, may be of host origin. Secotium species have a simple, unbranched columella, while in Gymnoglossum species, the columella is branched.

In some Geastrum species, the columella appears as an extension of the stalk into the spore mass. Archegonium Antheridium Spore formation

Miss Universe United Kingdom 2008

Miss Universe United Kingdom 2008, the 3rd Miss Universe United Kingdom pageant, was held at London's Cafe De Paris, United Kingdom on 4 May 2008. Julie Doherty of England crowned her successor Lisa Lazarus of Llanelli at the end of the event; that year only 50 candidates competed for the national crown. The chosen winner represented the United Kingdom at Miss Universe 2008; the runner up represented the country in different International pageants. Akrotiri and Dhekelia, Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Guernsey, Indian Ocean Territory, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Saint Helena and Caicos & Virgin Islands, British - From this point forward only residents of England, Wales & Northern Ireland are allowed to compete and thus the Crown Dependencies and British Overseas Territories are forced to withdraw. Http://


Demonization is the reinterpretation of polytheistic deities as evil, lying demons by other religions monotheistic and henotheistic ones. The term has since been expanded to refer to any characterization of individuals, groups, or political bodies as evil. Religions those that are radically monotheistic, do not deny the existence of other gods or spiritual beings. On the contrary, they claim other gods are not worthy of worship and in actuality are demons who mislead followers from proper belief or practice. Christian missionaries employed demonization tactics when converting pagans, although Judaism and other religions have similar histories. Demonization is not limited to focusing on other religions but can be directed inward to condemn various schools of thought or movements. From a secular viewpoint, demonization can be used to denigrate an opposed individual or group, making adherents to one's own religion or viewpoint less inclined to do business with them and more inclined to fight against them.

If foreigners are evil and corrupted by demonic influence any means of self-defense is portrayed as legitimate. The portrayal of all pagans in the Middle East as Baal worshippers in the Hebrew Bible is an example of this. If pagans are corrupted by the demon "god" Baal clearly they must be fought or at least oppressed. In the earlier books of the Hebrew Bible, foreign deities are portrayed as existing and corrupting entities rather than being mere powerless idols; some would argue this transferred to Christianity after Constantine I's ascension in its suppression of Roman paganism. Some of the most known of these demonizations are Lucifer and Baphomet up to the extend that they became synonymous with the devil/satan of Abrahamic religions; the language of demonization would be invoked during the Spanish Inquisition, leading to the expulsion of Jews and Moriscos from Spain. The view of early Judaism treating foreign deities as devils and Judaism treating them as nonexistent is not universal. Psalms 96:5, for example, is alternately translated as, "For all the Gods of the gentiles are nothing," "For all the Gods of the gentiles are devils", "For all the gods of the peoples are idols."

The Greek Septuagint translation of that passage, used by the early Christian Church, used the "devils" version. Jerome would follow the Greek text rather than the Hebrew when he translated the Latin Vulgate edition of the Bible; the "devils" epithet would still appear in Bibles up until the end of the 20th century when the consensus reverted to the original Hebrew text for modern translations. Analogs to demonization exist outside monotheistic religions, as well. Polytheism accepts foreign gods in general, in times of conflict, a foreign nation's gods would sometimes be portrayed as evil. Less it would be applied to other religions as well. For example, Buddha's portrayal in Hinduism varies: Some strains of Hinduism consider the Buddha an incarnation of Vishnu while in some texts such as the Puranas, he is portrayed as an avatar born to mislead those who deny the Vedic knowledge. Demonization is sometimes used against what are arguably political opponents rather than religious ones; the Knights Templar were destroyed by accusations that they worshipped Baphomet from King Philip the Fair.

Baphomet thought to be Beelzebub, may have been used because of the likeness of this horned deity with the Christian images of Satan. In colloquial usage, the term demonization is used metaphorically to refer to propaganda or moral panic directed against any individual or group. Black propaganda Dehumanization Delegitimization Demonizing the enemy Idealization and devaluation Religious paranoia Scapegoating

Serpent and the Sun: Tales of an Aztec Apprentice

Serpent and the Sun: Tales of an Aztec Apprentice is a 2008 documentary film written and directed by Shaahin Cheyene, an Iran-born American businessman. The documentary was filmed in Mexico, tells the story about the life of the Aztec people in the modern era. Miktlan Ehekateotl “Ehe” Kuahtlinxan, a 52nd Aztec medicine man came out in the open to convey a message that the cultures and the Aztec people did not vanish. According to the documentary, more than 1.5 million people in Mexico speak Nahuatl and some of the Aztecan Shamanic healers or Curanderos are opening up and sharing their knowledge about medicinal plants and their healing system, passed on to them by their ancestors. The documentary features the life-changing mentoring of Ehe to Tachi, a young man, discouraged by his poor economic situation in Mexico City. In desperation, Tachi planned to join the Zapatista rebels in Mexico. Tachi was fired from his job, which made him more upset; this prompted him to find a sorcerer to spell a curse to his employer.

