Woof! is a British children's television series produced by Central Independent Television about the adventures of a boy who shapeshifts into a dog. It was based on the book by Allan Ahlberg, it was directed by David Cobham with the screenplay by Richard Fegen and Andrew Norriss who novelized the second and fourth series as Woof! The Tale Wags On, Woof! The Tale Gets Longer and Woof! A Twist in the Tale respectively; the show was first broadcast in 1989. It starred Liza Goddard as teacher Mrs Jessop. Edward Fidoe played the boy who turned into a dog of the same name, it starred Thomas Aldwinckle as Eric's best friend Roy Ackerman and Sarah Smart as his new best friend Rachel Hobbs who moves into Roy's old house. Filming was interrupted for a while; the show featured weekly escapades to do with the dog power. In the third series of Eric's run of episodes, a start at a plot arc was developed, with Eric suspecting the transition is caused by adrenaline as it happens when he is hot or excited, meeting up with an adult named Bruce Bentley who has the same affliction when Eric wonders if it happened to anyone else.
In the first series Eric's condition is caused by his younger sister Emily wanting a dog. Eric stopped transforming after he bought her a dog but he started again with his friend Roy wanting one too. From Series Six which began airing in 1993, the episodes featured the adventures of Rex Thomas and his best friend Michael Tully. Rex "inherits" Eric's "condition" when Eric is unlikely to turn into a dog again as stated in a cameo featuring Eric and Rachel at the start of series 6 to explain their absence from this point on. Lionel Jeffries guest-starred in Series 6 as Rex's Grandfather, the only one in Rex's house who knows about his condition. In the final episode of series 8 he becomes Mrs Jessop's stepson after she marries Ken; the ninth and final series, consisting of seven episodes, produced in 1996 but aired in January to February 1997. It featured Jim Walters, accompanied by his cousin Brian Barford and next door neighbour Carrie Howard whose previous dog Beth had died and her desire for another dog causing Jim's condition shortly after he moved in.
By the time the show ended, Liza Goddard was the only original cast member to feature through all nine series. The programme featured several well-known actors over the years. Leslie Grantham appeared in some episodes as Mr Garrett, a ruthless dog warden from the local dog pound. Stephen Fry appeared as a cartoonist whose work is disrupted by Grandad and Rex. Others included Ruth Madoc, Anita Dobson, Penelope Keith, Leslie Phillips, John Ringham, Bill Pertwee, Julian Fellowes and Andrew Sachs. Four dogs starred across the nine series. Pippin starred as Eric the dog in the first series, she starred in Children's BBC programme Come Outside and a number of educational schools films. She was the offspring of one of the dogs who played Benji. Tich was the second dog to play Eric starring in Series 2 to 5. Punch, a small white dog, played Rex the Dog. Tinka appeared as Jim the dog in the final series. Series 1 to 4 were filmed around the suburb of Moseley in Birmingham. For the series, production moved to Nottingham and much location filming took place in and around West Bridgford, a suburb just south of Nottingham and various other Nottinghamshire towns.
The change in location is explained by having Eric's family move to get a bigger house with his mother expecting twins. The school used during filming is Wilford Meadows Comprehensive located in Wilford; the school has since been demolished and a new school was built on the land. The show was broadcast in Australia at 6:50am on weekdays on 7TWO from April 2010. Series 1: 4 episodes - 18 February 1989 – 11 March 1989 Series 2: 7 episodes - 23 November 1989 – 11 January 1990 Series 3: 8 episodes - 20 February 1991 – 17 April 1991 Series 4: 7 episodes - 10 January 1992 – 21 February 1992 Series 5: 6 episodes - 7 October 1992 – 11 November 1992 Series 6: 10 episodes - 13 October 1993 – 15 December 1993 Series 7: 10 episodes - 12 October 1994 – 14 December 1994 Series 8: 10 episodes - 5 October 1995 – 14 December 1995 Series 9: 7 episodes - 8 January 1997 – 19 February 1997 The series was released in the United Kingdom on VHS but, despite being a British programme, it has never been released beyond that in the UK.
