List of presidents of the United States on currency

Several presidents of the United States have appeared on currency. The President of the United States has appeared on official banknotes, coins for circulation, commemorative coins in the United States, the Confederate States of America, the Philippine Islands, the Commonwealth of the Philippines and around the world. Note: Series dates listed for United States paper money represents a specific issue or set of issues. Different series may represent no design change. Only a variety of a President's portrait used on paper money is noted next to the series date. Twenty-three U. S. Presidents have appeared on U. S. coin and paper currency. By law, "only the portrait of a deceased individual may appear on United States currency"; the Secretary of the Treasury determines which people and which of their portraits appear on the nation's currency, however legislation passed by Congress can determine currency design. Presidents appearing on U. S. currency are: 1783, 1792 Washington piece 1783, 1791, 1792, 1795 Washington cent Washington double-head cent 1791 Washington Liverpool halfpenny 1792 Washington Getz pattern piece 1793, 1795 Washington halfpenny 1795 Washington halfpenny, grate token 1795 Washington North Wales halfpenny Success Medal 1866, 1909, 1910 Washington nickel pattern pieces 1932, 1934–1998 Washington quarter.

The reverse carried a heraldic eagle for all years except 1975 and 1976, which featured the dual date 1776–1976 on the obverse and special reverse design for the United States Bicentennial. 1999–2008 50 State quarters Series 1999 New Jersey state quarter 2006 South Dakota state quarter 2009 District of Columbia and United States Territories quarters 2010–present America the Beautiful quarters 2013 South Dakota ATB quarter 2007 Presidential dollar coin, 1st of four U. S. Presidents issued in 2007. 1900 commemorative silver Lafayette dollar 1926 commemorative half dollar – 150th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence 1982 commemorative half dollar – 250th anniversary of Washington's birth 1991 Mount Rushmore commemorative series Half dollar Silver dollar $5 gold piece 1999 $5 gold commemorative piece – 200th anniversary of Washington's death. S. Presidents issued in 2007. Banknotes National Bank Notes All $100 first charter period Federal Reserve Notes All $2 1938–1942, 1946–2003 nickel with Monticello on the reverse 1942–1945 nickel.

The mint mark for these types are located above the Monticello. It helps distinguish between the 1942 types. 2004 nickel Westward Journey Series Louisiana Purchase Lewis and Clark 2005 nickel Westward Journey Series American bison "Ocean in view! O! The Joy!" 2006—present nickel "Return to Monticello" with a forward-facing Jefferson and the Monticello returns on the reverse. 2006 South Dakota state quarter reverse 2007 Dollar, 3rd of four U. S. Presidents issued in 2007. 1903 commemorative gold dollar – issued for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition 1991 Mount Rushmore commemorative series Half dollar Silver dollar $5 gold piece 1993 commemorative silver dollar – 250th anniversary of Jefferson's birth Fractional currency 5¢ and 25¢ first issue United States Note $2 Series of 1869 $2 Series of 1874, 1875, 1878 $2 Series of 1880 $2 Series of 1917 $2 Series of 1928, A—G $2 Series 1953, A—C $2 Series 1963, A Federal Reserve Bank Note $2 Series of 1918 Federal Reserve Note All $2 Federal Reserve Notes since Series 1976 appearing on front and reverse.

Coin for circulation 2007 Dollar, 4th of four U. S. Presidents issued in 2007. Commemorative coins 1993 Bill of Rights commemorative coin series Half dollar Silver dollar $5 gold piece $500000 gold ingotBanknotes United States Note $5000 1878 Gold Certificate $5000 Series of 1870 and 1875 $5000 1882 $5000 Series of 1888 $5000 Series of 1882 $5000 Series of 1928 Federal Reserve Note $5000 Series of 1914 All $5000 small size Federal Reserve Notes Coins for circulation 2008 Dollar, 1st of four U. S. Presidents issued in 2008. Commemorative coin 1923 Monroe Doctrine Centennial half dollar, featuring profiles of Monroe Coins for circulation 2008 Dollar, 2nd of four U. S. Presidents issued in 2008. Commemorative coin 1923 Monroe Doctrine Cen

Dialogue Mass

A Dialogue Mass is a Low Mass in which the people recite some parts of the Latin Tridentine Mass. The Dialogue Mass was an intermediate development in the twentieth century liturgical reform that culminated in the reform of the Roman Mass authorised by the Second Vatican Council and promulgated by Pope Paul VI in 1969. Before the introduction of the Dialogue Mass, the people had little active participation in the Mass other than interior disposition; this was intended to emphasise the fact that Catholics gathered together to witness and participate in an action rather than participate in common prayer, a hallmark of the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century. The introduction of bilingual hand Missals occurred in Germany in the 19th century in defiance of Church law which required the liturgical texts to be reproduced in Latin. Given authorisation, they allowed the laity to follow the Mass rather than the traditional practice of saying private prayers as the priest celebrated; the subsequent step was the people saying the Latin responses of the Mass called the Dialogue Mass.

