Coldharbour Lane is a road in South London that leads south-westwards from Camberwell to Brixton. In total the road is over 1 mile long with a mixture of residential and retail buildings - the stretch of Coldharbour Lane near Brixton Market contains shops and restaurants. The junction of Coldharbour Lane and Denmark Hill in Camberwell SE5 marks part of the boundary between Lambeth and Southwark boroughs, the other end of Coldharbour Lane meets Acre Lane in central Brixton to form the A2217. The Loughborough Junction area, surrounding the station, marks the approximate centre point of Coldharbour Lane. Coldharbour Lane was formerly known as Camberwell Lane, former British Prime Minister John Major lived in a flat in Coldharbour Lane when a child in the mid-1950s. The lane close by Brixton Market became very derelict by the mid-1960s, in 1981 the Brixton riots occurred in roads near Coldharbour Lane and some windows were broken on the street itself. With the support of community leaders and shop owners, there are plans to set up a station on Coldharbour Lane in the former premises of a drug dealer.
A possible derivation of the name is Cool Arbour Lane, dating from the time Camberwell was in the country and this is cited in The Streets by Anthony Quinn as the place the Camberwell beauty was first sighted. A cold harbour was a shelter for travellers, often along a well-known route. Unlike an inn, there were no staff, food or drink to be had, there would be a roof and possibly a simple hearth, although it was the travellers responsibility to gather fuel. They were generally more than open-faced barns or animal shelters. Hahn, in Notes and Queries Series 3,7, 253–254 and in Series 3,8, in this, the author remarks upon relatively early equivalent place names in Germany and traces back the origins of Coldharbour/Cold Harbour to the Old High German Kalte Herberge. There is a village in Germany and another in Austria called Kaltherberg and this etymology was accepted by the authors of the dictionary Merriam-Webster. Our author concludes that our Cold Harbour was a given to any cold abode, cold retreat, brought over to England by our Saxon ancestors—Cold Harbour = Cold Station, Cold House.
And thus has a wider meaning than that attributed by the supporters of a type of lodgings. Coldharbour survives as the name of a village in Surrey, Coldharbour Lane gives its name to Coldharbour ward in Brixton although approximately one third of Coldharbour Lane is located in Herne Hill ward. The Green Man, the Angel, the Enterprise and the Hero all ceased trading between 2000 and 2007, with a nod to The Rolling Stones Exile on Main St. Brixton-based band Alabama 3 named their debut album Exile on Coldharbour Lane after the road. Although Woke Up This Morning, on this album mentions Coldharbour Lane, Coldharbour Lane — with the hook So long / Ive done my time / Coldharbour Lane / Goodbye — is a single from The Quireboyss 2001 This Is RocknRoll release
Gibbons was born and educated in Holland of English parents, his father being a merchant. He was a member of the Drapers Company of London and he is widely regarded as the finest wood carver working in England, and the only one whose name is widely known among the general public. He worked in stone, mostly for churches, by the time he was established he led a large workshop, and the extent to which his personal hand appears in work varies. Very little is known about his early life, the name Grinling is formed from sections of two family names. He moved to Deptford, England around 1667, and by 1693 had accepted commissions from the family and had been appointed as a master carver. By 1680 he was known as the Kings Carver, and carried out exquisite work for St Pauls Cathedral, Windsor Castle. His carving was so fine that it was said a pot of carved flowers above his house in London would tremble from the motion of passing coaches, the diarist Evelyn first discovered Gibbons talent by chance in 1671.
Evelyn, from whom Gibbons rented a cottage near Evelyns home in Sayes Court, wrote the following, I saw the man at his carving. I saw him to be engaged on a representation of Tintorettos Crucifixion. Later that same evening, Evelyn described what he had seen to Sir Christopher Wren and Evelyn introduced him to King Charles II who gave him his first commission - still resting in the dining room of Windsor Castle. Gibbons is buried at St Pauls, Covent Garden, Gibbons was employed by Wren to work on St Pauls Cathedral and was appointed as master carver to George I. He was commissioned by King William III to create carvings, an example of his work can be seen in the Presence Chamber above the fireplace, which was originally intended to frame a portrait of Queen Mary II after her death in 1694. Also in the Orangery at Kensington, you can see some his pieces, many fine examples of his work can still be seen in the churches around London - particularly the choir stalls and organ case of St Pauls Cathedral.