A DVD release entitled Woof, which consists the entire Series 1 cut into one feature is available in the United States coded Region 1. Series 3 was released on DVD in the United States as A Boy Called Woof! and A Boy Called Woof! Back In The Dog House. Several unofficial DVDs of Series 1-9 are available online through various sources. Woof! on IMDb
Ned's Newt is a Canadian/German animated series created by Andy Knight, creator of the Jetix series Get Ed, Mike Burgess, is co-produced by Nelvana and TMO Film GmbH in conjunction with Studio B Productions. The program aired on Teletoon from 1997 to 1999. In the United States, the program aired on Fox Kids from 1998. Teletoon Retro aired reruns of all 39 half-hour episodes on September 5, 2011; the series begins with Ned scraping up enough money to buy a pet. However, upon reaching the pet store, the only thing he can afford is a newt. Dubbing his new pet "Newton", Ned tires of it, since Newton just lies on the rock in his bowl. Complaining to the pet store owner that his new pet is not active, the owner gives Ned a can of "Zippo for Newt" pet food but warns Ned not to give his pet too much. Ned feeds Newton a little. Ned goes to bed; that night, Newton gulps down several mouthfuls of Zippo. Thus, the "too much" warning comes true: Newton grows 6 feet tall, can talk, has the power to shapeshift.
After Ned realizes this, he and Newton become the best of friends, but the effects of Zippo do not last forever. In fact, Newton gets Ned into trouble, at which point the Zippo wears off and Newton shifts back to his smaller form, leaving Ned alone to bear the wrath of his elders; the series recounts the misadventures of Ned attempting to live a normal life while trying to keep Newton from being discovered. Recurring plots involve Ned and Newton working to fix situations which Newton has helped go awry, Ned's hopeless crush on his neighbor, Linda Bliss and his rivalry with snobbish Rusty McCabe for Linda's affections; each show made a habit of creating outrageous plots out of mundane settings. For example, after a joyful weekend of playing, Ned exclaims. Newton comes up with the idea that, rather than wait for next weekend, they can build a time machine and travel back to Friday, relive the weekend. After they build the time machine out of a bunch of household objects, they accidentally travel back to the age of the dinosaurs and end up changing the future.
In another episode, in an effort to raise money for charity, Ned's friend Doogle digs a hole and stumbles across a race of subterranean trolls secretly planning domination of the world's "metropolises-es". Ned takes Newton with him everywhere and makes sure to keep some Zippo food with him at all times, just in case Newton turns back into a normal newt. Newton's powers always make things worse due to the fact he has a poor understanding of society. Thus, when Ned explains to him that Newton has made a terrible mistake and Ned must work together to put things right, and although they succeed in doing so, Newton invariably changes back to newt form just in time to avoid being seen, just in time for Ned to get into trouble. The series made extensive references to famous faces and popular culture at the time, relying on Harland Williams's experience as a comedian and impressionist. Newton morphs into "newt-versions" of many famous personalities in each episode, such as Arnold Schwarzenegger, Humphrey Bogart and Clark Gable for comic effect.
Several running gags span the episodes of all three seasons, such as Mrs. Flemkin finding a crow hiding in the kitchen, Newton's solution to various problems involving a rubber ducky and a bicycle pump which he never gets to use, or the appearance of quahogs in a barrel which begin to sing M-O-T-H-E-R by Howard Johnson. Newton frequently broke the fourth wall in season three going so far as to comment upon how poorly his bellybutton was drawn, or whether newts should have bellybuttons at all. For the final four episodes of season three, Harland Williams was replaced by Ron Pardo as the voice of Newton. In Season 3, episode 8 Newton proclaims that he is a member of the genus Triturus, which are crested or marbled newts native to Europe. Newton mentions the species name vittercensis, not a catalogued member of the genus. Harland Williams as Newton Ron Pardo as Newton Tracey Moore as Ned Flemkin Carolyn Scott as Sharon "Mom" Flemkin / Miss Bunn Peter Keleghan as Eric "Dad" Flemkin Tracy Ryan as Linda Bliss Colin O'Meara as Doogle / Mr. Bliss Jim Milington as The Usual Guy / Pet Shop Owner Created by: Michael Burgess, Andy Knight Executive Producers: Clive A. Smith Patrick Loubert Michael Hirsch Andy Knight Andrew Nicholls Darrell Vickers Peter Völkle Produced by: Vince Commisso Directed by: Rick Marshall Voice Director: Debra "Debby" Toffan Casting: Karen Goora Art Director: Mike Ksunyoska Music by: John Tucker Produced with the Canada Film = Tax Credit Each VHS tape had two pairs of episodes.
