Anne, Queen of Great Britain
Anne was the Queen of England and Ireland between 8 March 1702 and 1 May 1707. On 1 May 1707, under the Acts of Union, two of her realms, the kingdoms of England and Scotland, united as a single sovereign state known as Great Britain, she continued to reign as Queen of Great Britain and Ireland until her death in 1714. Anne was born in the reign of her uncle Charles II, her father, Charles's younger brother James, was thus heir presumptive to the throne. His suspected Roman Catholicism was unpopular in England, on Charles's instructions Anne and her elder sister, were raised as Anglicans. On Charles's death in 1685, James succeeded to the throne, but just three years he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. Mary and her husband, the Dutch Protestant William III of Orange, became joint monarchs. Although the sisters had been close, disagreements over Anne's finances and choice of acquaintances arose shortly after Mary's accession and they became estranged. William and Mary had no children.
After Mary's death in 1694, William reigned alone until his own death in 1702, when Anne succeeded him. During her reign, Anne favoured moderate Tory politicians, who were more to share her Anglican religious views than their opponents, the Whigs; the Whigs grew more powerful during the course of the War of the Spanish Succession, until 1710 when Anne dismissed many of them from office. Her close friendship with Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, turned sour as the result of political differences; the Duchess took revenge in an unflattering description of the Queen in her memoirs, accepted by historians until Anne was re-assessed in the late 20th century. Anne was plagued by ill health throughout her life, from her thirties, she grew ill and obese. Despite seventeen pregnancies by her husband, Prince George of Denmark, she died without surviving issue and was the last monarch of the House of Stuart. Under the Act of Settlement 1701, which excluded all Catholics, she was succeeded by her second cousin George I of the House of Hanover.
Anne was born at 11:39 p.m. on 6 February 1665 at St James's Palace, the fourth child and second daughter of the Duke of York, his first wife, Anne Hyde. Her father was the younger brother of King Charles II, who ruled the three kingdoms of England and Ireland, her mother was the daughter of Lord Chancellor Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon. At her Anglican baptism in the Chapel Royal at St James's, her older sister, was one of her godparents, along with the Duchess of Monmouth and the Archbishop of Canterbury, Gilbert Sheldon; the Duke and Duchess of York had eight children, but Anne and Mary were the only ones to survive into adulthood. As a child, Anne suffered from an eye condition, which manifested as excessive watering known as "defluxion". For medical treatment, she was sent to France, where she lived with her paternal grandmother, Henrietta Maria of France, at the Château de Colombes near Paris. Following her grandmother's death in 1669, Anne lived with an aunt, Henrietta Anne, Duchess of Orléans.
On the sudden death of her aunt in 1670, Anne returned to England. Her mother died the following year; as was traditional in the royal family and her sister were brought up separated from their father in their own establishment at Richmond, London. On the instructions of Charles II, they were raised as Protestants. Placed in the care of Colonel Edward and Lady Frances Villiers, their education was focused on the teachings of the Anglican church. Henry Compton, Bishop of London, was appointed as Anne's preceptor. Around 1671, Anne first made the acquaintance of Sarah Jennings, who became her close friend and one of her most influential advisors. Jennings married John Churchill in about 1678, his sister, Arabella Churchill, was the Duke of York's mistress, he was to be Anne's most important general. In 1673, the Duke of York's conversion to Catholicism became public, he married a Catholic princess, Mary of Modena, only six and a half years older than Anne. Charles II had no legitimate children, so the Duke of York was next in the line of succession, followed by his two surviving daughters from his first marriage and Anne—as long as he had no son.
Over the next ten years, the new Duchess of York had ten children, but all were either stillborn or died in infancy, leaving Mary and Anne second and third in the line of succession after their father. There is every indication that, throughout Anne's early life and her stepmother got on well together, the Duke of York was a conscientious and loving father. In November 1677, Anne's elder sister, married their Dutch first cousin, William III of Orange, at St James's Palace, but Anne could not attend the wedding because she was confined to her room with smallpox. By the time she recovered, Mary had left for her new life in the Netherlands. Lady Frances Villiers contracted the disease, died. Anne's aunt Lady Henrietta Hyde was appointed as her new governess. A year Anne and her stepmother visited Mary in Holland for two weeks. Anne's father and stepmother retired to Brussels in March 1679 in the wake of anti-Catholic hysteria fed by the Popish Plot, Anne visited them from the end of August. In October, they returned to the Duke and Duchess to Scotland and Anne to England.