Some of the finest Gibbons carvings accessible to the public are those on display at the National Trusts Petworth House in West Sussex. At Petworth the Carved Room is host to a fine and extensive display of intricate carvings by Gibbons. His association with Deptford is commemorated locally, Grinling Gibbons Primary School is in Clyde Street, most of present day New Cross and Brockley wards were in 1978-1998 part of the Grinling Gibbons ward. His work can be seen in the London churches of St Michael Paternoster Royal and St James, the Anglican dislike of painted altarpieces typically left a large space on the east wall that needed filling, which often gave Grinlings garlands a very prominent position, as here. The famous sculptor of Brussels Peter van Dievoet had collaborated with Grinling Gibbons, St Michael and All Angels Church, has a monument by Gibbons to Henry Somerset, 1st Duke of Beaufort
David Robert Jones, known professionally as David Bowie, was an English singer and actor. He was a figure in music for over five decades, regarded by critics and musicians as an innovator. His career was marked by reinvention and visual presentation, his music, during his lifetime, his record sales, estimated at 140 million worldwide, made him one of the worlds best-selling music artists. In the UK, he was awarded nine platinum album certifications, eleven gold and eight silver, in the US, he received five platinum and seven gold certifications. He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996, born in Brixton, South London, Bowie developed an interest in music as a child, eventually studying art and design before embarking on a professional career as a musician in 1963. Space Oddity became his first top-five entry on the UK Singles Chart after its release in July 1969, after a period of experimentation, he re-emerged in 1972 during the glam rock era with his flamboyant and androgynous alter ego Ziggy Stardust.
The character was spearheaded by the success of his single Starman and album The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars, in 1976, Bowie starred in the cult film The Man Who Fell to Earth and released Station to Station. Heroes and Lodger followed, each reached the UK top five. He reached his peak in 1983 with Lets Dance. Throughout the 1990s and 2000s, Bowie continued to experiment with styles, including industrial. He stopped concert touring after 2004, and his last live performance was at a charity event in 2006, in 2013, Bowie returned from a decade-long recording hiatus with the release of The Next Day. He remained musically active until he died of cancer two days after the release of his final album, Blackstar. David Robert Jones was born on 8 January 1947, in Brixton, south London and his mother, Margaret Mary Peggy, was born in Kent, and had Irish ancestry, she worked as a waitress. His father, Haywood Stenton John Jones, from Yorkshire, was an officer for the childrens charity Barnardos.
The family lived at 40 Stansfield Road, near the border of the south London areas of Brixton, Bowie attended Stockwell Infants School until he was six years old, acquiring a reputation as a gifted and single-minded child—and a defiant brawler. In 1953, Bowie moved with his family to the suburb of Bromley and his voice was considered adequate by the school choir, and he demonstrated above-average abilities in playing the recorder. Upon listening to Little Richards song Tutti Frutti, Bowie would say, presleys impact on him was likewise emphatic, I saw a cousin of mine dance to. Hound Dog and I had never seen her get up and be moved so much by anything and it really impressed me, the power of the music
Brixton is a district of London, located in the borough of Lambeth in south London. The area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London, Brixton is mainly residential with a prominent street market and substantial retail sector. It is a community, with a large percentage of its population being of Caribbean descent. It lies within Inner south London and is bordered by Stockwell, Streatham, Tulse Hill, the district houses the main offices of the London Borough of Lambeth. Brixton is 2.7 miles south-southwest of the centre of London near Lambeth North tube station. The name Brixton is thought to originate from Brixistane, meaning the stone of Brixi, Brixi is thought to have erected a boundary stone to mark the meeting place of the ancient hundred court of Surrey. The location is unknown but is thought to be at the top of Brixton Hill, at a road known at the time as Bristow or Brixton Causeway, Brixton marks the rise from the marshes of North Lambeth up to the hills of Upper Norwood and Streatham.