The first three VHS tapes with two pairs of episodes each were released on March 23, 1999. The first three were duplicated in either EP/SLP, LP, or SP while the last three were duplicated in the SP mode. Mainstream reviews of Ned's Newt were mixed to positive. Author and cartoonist Edward Gorey was a strong fan of the show, identifying Ned's Newt as the "greatest" animated show in a 1998 Newsday interview. Ned's Newt on IMDb Ned's Newt at TV.com
Battersea Dogs & Cats Home
Battersea Dogs & Cats Home is an animal shelter that rescues cats and dogs in need of help and nurtures them until an owner or a new home can be found. It was established in Holloway, London in 1860 and moved to Battersea in 1871; the organisation holds an average of 260 dogs and 220 cats at any given time and has over its history helped more than 3 million dogs and cats. Battersea Dogs & Cats Home was established in Holloway in 1860 by Mary Tealby as the Temporary Home for Lost and Starving Dogs; the home moved to Battersea in 1871 opposite Battersea Park and has a view of the Battersea Power Station. During World War II manager Edward Healey-Tutt advised against people euthanising their pets because of fear of food shortages. Throughout the war Battersea cared for over 145,000 dogs. In 2002, the name was changed from Battersea Dogs Home to Battersea Dogs & Cats Home. To mark its 150th anniversary in 2010, the Royal Mail released a set of stamps featuring a series of dogs and cats, adopted by staff.
It launched a commemorative book, A Home of Their Own, which charts the history of the Home. This includes a look at notable people who have adopted animals such as Elton John, who credited his dog Thomas with helping him through a rough period. Starting in 2011, Battersea implemented the "Staffies. They're Softer Than You Think" campaign to educate the public about the positive attributes of the Staffordshire Bull Terrier. On 17 March 2015 Queen Elizabeth II unveiled a plaque to open the Mary Tealby kennels. In addition to the site in south-west London, the Home has two other centres based at Old Windsor and Brands Hatch, Kent. In 1885, Queen Victoria became Patron of the Home, it has remained under Royal Patronage since. HRH Duchess of Cornwall is the current Patron, Prince Michael of Kent is the President. Established in 1860, Battersea Dogs & Cats Home aims to never turn away a dog or cat in need of help, caring for them until their owners or loving new homes can be found, no matter how long it takes.
Battersea champions and supports vulnerable dogs and cats, determined to create lasting changes for animals in society. Battersea Dogs & Cats Home cared for nearly 5000 dogs and over 3000 cats in 2015 Battersea Dogs & Cats Home has an average of 260 dogs and 220 cats at any one time on site and on foster The home's average daily intake is 13 dogs and 9 cats The average stay for dogs is 30 days and for cats is 22 days. There is no time limit on how long a dog will stay in Battersea's care until a loving home can be found Across all three sites, the home employs 400 members of staff in a range of operational and administrative roles There are 1200 volunteers working in the home, they carry out a range of functions including walking the dogs and socialising with both the dogs and cats, kennel support and leading education talks In 1862, Charles Dickens published an article about the home for the magazine All the Year Round. He called it an "extraordinary monument of the remarkable affection with which the English people regard the race of dogs".
In 1967, Dodie Smith referred to the home in her novel The Starlight Barking. Battersea Dogs & Cats Home has featured on many television documentaries; the Channel 4 programme Pet Rescue which aired in Cats Home. BBC One programme Animal Rescue Live was broadcast live for a week at Battersea in July 2007; the programme was presented by Selina Scott. Since 2012, ITV's Paul O'Grady: For the Love of Dogs has been filmed at Battersea Dogs & Cats Home; the show won multiple awards including two National Television Awards for'Factual Entertainment'. In June 2016, the home featured in a Channel 4 series called Rescue Dog to Super Dog, made by Plimsoll Productions. David Gandy Paul O'Grady Jacqueline Wilson Amanda Holden Battersea Dogs & Cats Home is supported by a host of high-profile celebrities who attend Battersea's events, support campaigns and rehome animals including Tom Hardy, Jeremy Irons, Simon Cowell, Sue Barker, Anthony Head, Samantha Barks, Sue Perkins, Craig Revel Horwood, Kirsty Gallacher, Susie Dent, Rosie Marcel, Christian Jessen and Nicky Clarke.
