Canbury Gardens is a public space in Canbury district of Kingston upon Thames, along the Lower Ham Road, covering 14½ acres area between the road and the towpath along the River Thames, downstream from Kingston Railway Bridge. In feudal times parishioners cut turf and timber for fuel. In the 19th century when material for road building became a valuable resource, the old grazing land was replaced by a series of pits for gravel extraction. By 1887 the site had become an eyesore and the borough proposed a public garden "that the view from the river shall be a pleasant one and not, as at present and obnoxious"; the gardens were designed by the borough surveyor Henry Macaulay and opened in 1890. Kingston Power Station was built on the ground behind, used to convert raw sewage to garden fertiliser. Landscaping work in the 1980s restored the gardens and after the demolition of the power stations, flats were built on its site. On 25 March 1998 poplars separating the park from the Fairclough Homes site were felled, a cause which had resulted in protests up the trees, an eco-warrior camp, a 17,000-person petition.
The Surrey Comet reported on 27 March 1998 that: "The first of the Canbury Gardens poplars came crashing down on Wednesday evening after a massive eviction operation costing up to £500,000 and involving 300 police, privacy security men and boats." The park consists of a band stand. Several hard surface tennis courts are available to the public; the Gardens have been included in the UK Government's Playbuilder Project, a national project funded by the Department for Children and Families for developing play areas. Within the site are Kingston Rowing Club and the "Boater's Inn" a local jazz venue; until 2009, the gardens hosted the yearly Green Fair event where band concerts were held and fundraising for local charities. This event has since been cancelled; the gardens host a Dragon Boat race. Buses that run close to Canbury Gardens include the 65; the Thames Path from Teddington Lock passes along the river frontage. Homesite
East Surrey Regiment
The East Surrey Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in existence from 1881 until 1959. The regiment was formed in 1881 under the Childers Reforms by the amalgamation of the 31st Regiment of Foot, the 70th Regiment of Foot, the 1st Royal Surrey Militia and the 3rd Royal Surrey Militia. In 1959, after service in the Second Boer War and both World War I and World War II, the East Surrey Regiment was amalgamated with the Queen's Royal Regiment to form the Queen's Royal Surrey Regiment, which was, in 1966, merged with the Queen's Own Buffs, The Royal Kent Regiment, the Royal Sussex Regiment and the Middlesex Regiment to form the Queen's Regiment. However, the Queen's Regiment was soon amalgamated with the Royal Hampshire Regiment to form the present Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment. In 1702 a regiment of marines was raised in the West Country by George Villier, it was named Villier's Marines. Villier was drowned in 1703, the regiment was taken over by Alexander Luttrell. After Luttrell's death in 1705, the command went to Joshua Churchill until 1711 when it became Goring's Regiment.
In 1715 the regiment was removed from the marines and became the 31st Regiment of Infantry, in 1751 the designation was changed to the 31st Regiment of Foot. Five years a second battalion was raised in Scotland, the 2/31st Foot, re-designated in 1758, the 70th Regiment of Foot. Further changes were made in 1782; the 31st became known as the 31st Regiment of Foot. They stayed with this title until 1881 when they became the 1st & 2nd battalions of the East Surrey Regiment. Following amalgamation, The Barracks, Kingston upon Thames became the regimental depot; the 1st Battalion, on formation, was in England, moving to India in 1884. It remained in India until its last posting being at Lucknow, it was recalled to England and was posted at Aldershot, before moving to Jersey in 1905 and to Plymouth in 1909. The 2nd Battalion was in India when formed, moving to Suez in 1884, it joined the Suakin Expedition in the Sudan in February 1885, where it saw fighting against the forces of the Mahdist State. The battalion left Suakin when the expedition was withdrawn in May 1885.