At the time the River Effra flowed from its source in Upper Norwood through Herne Hill to Brixton, at Brixton the river was crossed by low bridges for Roman roads to the south coast of Britain, now Brixton Road and Clapham Road. The main roads were connected through a network of country lanes, such as Acre Lane, Coldharbour Lane, Brixton Water Lane and Lyham Road. The area remained undeveloped until the beginning of the 19th century, with the opening of Vauxhall Bridge in 1816, improved access to Central London led to a process of suburban development. One of a few surviving windmills in London, built in 1816, is just off Brixton Hill, Brixton was transformed into a middle class suburb between the 1860s and 1890s. Railways linked Brixton with the centre of London when the Chatham Main Line was built through the area by the London, Chatham, in 1880, Electric Avenue was so named after it became the first street in London to be lit by electricity. By 1925, Brixton attracted thousands of new people and it housed the largest shopping centre in South London at the time, as well as a thriving market, pubs and a theatre.
In the 1920s, Brixton was the capital of South London with three large department stores and some of the earliest branches of what are now Britains major national retailers. Today, Brixton Road is the shopping area, fusing into Brixton Market. A prominent building on Brixton High Street is Morleys, an independent department store established in the 1920s, on the western boundary of Brixton with Clapham stands the Sunlight Laundry, an Art Deco factory building. Designed by architect F. E. Simpkins and erected in 1937, the Brixton area was bombed during World War II, contributing to a severe housing crisis, which in turn led to urban decay. This was followed by slum clearances and the building of council housing, in the 1940s and 1950s, many immigrants, particularly from the West Indies, settled in Brixton
Kennington is a district in London, south of the River Thames. It is located 1.4 miles south of Charing Cross and it was a royal manor in the ancient parish of St Mary, Lambeth in the county of Surrey and was the administrative centre of the parish from 1853. Proximity to central London was key to the development of the area as a residential suburb, Kennington is the location of three significant London landmarks, the Oval cricket ground, the Imperial War Museum, and Kennington Park. Its population at the United Kingdom Census 2011 was 21,287, Kennington appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Chenintune. It is recorded as Kenintone in 1229 and Kenyngton in 1263, mills believes the name to be Old English meaning farmstead or estate associated with a man called Cēna. Another explanation is that it means place of the King, or town of the King, the presence of a tumulus, and other locally significant geographical features, suggest that the area was regarded in ancient times as a sacred place of assembly.
According to the Domesday Book it was held by Teodric the Goldsmith and it contained,1 hide and 3 virgates,3 ploughs,4 acres of meadow. The manor of Kennington was divided from the manor of Vauxhall by the River Effra, a smaller river, the River Neckinger, ran along the edge of the northern part of Kennington, approximately where Brook Drive is today still forming the borough boundary. Both rivers have now been diverted into underground culverts, King of Denmark and King of England, died at Kennington in 1041. Harold Godwinson took the Crown the day after the death of Edward the Confessor at Kennington, King Henry III held his court here in 1231, according to Matthew Paris, in 1232, Parliament was held at Kennington. In 1376, according to John Stow, John of Gaunt, geoffrey Chaucer was employed at Kennington as Clerk of Works in 1389. Kennington was the residence of Henry IV and Henry VI. Henry VII was at Kennington before his coronation. Catherine of Aragon stayed at Kennington Palace in 1501, in 1531, at the order of King Henry VIII, most of Kennington Palace was dismantled, and the materials were used in the construction of the Palace of Whitehall.
The historical manor of Kennington continues to be owned by the current monarchs elder son, the Duchy of Cornwall maintains a substantial property portfolio within the area. The eighteenth century saw development in Kennington. At the start of the century, the area was essentially a village on the roads into London. In 1746, Francis Towneley and eight men who had part in the Jacobite Rising were hanged, drawn. The area was significant enough, however, to be recognised in the Peerage of Great Britain and in 1726, the development of Kennington came about through access to London, which happened when, in 1750, Westminster Bridge was constructed
Fiberglass is a type of fiber-reinforced plastic where the reinforcement fiber is specifically glass fiber. The glass fiber may be arranged, flattened into a sheet. The plastic matrix may be a polymer matrix – most often based on thermosetting polymers such as epoxy, polyester resin. The glass fibers are made of various types of glass depending upon the fiberglass use and these glasses all contain silica or silicate, with varying amounts of oxides of calcium and sometimes boron. To be used in fiberglass, glass fibers have to be made very low levels of defects. Fiberglass is a lightweight material and is used for many products. Although it is not as strong and stiff as composites based on fiber, it is less brittle. Its bulk strength and weight are better than many metals, other common names for fiberglass are glass-reinforced plastic, glass-fiber reinforced plastic or GFK. Because glass fiber itself is referred to as fiberglass, the composite is called fiberglass reinforced plastic. This article will adopt the convention that fiberglass refers to the glass fiber reinforced composite material.