Larry – Chief Mouser to the Cabinet Office Palmerston – Chief Mouser of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office Gladstone – Chief Mouser of HM Treasury The Chief Executive is Claire Horton, assisted by several directors, reporting to the Council of Trustees, of which the chairman is Amanda Burton. The Council consists of 11 Trustees; the Trustees are responsible for setting the strategic direction of the Home and monitoring the achievement of objectives and the financial position. The Home receives no government funding and is run entirely on donations from the public. In April 2017 the Information Commissioner’s Office fined eleven charities that breached the Data Protection Act by misusing donors’ personal data. Battersea was fined £9,000. In its accounts for the year 2015 Battersea disclosed that it had generated income of £36.7 million and had spent £28.5 million. The charity's accounts for 2016 show that in that year its highest paid employee earned "£130,001 - £140,000". Battersea Park station for National Rail and Queenstown Road station for National Rail services are located nearby on Battersea Park Road.
In the future the Northern line will serve the Home at a station called Battersea Power Station. Animal welfare in the United Kingdom Official Website Charity Commission. Battersea Dogs & Cats Home, registered charity no. 206394. Independent – The curious incident of the hungry dog in the night-time
Mickey's Farm is a Canadian children's television series made for preschoolers and children, a mix of live action and original music. The show is produced by Best Boy Entertainment in St. John's, Newfoundland and airs on The Pet Network in Canada and in the U. S. on the Trinity Broadcasting Network-owned Smile of a Child children's network, which picked up the U. S. rights to the show in 2012. Mickey, a new farm dog, has just moved to the farm with Megan; each episode follows Mickey as he experiences new things on the farm and sometimes gets himself into troublesome situations. With the help of Megan, his friends Guy the goat and Fiona the likeable ferret and their Magic Book, Mickey always resolves his problems and learns something new; each episode ends with an original song. The show is intended to motivate children to explore new things, ask questions, problem-solve and make new friends. Mickey hopes. Mickey the Sheepdog is a real Shetland Sheepdog who lives on a farm, has a love for adventure and is curious.
His best friend is Megan. Mickey was voiced by Peter MacDonald in the first two seasons and Erin Mackey in seasons 3-5. Megan is Mickey's 14-year-old best friend. Everyday after school, she sort out problems that are different. Megan was played by Jessica Croucher in the first two seasons and Hannah Wadman-Scanlan in seasons 3-5. Guy the Goat is a British goat, friends with Mickey and Megan, his agreeable character offers a matter-of-fact type interpretation. Guy is voiced by Charles Tomlinson, the only cast member, credited in every episode. Fiona the Ferret is a likable ferret who lives on the farm and is friends with Mickey and Megan, her enthusiastic character is always offering helpful suggestions. Fiona was voiced by Katherine Hatcher in the first season and Hannah Wadman-Scanlan in seasons 2-5. Sunny the Sun is an ever-present maternal character, always watching over the farm and narrates the show. Sunny was voiced by Allison White for the rest of the series; the show was developed in association with The Pet Network, designed for children ages 2–6 years old.