In 1922, the Holy See gave approval to the practice whereby "at least in religious houses and institutions for youth, all people assisting at the Mass make the responses at the same time with the acolytes", a practice that it declared praiseworthy in view of the evident desire expressed in papal documents "to instil into the souls of the faithful a Christian and collective spirit, prepare them for active participation." The practice was established without authorisation in Belgium and in Germany before the First World War. Further approval was granted in 1935 and 1958. However, the Dialogue Mass was not obligatory and there were conflicting statements about the practice from the Vatican; the Decree of the Sacred Congregation of Rites of 1922, shortly after the incipient Dialogue Mass, replied to the question "May the congregation, assisting at the Sacrifice make the responses in unison, instead of the server?" by saying: "The norm is: Things that in themselves are licit are not always expedient.

Owing to the difficulties which may arise, as in this case on account of the disturbances which the priests who celebrate and the people who assist may experience, to the disadvantage of the sacred Action and of the rubrics. Hence it is expedient to retain the common usage, as we have several times replied in similar cases." The Dialogue Mass never became prevalent in English-speaking countries and current celebrations of Tridentine Mass in these countries are in practice structured as a Dialogue Mass. In other countries, such as France, Germany, the Dialogue Mass met with a greater acceptance as the Church hierarchies of these countries in the 1940s and 1950s tended to be more progressive than the traditionally-minded bishops in English-speaking lands as became evident during the Second Vatican Council. A number of Tridentine Masses celebrated in these countries use the Dialogue Mass form; the minimum form of Dialogue Mass introduced in 1922 allowed the people to join with the servers in reciting the responses in the Ordinary of the Mass.

In addition, the people were allowed to recite those parts of the Ordinary of the Mass that are sung by all at a Missa Cantata, the Gloria, Creed and Agnus Dei, to recite with the priest the triple "Domine non sum dignus" that he said as part of the rite of Communion of the faithful. The people were allowed to recite the Introit and Communion Antiphons sung by the choir at a Solemn or High Mass; the form to be used in a particular diocese was left to the discretion of the bishop. Deutsche Singmesse French Organ Mass The Catholic Liturgical Library, How to Assist at Mass

Rishi (actor)

Rishi is an Indian film and television actor. He is a regular performer on the Chennai stage and is best known for his trend-setting anchoring style in Sun TV's phenomenally successful Deala No Deala, his second non-fiction show with Endemol India was Sun TV's Kaiyil Oru Kodi, one of the most successful TV programmes of the year. Rishi has appeared in supporting roles in Tamil films most notably Payanam, he is the brand ambassador for Vim Liquid for South India. Rishi is the only child of Tamil father S. Chandrashekaran and Gujarathi mother Gayathri Chandrashekaran, with his father being a musician and his mother an amateur poet, his paternal grandfather is the ex-politician C. R. Subramaniam, a member of the Kamaraj headed Congress in the 60s. At 17, Rishi quit engineering to do theatre. Rishi appeared in a few fiction and non-fiction shows on STAR Vijay before appearing on Sun TV with Endemol's Dealaa No Dealaa; this was a runaway success with Rishi's anchoring style making him a household name among the Tamil people all over the world, with a special fan following in Malaysia and Canada.

Sun TV broke the norm of low-budget game shows by pumping in never-before-seen funds and resources making it a trendsetter not only in its success but the way the TV business was done in Southern India. In 2012, Endemol South and Sun TV joined hands once again for Kaiyil Oru Kodi, Are you ready? with Rishi as the anchor. It was one of the most successful shows of the year, and Sun TV received special praise for confidently choosing Rishi as the anchor over film-stars who were failing to keep audiences glued to the television anyway. In 2009-10 Rishi played the lead in the hugely popular Telugu-language soap opera, Sundarakanda the first Indian TV show to be shot in the USA. Having idolized M. R. Radha and Raghuvaran through his childhood, Rishi has always wanted to play negative roles and made his debut in Ananda Thandavam.. He went on to do supporting roles in a few films like Mandhira Punnagai, Naan Sigappu Manithan etc. and appeared in the ensemble cast of Payanam that brought him a lot of attention.

He played the lead role in Parithi opposite actress Kareenasha, but the film did not have a theatrical release. Rishi started to direct and act in plays at 17, he did a series of Shakespeare readings in 2006. He has appeared in the Metroplus Theatre Festival with The Madras Players twice. Rishi received rave reviews for his performance in the play Honour. ActorHost