A patent for this method of producing glass wool was first applied for in 1933, Owens joined with the Corning company in 1935 and the method was adapted by Owens Corning to produce its patented fibreglas in 1936. Originally, fibreglas was a wool with fibers entrapping a great deal of gas, making it useful as an insulator. A suitable resin for combining the fibreglass with a plastic to produce a material was developed in 1936 by du Pont. The first ancestor of modern polyester resins is Cyanamids resin of 1942, peroxide curing systems were used by then. With the combination of fiberglass and resin the gas content of the material was replaced by plastic and this reduced the insulation properties to values typical of the plastic, but now for the first time the composite showed great strength and promise as a structural and building material. Confusingly, many glass fiber composites continued to be called fiberglass, ray Greene of Owens Corning is credited with producing the first composite boat in 1937, but did not proceed further at the time due to the brittle nature of the plastic used.
In 1939 Russia was reported to have constructed a boat of plastic materials. The first car to have a body was a 1946 prototype of the Stout Scarab
Walter Ritchie was a British sculptor. Ritchie had been one of the last living apprentices of Eric Gill at Piggotts after the Second World War, many of his public works were in brick relief, and have suffered loss from building redevelopment. Sir Herbert Read took an interest in the sculptor and tried to introduce him to the London social life where he would be assured commissions. Instead, Ritchie chose to stay at home in Kenilworth, mans Struggle, Two large Portland stone reliefs in Coventry Precinct Since relocated to the outer wall of the Herbert Art Gallery and Museum in Coventry. The Creation, Series of large carved brick relief panels at Bristol Eye Hospital, len Hutton, Oval Cricket Ground, London. Three Aspects of a Girls Education, North Leamington School, Brick relief panel, Delapré Abbey Walled Garden, Northampton. Lady with Kittens, Brick relief panel, Delapré Abbey, the Flight into Egypt, Brick relief at St Josephs Church, Warwickshire. Sculpture In Brick & Other Materials, alphabet Aviary by Gaston Hall, ISBN 0-9506205-4-8 illustrations W.
Ritchie. My time with Eric Gill – A Memoir by Donald Potter ISBN 0-9506205-1-3, damaged Beauty needs a new design,20 Poems by John Bate. Media related to Walter Ritchie at Wikimedia Commons
The grey heron is a long-legged predatory wading bird of the heron family, native throughout temperate Europe and Asia and parts of Africa. It is resident in much of its range, but some populations from the northern parts migrate southwards in autumn. A bird of wetland areas, it can be seen around lakes, ponds, marshes and it feeds mostly on aquatic creatures which it catches after standing stationary beside or in the water or stalking its prey through the shallows. Standing up to a tall, adults weigh from 1 to 2 kg. They have a head and neck with a broad black stripe that extends from the eye to the black crest. The body and wings are grey above and the underparts are greyish-white, the long, sharply pointed beak is pinkish-yellow and the legs are brown. The birds breed colonially in spring in heronries, usually building their nests high in trees, a clutch of usually three to five bluish-green eggs is laid. Both birds incubate the eggs for a period of about 25 days, many juveniles do not survive their first winter, but if they do, they can expect to live for about five years.