All episodes are 11 minutes in length, with two episodes shown within a 30-minute time slot when aired on TV. Season 1 was produced in 2009 and was directed by Christian Sparkes and was produced by Ed Martin, the show's executive producer. Season one began airing on The Pet Network in October 2009 and Qubo in December 2014. Season 2 was directed by Allison White. Season two began airing on The Pet Network in 2010 and Qubo in late-December 2014. Seasons 3, 4 and 5 began airing in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively; each episode includes an original score created by Jeremy Rice. Mickey: Everyone's Best Friend Trailer Mickey - The Pet Network Best Boy Entertainment Mickey - IMDb
National Lampoon's Animal House is a 1978 American comedy film directed by John Landis and written by Harold Ramis, Douglas Kenney and Chris Miller. It stars John Belushi, Tim Matheson, John Vernon, Verna Bloom, Thomas Hulce, Stephen Furst, Donald Sutherland; the film is about a misfit group of fraternity members who challenge the authority of the dean of Faber College. The film was produced by Ivan Reitman for Universal Pictures, it was inspired by stories published in National Lampoon. The stories were based on Ramis's experience in the Zeta Beta Tau fraternity at Washington University in St. Louis, Miller's Alpha Delta Phi experiences at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire, producer Reitman's at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario. Of the younger lead actors, only the 28-year-old Belushi was an established star, but he had not yet appeared in a film, having gained fame from his television appearances on Saturday Night Live, starting its third season in autumn 1977. Several of the actors who were cast as college students, including Hulce, Karen Allen, Kevin Bacon, were just beginning their film careers, although Matheson had appeared as one of the vigilante cops in the second Dirty Harry film, Magnum Force and had voiced the title character in Jonny Quest.
Upon its initial release, Animal House received mixed reviews from critics, but Time and Roger Ebert proclaimed it one of the year's best. Filmed for only $2.8 million, it garnered an estimated gross of more than $142 million in the form of theatrical rentals and home video, not including merchandising, making it the highest grossing comedy film of its time. The film, along with 1977's The Kentucky Fried Movie directed by Landis, was responsible for defining and launching the gross out film genre, which became one of Hollywood's staples; as of 2017, it was considered by many fans and critics as one of the greatest comedy films made. In 2001, the United States Library of Congress deemed Animal House "culturally or aesthetically significant" and selected it for preservation in the National Film Registry, it was No. 1 on Bravo's "100 Funniest Movies". It was No. 36 on AFI's "100 Years... 100 Laughs" list of the 100 best American comedies. In 2008, Empire magazine selected it as one of "The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time."
In 1962, Faber College freshmen Lawrence "Larry" Kroger and Kent Dorfman seek to join a fraternity. Finding themselves out of place at the prestigious Omega Theta Pi house's party, they visit the slovenly Delta Tau Chi house next door, where Kent is a "legacy" who cannot be rejected due to his brother, having been a member. John "Bluto" Blutarsky welcomes them, they meet other Deltas, including motorcyclist Daniel Simpson "D-Day" Day, chapter president Robert Hoover, ladies' man Eric "Otter" Stratton, Otter's best friend Donald "Boon" Schoenstein, whose girlfriend Katy is pressuring him to stop drinking with the Deltas and do something with his life. Larry and Kent are invited to pledge and given the fraternity names "Pinto" and "Flounder" by Bluto, Delta's sergeant-at-arms. College Dean Vernon Wormer wants to remove the Deltas, who are on probation, so he invokes his emergency authority and places the fraternity on "double-secret probation" due to various campus conduct violations and their abysmal academic standing.
He directs the clean-cut, smug Omega president Greg Marmalard to find a way for him to remove the Deltas from campus. Various incidents, including the prank-related accidental death of a horse belonging to Omega member and Reserve Officers' Training Corps cadet commander Douglas C. Neidermeyer, an attempt by Otter to date Marmalard's girlfriend, further increase the Dean's and the Omegas' animosity toward the Deltas. Bluto and D-Day steal the answers to an upcoming test from the trash, not realizing that the Omegas have planted a fake set of answers for them to find; the Deltas fail the exam, their grade-point averages fall so low that Wormer tells them he needs only one more incident to revoke their charter. To cheer themselves up, the Deltas organize a toga party and bring in Otis Day and the Knights to provide live music. Wormer's wife has sex with him. Pinto hooks up with Clorette, a girl, they do not have sex because she passes out drunk. Pinto takes her home in a shopping cart and discovers that she is the mayor's daughter.