She joined her father and stepmother at Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh from July 1681 until May 1682. It was her last journey outside England. Anne's second cousin George of Hanover visited London for three months from December 1680, sparking rumours of a potential marriage between them. H
Maud of Wales
Maud of Wales, was Queen of Norway as spouse of King Haakon VII. She was Alexandra of Denmark. Maud of Wales was the first queen of Norway in over five centuries, not queen of Denmark or Sweden. Maud was born on 26 November 1869 at London, she was the third daughter and fifth child of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, the eldest son of Queen Victoria, Alexandra, Princess of Wales, the eldest daughter of King Christian IX of Denmark. She was christened "Maud Charlotte Mary Victoria" at Marlborough House by John Jackson, Bishop of London, on 24 December 1869, her godparents were her paternal uncle Prince Leopold. The tomboyish Maud was known as "Harry" to the royal family, after Edward VII's friend Admiral Henry Keppel, whose conduct in the Crimean War was considered courageous at the time. Maud took part in all the annual visits to the Princess of Wales's family in Denmark and accompanied her mother and sisters on cruises to Norway and the Mediterranean, she was a bridesmaid at the 1885 wedding of her paternal aunt Beatrice to Prince Henry of Battenberg, at the wedding of her brother George to Mary of Teck in 1893.
Maud, along with her sisters and Louise, received the Imperial Order of the Crown of India from their grandmother Queen Victoria on 6 August 1887. Like her sisters, she held the Royal Order of Victoria and Albert and was a Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem. Maud married late, waiting until her late twenties to find a husband, she had wanted to marry a distant cousin Prince Francis of Teck, younger brother of her sister-in-law Mary. Despite being impoverished from mounting gambling debts and being in a position to benefit from Maud's status, he ignored her advances. On 22 July 1896, Princess Maud married her first cousin, Prince Carl of Denmark, in the private chapel at Buckingham Palace. Prince Carl was the second son of Queen Alexandra's eldest brother, Crown Prince Frederick of Denmark, Princess Louise of Sweden; the bride's father gave her Appleton House on the Sandringham Estate as a country residence for her frequent visits to England. It was there that Prince Alexander, was born on 2 July 1903 in Sandringham.
Prince Carl was an officer in the Danish navy and he and his family lived in Denmark until 1905. In June 1905 the Norwegian parliament, the Storting, dissolved Norway's 91-year-old union with Sweden and voted to offer the throne to Prince Carl. Maud's membership of the British royal house had some part in. Following a plebiscite in November, Prince Carl accepted the Norwegian throne, taking the name of Haakon VII, while his young son took the name of Olav. King Haakon VII and Queen Maud were crowned at Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim on 22 June 1906, that being the last coronation in Scandinavia. Queen Maud never lost her love of Britain, but she adapted to her new country and duties as a queen consort. Maud played a discreet role in public. During her first years in Norway and her spouse were photographed in Norwegian folk costumes, enjoying winter sports such as skiing, to give them a Norwegian appearance in the eyes of the public, she disliked representation but performed her role as a queen with great care, used clothes and jewellery to make a regal impression.
She supported charitable causes those associated with children and animals, gave encouragement to musicians and artists. Among her projects was Dronningens Hjelpekomité during World War I, she supported the feminist Katti Anker Møller's home for unwed mothers, regarded as radical, designed furniture for the benefit of the Barnets utstilling in 1921, sold photographs for charitable purposes. An avid horseback rider, Maud insisted. Queen Maud would supervise much of this project herself and was inspired by the Royal Mews in London when the stables were expanded. Maud continued to regard Great Britain as her true home after her arrival in Norway, visited Great Britain every year, she stayed at her Appleton House, during her visits. She did, however appreciate some aspects of Norway, such as the winter sports, she supported bringing up her son as a Norwegian, she learned to ski and arranged for an English gardens at Kongsseteren, the royal lodge overlooking Oslo, the summer residence at Bygdøy. She is described as reserved as a public person but energetic and with a taste for practical jokes as a private person.