While looking for a sorcerer at Sonora Market in Mexico City Tachi met Ehe. The medicine man cautioned him about the dangers of sorcery and he informed the young Mexican about the spiritual tradition of the Aztecs known as Tetzkatlipoka. Tachi forgot his objective to find a sorcerer and joined Ehe to a spiritual journey, discover his roots and learn about the life and ways of a traditional healer; the documentary presents interviews from different experts about the Mayan race, their cultures and medicine system. The interviewees include Ysamur Flores and De Anna Rivera, from UCLA Tribal Learning Center and Department of World Arts and Culture respectively; the Serpent and the Sun: Tales of An Aztec Apprentice was filmed by Cheyene in various parts of Mexico including the Pyramids of Teotitlan, the Aztecan Templo Mayor, the mountain ranges of Puebla and Oaxaca and in the streets of Mexico City. The documentary centers on the message that the Aztecan traditional healing system still exists to this day.

Native American Filmmaker Award – 2008 Paso Robles Film Festival Best Documentary Brilliant-Life Film festivalSerpent and the Sun: Tales of an Aztec Apprentice won the following awards from the Wild Rose Independent Film Festival: Best Documentary- Shaahin Cheyene Best Original Music-Austin Wintory Best Visual Effects- Mike Goedecke Best Visual Design – Scott Lang & Shawn LyonThe documentary was nominated as Best Foreign Film at the Buffalo, Niagara Falls Film Festival, it was selected as entry to the 2008 Mendocino Film Festival, Jules Verne Film Festival, High Definition Film Festival, Non-violence International Film Festival and to the Masson Film Festival.


FreeCAD is a free and open-source general-purpose parametric 3D CAD modeler and a building information modeling software with finite-element-method support. FreeCAD is intended for mechanical engineering product design but expands to a wider range of uses around engineering, such as architecture or electrical engineering; because of the free and open-source nature of the software, users can extend the functionality of the software using the Python programming language. FreeCAD is in a beta stage of development. FreeCAD features tools similar to CATIA, SolidWorks, Solid Edge, NX, Inventor and therefore falls into the category of Building Info Modeling, Mechanical computer-aided design, PLM, CAx and CAE, it is intended to be a feature-based parametric modeler with a modular software architecture, which makes it easy to provide additional functionality without modifying the core system. As with many modern 3D CAD modelers, it will have a 2D component to facilitate 3D-to-2D drawing conversion. Under its current state, direct 2D drawing is not the focus for this software, neither are animation or 3D model manipulation.

However, the modular nature of FreeCAD will allow the user to adapt its workflow for such environments. FreeCAD uses open-source libraries from the field of computing science. FreeCAD itself can be used as a library by other programs. There are moves to expand FreeCAD in the architecture and construction engineering sectors and to add building information modeling functionality with the Arch Module. FreeCAD's own main file format is FreeCAD Standard file format, it is a standard zip file. Document.xml file has all parametric objects definitions. GuiDocument.xml has visual representation details of objects. Other files include brep-files for objects and thumbnail of drawing. Besides FreeCAD's own file format, files can be exported and imported in the following file formats: DXF, SVG, STEP, IGES, STL, OBJ, DAE, SCAD, IV and IFC. FreeCAD's support for the important DWG file format has been problematic due to software license compatibility problems with the GNU LibreDWG library; the GNU LibreDWG library started as a real free alternative to the source-available OpenDWG library and is licensed under the GPLv3.

As FreeCAD has dependencies on Open Cascade, which prior to version 6.7.0 was only compatible with GPLv2, it couldn't use the GNU LibreDWG library as GPLv2 and GPLv3 are incompatible. Open CASCADE technologies were contacted by Debian team in 2009, 2012 got a reply that Open CASCADE technologies was considering dual-licensing OCCT, however they postponed that move. A request went to the FSF to relicense GNU LibreDWG as GPLv2 or LGPLv3, rejected; as of the 2014 the 0.14 release of FreeCAD, including the new LGPL release of Open Cascade, the BSD-licensed version of Coin3D, the removal of PyQT, FreeCAD is now GPL-free. However, LibreDWG has not been adopted. FreeCAD is able to export a limited subset of the DWG format via the Teigha Converter. GitHub Files section SourceForge Files section SourceForge Old Files section Open CASCADE Technology Open-source software Comparison of CAD editors Parametric modeling Constructive solid geometry Boundary representation List of free and open source software packages Falck, Daniel.

Solid Modeling with the Power of Python, Packt Publishing, Birmingham, ISBN 978-1-84951-886-4. Official website