Outraged by his wife's escapades and the mayor's threat of personal violence, Wormer organizes a kangaroo court and revokes Delta's charter. To take their minds off this action, Boon and Pinto go on a road trip. Otter is successful in picking up four young women from Emily Dickinson College as dates for himself and his Delta brothers, he elicits sympathy by posing as the fiancé of a young woman at the college who died in a recent kiln explosion. They stop at a roadhouse bar where Day's band is performing, not realizing it has an African-American clientele. A couple of hulking patrons intimidate the Deltas and they exit, smashing up Flounder's borrowed car and leaving their dates behind; the following morning, the girls return to school, evidently none the worse for wear after the desertion but angry at Otter and the other Deltas. Marmalard and other Omegas lure Otter to a motel and beat him up, believing that Otter is having an affair with Marmalard's girlfriend, Mandy; the Deltas' midterm grades are so poor that an ecstatic Wormer expels them all, having notified their local draft boards that they are now eligible for military service.
The news shocks Flounder so badly. The Deltas are de
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Animal magnetism known as mesmerism, was the name given by German doctor Franz Mesmer in the 18th century to what he believed to be an invisible natural force possessed by all living things, including humans and vegetables. He believed that the force could have physical effects, including healing, he tried persistently but without success to achieve scientific recognition of his ideas; the vitalist theory attracted numerous followers in Europe and the United States and was popular into the 19th century. Practitioners were known as magnetizers rather than mesmerists, it was an important specialty in medicine for about 75 years from its beginnings in 1779, continued to have some influence for another 50 years. Hundreds of books were written on the subject between 1766 and 1925, but it is entirely forgotten today. Mesmerism is still practised as a form of alternative medicine in some countries, but magnetic practices are not recognized as part of medical science; the terms "magnetizer" and "mesmerizer" have been applied to people who study and practice animal magnetism.
These terms have been distinguished from "mesmerist" and "magnetist", which are regarded as denoting those who study animal magnetism without being practitioners. The etymology of the word magnetizer comes from the French "magnetiseur", which in turn is derived from the French verb magnetiser; the term refers to an individual who has the power to manipulate the "magnetic fluid" with effects upon other people present that were regarded as analogous to magnetic effects. This sense of the term is found, for example, in the expression of Antoine Joseph Gorsas: "The magnetizer is the imam of vital energy". A tendency emerged amongst British magnetizers to call their clinical techniques "mesmerism". At the time, some magnetizers attempted to channel what they thought was a magnetic "fluid", sometimes they attempted this with a "laying on of hands". Reported effects included various feelings: intense heat, trembling and seizures. Many practitioners took a scientific approach, such as Joseph Philippe François Deleuze, a French physician, anatomist and physicist.
One of his pupils was Théodore Léger, who wrote that the label "mesmerism" was "most improper".. Noting that, by 1846, the term "galvanism" had been replaced by "electricity", Léger wrote that year: Mesmerism, of all the names proposed, is decidedly the most improper, he is not the inventor of the practical part of the science, since we can trace the practice of it through the most remote ages. He proposed for it a theory, now exploded, which, on account of his errors, has been fatal to our progress, he never spoke of the phenomena. In 1784 a French Royal Commission appointed by Louis XVI studied Mesmer's magnetic fluid theory to try to establish it by scientific evidence; the commission included Majault, Benjamin Franklin, Jean Sylvain Bailly, Jean-Baptiste Le Roy, Jean Darcet, de Borey, Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, Antoine Lavoisier, Caille, Mauduyt de la Varenne, de Jussieu. Whilst the commission agreed that the cures claimed by Mesmer were indeed cures, it concluded there was no evidence of the existence of his "magnetic fluid", that its effects derived from either the imaginations of its subjects or charlatanry.
A second investigating committee, appointed by a majority vote in 1826 in The Royal Academy of Medicine in Paris, studied the effects and clinical potentials of the mesmeric procedure - without trying to establish the physical nature of any magnetic fluidum. The report says: what we have seen in the course of our experiments bears no sort of resemblance to what the Report of 1784 relates with regard to the magnetizers of that period. We neither reject the existence of the fluid, because we have not verified the fact. We do not speak of... the crisis Among the conclusions were: Magnetism has taken effect upon persons of different sexes and ages.... In general, magnetism does not act upon persons in a sound state of health.... Neither does it act upon all sick persons.... We may conclude with certainty that this state exists, when it gives rise to the development of new faculties, which have been designated by the names of clairvoyance. We can not only act upon the magnetized person, but place him in a complete state of somnambulism, bring him out of it without his knowledge, out of his sight, at a certain distance, with doors intervening....
The greater number of the somnambu