Her influence over her spouse and politics is not much examined, but she is described as a forceful and dominant person within the royal court, though her public role was less visible. Queen Maud's last public appearance in Britain was at the coronation of her nephew, George VI, in May 1937 at Westminster Abbey, she sat in the royal pew at Westminster Abbey next to her sister-
Olga Constantinovna of Russia
Olga Constantinovna of Russia was Queen consort of the Hellenes as the wife of King George I. She was the regent of Greece in 1920. A member of the Romanov dynasty, she was the daughter of Grand Duke Constantine Nikolaievich and his wife, Princess Alexandra of Saxe-Altenburg, she spent her childhood in Saint Petersburg and the Crimea, married King George I of Greece in 1867 at the age of sixteen. At first, she felt ill at ease in the Kingdom of Greece, but she became involved in social and charitable work, she founded hospitals and schools, but her attempt to promote a new, more accessible, Greek translation of the Gospels sparked riots by religious conservatives. On the assassination of her husband in 1913, Olga returned to Russia; when the First World War broke out, she set up a military hospital in Pavlovsk Palace, which belonged to her brother. She was trapped in the palace after the Russian Revolution of 1917, until the Danish embassy intervened, allowing her to escape to Switzerland. Olga could not return to Greece as King Constantine I, had been deposed.
In October 1920, she returned to Athens on the fatal illness of King Alexander. After his death, she was appointed regent until the restoration of Constantine I the following month. After the defeat of the Greeks in the Greco-Turkish War of 1919–22 the Greek royal family were again exiled and Olga spent the last years of her life in the United Kingdom and Italy. Olga was born at Pavlovsk Palace near Saint Petersburg on 3 September 1851, she was the second child and elder daughter of Grand Duke Constantine Nikolaievich and his wife, Grand Duchess Alexandra, a former princess of Saxe-Altenburg. Through her father, Olga was a granddaughter of Tsar Nicholas I, a niece of Tsar Alexander II and first cousin of Tsar Alexander III, her childhood was spent including Pavlovsk Palace and estates in the Crimea. Her father was a younger brother of Alexander II, her mother was considered one of the most intelligent and elegant women of the court. Olga was close to her older brother and was one of the few members of the imperial family to keep in touch with him after he was banished to Tashkent.
As a child, Olga was described as a simple and chubby little girl with a broad face and big blue eyes. Unlike her younger sister, she had a calm temperament, but she was extremely shy. For example, when interrogated by her tutors during lessons, she burst into tears and ran from the classroom. In 1862, Grand Duke Constantine Nikolaievich was appointed viceroy of Russian Poland by his brother and moved to Warsaw with his wife and children; the stay in Poland proved difficult for the Grand Duke, the victim of a nationalist assassination attempt the day after his arrival in the Polish capital. Although Constantine embarked on a program of liberalization and re-instated Polish as an official language, Polish nationalists agitating for reform were not appeased. An uprising in January 1863 and the radicalization of the separatists pushed the Tsar to recall his brother in August. Olga's difficult experiences in Poland marked her profoundly; the young King George I of Greece visited Russia in 1863 to thank Olga's uncle Tsar Alexander II for his support during George's election to the throne of Greece.
Whilst there, George met the twelve-year-old Olga for the first time. George visited Russia again in 1867 to meet with his sister Dagmar, who had married Tsarevitch Alexander the year before, he was determined to find a wife and the idea of an alliance with a Russian grand duchess, born into the Eastern Orthodox Church, appealed to him. Olga fell in love with George, but she was anxious and distraught at the thought of leaving Russia, her father was reluctant to agree to their marriage, thinking that at the age of fifteen she was too young and, being close to his daughter, concerned by the distance between Greece and Russia. For her part, Grand Duchess Alexandra was much more enthusiastic than her husband and, when some members of the imperial family noted the extreme youth of her daughter, she replied that Olga would not always be as young, it was decided that Olga and George would marry when she had reached her sixteenth birthday. Meanwhile, she would continue her schoolwork until her wedding day.