The battalion's next overseas service was in the Anglo-Boer War, where it took part in the Battle of Colenso in December 1899, the Relief of Ladysmith in February 1900, the Battle of the Tugela Heights in February 1900. After South Africa the battalion was shipped to India in 1903, where it replaced the 1st battalion at Lucknow; the battalion remained in India until the outbreak of the First World War. The 3rd Battalion, formed from the 1st Royal Surrey Militia in 1881, was a reserve battalion, it was embodied for service during the Second-Boer War in South Africa on 3 May 1900, disembodied on 15 October 1900, re-embodied on 6 May 1901 and disembodied on 26 July 1902. More than 600 officers and men returned to Southampton by the SS Gaika in July 1902, following the end of the war, was disbanded at Kingston barracks after having received their service medals; the 4th Battalion, formed from the 3rd Royal Surrey Militia in 1881 was a reserve battalion. It was embodied for service on 4 December 1899, disembodied on 12 July 1901, re-embodied again for service during Second Boer War in South Africa.
850 officers and men returned to Southampton by the SS Tagus in October 1902, following the end of the war, was disbanded at the Kingston barracks. The regiment was assigned its own 4th Volunteer Battalion, which became 23rd Battalion in the London Regiment. In 1908, the Volunteers and Militia were reorganised nationally, with the former becoming the Territorial Force and the latter the Special Reserve. On 4 August 1914, the 1st Battalion, East Surrey Regiment was in Dublin. Eleven days mobilization completed and at full war establishment, the 1st Battalion landed at Le Havre in France, before the end of the month was in action against the Germans; the battalion was assigned to the 14th Brigade, 5th Division, part of the original British Expeditionary Force. During the Retreat from Mons and afterwards, the Battalion took part in the great battles of 1914, Le Cateau, the Marne and the Aisne. In 1915, after the Battle of La Bassée, the 1st Surreys withstood a most determined attack on Hill 60, near Ypres.
In the desperate fighting which ensued, the Battalion won three Victoria Crosses and seven Distinguished Conduct Medals. Among the VCs was Lieutenant George Roupell, who became the last Colonel of the East Surrey Regiment. In late 1915 the brigade was transferred to the 32nd Division. In 1916, the 1st Battalion took part in the great battles of the River Somme, distinguished itself notably at Morval in September; the Battalion took part in many of the great battles of 1917, such as Arras, the Third Battle of Ypres. After a four-month tour on the Italian Front, the Battalion was back in France in March 1918, was engaged in the Battles of Albert and Bapaume, the subsequent advance to victory; the 2nd Battalion returned from India at the outbreak of war, but it was not until January 1915 that it arrived in France with the 85th Brigade, 28th Division. It was soon in action to the south of Ypres where it lost many men, some by poison gas: the battalion lost some 800 troops out of about 1,000; the 2nd Battalion took part in the Battle of Loos in September 1915, fought valiantly in the defence of the
The Sopwith Camel was a British First World War single-seat biplane fighter aircraft introduced on the Western Front in 1917. It was developed by the Sopwith Aviation Company as a successor to the earlier Sopwith Pup and became one of the best known fighter aircraft of the war; the Camel was armed with twin synchronized machine guns. Though proving difficult to handle, it provided for a high level of manoeuvrability to an experienced pilot, an attribute, valued in the type's principal use as a fighter aircraft. In total, Camel pilots have been credited with the shooting down of 1,294 enemy aircraft, more than any other Allied fighter of the conflict. Towards the end of the First World War, the type had seen use as a ground-attack aircraft due to it having become outclassed as the capabilities of fighter aircraft on both sides were advancing at that time; the main variant of the Camel was designated as the F.1. F.1, a dedicated'trench fighter', armoured for the purpose of conducting ground attacks upon defended enemy lines.
The Camel saw use as a two-seat trainer aircraft. In January 1920, the last aircraft of the type were withdrawn from RAF service; when it became clear the Sopwith Pup was not competitive against newer German fighters such as the Albatros D. III, the Camel was developed to replace it, as well as the Nieuport 17s, purchased from the French as an interim measure, it was recognised that the new fighter needed to have a heavier armament. The design effort to produce this successor designated as the Sopwith F.1, was headed by Sopwith's chief designer, Herbert Smith. Early in its development, the new aircraft was referred to as the "Big Pup". A metal fairing over the gun breeches, intended to protect the guns from freezing at altitude, created a "hump" that led pilots to call the aircraft "Camel", although this name was never used officially. On 22 December 1916, the prototype Camel was first flown by Harry Hawker at Brooklands, Surrey. In May 1917, the first production contract for an initial batch of 250 Camels was issued by the British War Office.