In Ancient Egypt, the deity Bennu was depicted as a heron in New Kingdom artwork, in Ancient Rome, the heron was a bird of divination. Roast heron was once a specially-prized dish, when George Neville became Archbishop of York in 1465, the grey heron is a large bird, standing up to 100 cm tall and measuring 84–102 cm long with a 155–195 cm wingspan. The body weight can range from 1. 02–2.08 kg, the plumage is largely ashy-grey above, and greyish-white below with some black on the flanks. Adults have the head and neck white with a black supercilium that terminates in the slender, dangling crest. The scapular feathers are elongated and the feathers at the base of the neck are somewhat elongated, immature birds lack the dark stripe on the head and are generally duller in appearance than adults, with a grey head and neck, and a small, dark grey crest. The pinkish-yellow beak is long and powerful, and is brighter in colour in breeding adults, the iris is yellow and the legs are brown and very long.
The main call is a loud croaking fraaank, but a variety of guttural, the male uses an advertisement call to encourage a female to join him at the nest, and both sexes use various greeting calls after a pair bond has been established. A loud, harsh schaah is used by the male in driving other birds from the vicinity of the nest, the chicks utter loud chattering or ticking noises. Herons are an ancient lineage and first appeared in the fossil record in the Paleogene period. By seven million years ago, birds closely resembling modern forms, herons are members of the family Ardeidae, and the majority of extant species are in the subfamily Ardeinae and known as true or typical herons
The Oval, currently known for sponsorship reasons as the Kia Oval, is an international cricket ground in Kennington, in the London Borough of Lambeth, South London. The Oval has been the ground of Surrey County Cricket Club since it was opened in 1845. It was the first ground in England to host international Test cricket in September 1880, the final Test match of the English season is traditionally played there. In addition to cricket, The Oval has hosted a number of historically significant sporting events. In 1870, it staged Englands first international match, versus Scotland. It hosted the first FA Cup final in 1872, as well as those between 1874 and 1892, in 1876, it held both the England v Wales and England v Scotland rugby international matches, and in 1877, rugbys first Varsity match. The Oval is built on part of the former Kennington Common, Cricket matches were played on the common throughout the early 18th century. The earliest recorded match was the London v Dartford match on 18 June 1724.
However, as the common was used regularly for public executions of those convicted at the Surrey Assizes. Kennington Common was eventually enclosed in the mid 19th century under a scheme sponsored by the Royal Family, in 1844, the site of the Kennington Oval was a market garden owned by the Duchy of Cornwall. Hence, Surrey County Cricket Club was established in 1845, the popularity of the ground was immediate and the strength of the SCCC grew. On 3 May 1875 the club acquired the remainder of the leasehold for a term of 31 years from the Otter Trustees for the sum of £2,800. In 1868,20,000 spectators gathered at The Oval for the first game of the 1868 Aboriginal cricket tour of England, the first tour of England by any foreign side. Thanks to C. W. Alcock, the Secretary of Surrey from 1872 to 1907, the Oval, became the second ground to stage a Test, after Melbourne Cricket Ground. In 1882, Australia won the Test by seven runs within two days, the Sporting Times printed a mocking obituary notice for English cricket, which led to the creation of the Ashes trophy, which is still contested whenever England plays Australia.
The first Test double century was scored at The Oval in 1884 by Australias Billy Murdoch, surreys ground is noted as having the first artificial lighting at a sports arena, in the form of gas-lamps, dating to 1889. The current pavilion was completed in time for the 1898 season, in 1907, South Africa became the 2nd visiting Test team to play a Test match at the ground. In 1928, the West Indies played its first Test match at The Oval, in 1936, India became the fifth foreign visiting Test side to play at The Oval, followed by Pakistan in 1954 and Sri Lanka in 1998
Hans Unger was a German painter who was, during his lifetime, a highly respected Art Nouveau artist. His popularity did not survive the change in the climate in Germany after World War I, however. Unger was a portraitist and a painter but his reputation stems from his paintings, most of them nearly life-size. In fact, it was always the woman being portrayed, his wife in real life. Later, his daughter Maja came to share her mothers privileged position, the background to his Arcadian woman was quite often a pastoral landscape with high cypresses, a garden or a seaside scene. Other important influences were Edward Burne-Jones, Arnold Böcklin and Max Klinger and his father quickly recognized his sons artistic talent, but since he did not think painting would be a thriving occupation for young Hans, he sent him to trade school. This was not a success and quite soon Unger became a house painter, in 1887 he took up a training position as a decoration-painter in his home-town. From 1888 to 1893 he was a student in the Painting Class in the Royal Dresden Court Theatre, from 1893 to 1895 he studied at the Dresden Academy of Fine Arts, where his teachers were Friedrich Preller the Younger and Hermann Prell.