Olga and George married at the chapel of the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg on 27 October 1867. After five days of festivities, they spent a brief honeymoon at Ropsha, south-west of Saint Petersburg. Over the following twenty years, they had eight children: Constantine, born ten months after the marriage of his parents; the Tsar told Olga "to love her new country twice more than her own", but she was ill-prepared for her new life. Aware of her youth, she chose to retain th
Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin was Queen of Denmark as the spouse of King Christian X. She was Queen of Iceland from 1 December 1918 to 17 June 1944, she was born a Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, in the city of Germany. Her father was Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Duchess Alexandrine married Prince Christian of Denmark on 26 April 1898, in Cannes, when she was 18 years old, they had two children: Prince Frederick King Frederick IX of Denmark. The only brother of Queen Alexandrine was Frederick Francis IV, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, while her only sister was Duchess Cecilie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, wife of German Crown Prince William, eldest son of German Emperor William II. In 1902, the couple were given Marselisborg Palace, the garden was to become one of her greatest interests. Alexandrine became crown princess in 1906 and queen in 1912, she is not considered to have played any political role, but is described as being a loyal support to her spouse. She was interested in music, acted as the protector of the musical societies Musikforeningen i København and Den danske Richard Wagnerforening.
She was known for her needlework. After the death of her mother-in-law Louise of Sweden in 1926, she succeeded her as the official protector of the various charity organisations founded by Louise, she enjoyed photography. During World War I, she founded, she survived the 1918 flu pandemic. The couple was given great popularity as national symbols during the World War II occupation, demonstrated during a tour through the country in 1946. Before the occupation and her daughter-in-law were engaged in mobilising the Danish women, her rejection of General Kaupisch on 9 April 1940 became a symbol for her loyalty toward Denmark before her birth country Germany. When the General of the occupation forces first asked for an audience with the monarch, Christian was persuaded to receive him by his daughter-in-law as he would any other, supported by Alexandrine, he asked to do so alone. When the General was about to leave, she came in, it was reported, that although Alexandrine was seen as shy and disliked official ceremonies, she had a "sharp" intelligence, she was, together with her daughter-in-law, Ingrid of Sweden, a true support of the monarch and a driving force for the resistance toward the occupation within the royal house.
It was reported, that in contrast to the monarch himself and the Crown Prince, the Queen and the Crown Princess never lost their calm when the nation was attacked. As she was not the Head of the Royal House, she could show herself in public more than her spouse, who did not wish to show support to the occupation by being seen in public, she used this to engage in various organisations for social relief to ease the difficulties caused by the occupation. Kaj Munk is quoted to describe the public appreciation of her during World War II with his comment: "Protect our Queen, the only German we would like to keep!"In 1947, she was widowed. 24 December 1879 – 26 April 1898: Her Highness Duchess Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin 26 April 1898 – 29 January 1906: Her Royal Highness Princess Alexandrine of Denmark 29 January 1906 – 14 May 1912: Her Royal Highness The Crown Princess of Denmark 14 May 1912 – 1 December 1918: Her Majesty The Queen of Denmark 1 December 1918 – 17 June 1944: Her Majesty The Queen of Denmark and Iceland 17 June 1944 – 20 April 1947: Her Majesty The Queen of Denmark 20 April 1947 – 28 December 1952: Her Majesty Queen Alexandrine of Denmark German Imperial and Royal Family: Dame of the Imperial and Royal Order of Louise, 1st Class House of Mecklenburg-Schwerin: Knight Grand Cross of the Schwerin Royal House Order of the Wendish Crown, Special Class Denmark: Knight with Collar of the Order of the Elephant Denmark: Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Dannebrog Denmark: Dame of the Royal Family Order of King Christian IX Denmark: Dame of the Royal Family Order of King Frederick VIII Denmark: Dame of the Royal Family Order of King Christian X Iceland: Grand Cross of the Order of the Falcon Russian Imperial Family: Dame Grand Cordon of the Imperial Order of Saint Catherine Spanish Royal Family: 1,170th Dame Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Queen Maria Luisa Sweden: Member of the Royal Order of the Seraphim Sweden: Recipient of the 70th Birthday Badge Medal of King Gustaf V Sweden: Recipient of the 90th Birthday Badge Medal of King Gustav V Dansk Kvindebiografisk Leksikon Queen Alexandrine at the website of the Royal Danish Collection at Amalienborg Palace