Unger can be seen as a representative of the Dresdener Jugendstil movement, among members were Sascha Schneider, Selmar Werner. In 1894 he spent summer on the island Bornholm where he made a series of watercolors, in 1896 he designed a poster for the Dresden-based organ manufacturing company Estey, which made him internationally famous and launched his career. In 1897 his painting Die Muse was immediately bought by the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister in Dresden, from October 1897 to March 1898 he studied at the Académie Julian in Paris where his teachers were Fleury and Lefebvre. Another boost to his career was the commission to design the curtain for the newly built Dresdener Centraltheater. Unfortunately the building was destroyed during the bombing of Dresden by the Allied forces in February 1945, in 1899 he took part in the German Art Exhibition in Dresden where he had his own room, decorated with lilac walls and a black wooden rim. Among the works displayed was a Selbstbildnis im Sweater, and Abschied, in 1902 he became a member of the newly established German Artists Union and travelled to the North Sea, the Baltic and Egypt, where he made lots of watercolors and pastel paintings.
Unger was a traveler to the South all his life. A testimony to this trait is found in the book Reisebilder aus dem Süden mentioned in the bibliography, in 1905 Unger designed a mosaic for the tower of the Ernemann Reisekamera factory in Dresden, portraying a Lichtgöttin. The tower still exists on the Schandauerstrasse, in 1898 and 1910, Unger designed the cover illustration for issues of the magazine Jugend. He illustrated issues of the magazine Pan, around 1910, Ungers style changed notably
Edward VI of England
Edward VI was King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death. He was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine, the son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, Edward was Englands first monarch to be raised as a Protestant. During his reign, the realm was governed by a Regency Council because he never reached his majority, the Council was first led by his uncle Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, and by John Dudley, 1st Earl of Warwick, from 1551 Duke of Northumberland. Edwards reign was marked by problems and social unrest that, in 1549, erupted into riot. An expensive war with Scotland, at first successful, ended with military withdrawal from Scotland as well as Boulogne-sur-Mer in exchange for peace, the transformation of the Church into a recognisably Protestant body occurred under Edward, who took great interest in religious matters. Although his father, Henry VIII, had severed the link between the Church of England and Rome, Henry VIII had never permitted the renunciation of Catholic doctrine or ceremony.
The architect of these reforms was Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, in February 1553, at age 15, Edward fell ill. When his sickness was discovered to be terminal, he and his Council drew up a Devise for the Succession, Edward named his first cousin once removed, Lady Jane Grey, as his heir and excluded his half-sisters and Elizabeth. This decision was disputed following Edwards death, and Jane was deposed by Mary nine days after becoming queen, during her reign, Mary reversed Edwards Protestant reforms, which nonetheless became the basis of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement of 1559. Edward was born on 12 October 1537 in his mothers room inside Hampton Court Palace and he was the son of King Henry VIII by his third wife, Jane Seymour. Throughout the realm, the people greeted the birth of a male heir, te Deums were sung in churches, bonfires lit, and their was shott at the Tower that night above two thousand gonnes. The Queen, fell ill on 23 October from presumed postnatal complications, Henry VIII wrote to Francis I of France that Divine Providence.
Hath mingled my joy with bitterness of the death of her who brought me this happiness, Edward was a healthy baby who suckled strongly from the outset. His father was delighted with him, in May 1538, Henry was observed dallying with him in his arms, and so holding him in a window to the sight and great comfort of the people. That September, the Lord Chancellor, Lord Audley, reported Edwards rapid growth and vigour, the tradition that Edward VI was a sickly boy has been challenged by more recent historians. At the age of four, he fell ill with a quartan fever. Edward was initially placed in the care of Margaret Bryan, lady mistress of the princes household and she was succeeded by Blanche Herbert, Lady Troy. Until the age of six, Edward was brought up, as he put it in his Chronicle, the formal royal household established around Edward was, at first, under Sir William Sidney, and Sir Richard Page, stepfather of Edward Seymours wife, Anne Stanhope