Throughout 1917, a total of 1,325 Camels were manufactured entirely of the initial F.1 variant. By the time that production of the type came to an end 5,490 Camels of all types had been built. In early 1918, production of the navalised "Ship's" Camel 2F.1 began. The Camel had a conventional design for its era, featuring a wooden box-like fuselage structure, an aluminium engine cowling, plywood panels around the cockpit, fabric-covered fuselage and tail. While possessing some clear similarities with the Pup, it was furnished with a noticeably bulkier fuselage. For the first time on an operational British-designed fighter, two 0.303 in Vickers machine guns were mounted directly in front of the cockpit, synchronised to fire forwards through the propeller disc. In addition to the machine guns, a total of four Cooper bombs could be carried for ground attack purposes; the bottom wing was rigged with 5 ° dihedral. The upper wing featured a central cutout section for the purpose of providing improved upwards visibility for the pilot.
Production Camels were powered by various rotary engines, most either the Clerget 9B or the Bentley BR1. In order to evade a potential manufacturing bottleneck being imposed upon the overall aircraft in the event of an engine shortage, several other engines were adopted to power the type as well. Unlike the preceding Pup and Triplane, the Camel was considered to be difficult to fly; the type owed both its extreme manoeuvrability and its difficult handling to the close placement of the engine, pilot and fuel tank within the front seven feet of the aircraft, to the strong gyroscopic effect of the rotating mass of the cylinders common to rotary engines. Aviation author Robert Jackson notes that: "in the hands of a novice it displayed vicious characteristics that could make it a killer; the Camel soon gained an unfortunate reputation with pilots. Some inexperienced pilots crashed on take-off when the full fuel load pushed the aircraft's centre of gravity beyond the rearmost safe limits; when in level flight, the Camel was markedly tail-heavy.
Unlike the Sopwith Triplane, the Camel lacked a variable incidence tailplane, so that the pilot had to apply constant forward pressure on the control stick to maintain a level attitude at low altitude. The aircraft could be rigged so that at higher altitudes it could be flown "hands off". A stall resulted in a dangerous spin. A two-seat trainer version of the Camel was built to ease the transition process: in his Recollections of an Airman Lt Col L. A. Strange, who served with the central flying school, wrote: "In spite of the care we took, Camels continually spun down out of control when flew by pupils on their first solos. At length, with the assistance of Lieut Morgan, who managed our workshops, I took the main tank out of several Camels and replaced with a smaller one, which enabled us to fit in dual control."
Eadweard Muybridge was an English-American photographer important for his pioneering work in photographic studies of motion, early work in motion-picture projection. He adopted the first name Eadweard as the original Anglo-Saxon form of Edward, the surname Muybridge, believing it to be archaic. At age 20, he emigrated to America as a bookseller, first to New York, to San Francisco. Planning a return trip to Europe in 1860, he suffered serious head injuries in a stagecoach crash in Texas, he spent the next few years recuperating in England, where he took up professional photography, learning the wet-plate collodion process, secured at least two British patents for his inventions. He went back to San Francisco in 1867. In 1868 he exhibited large photographs of Yosemite Valley. In 1874 Muybridge shot and killed Major Harry Larkyns, his wife's lover, but was acquitted in a jury trial on the grounds of justifiable homicide. In 1875 he travelled for more than a year in Central America on a photographic expedition.
Today, Muybridge is known for his pioneering work on animal locomotion in 1877 and 1878, which used multiple cameras to capture motion in stop-motion photographs, his zoopraxiscope, a device for projecting motion pictures that pre-dated the flexible perforated film strip used in cinematography. In the 1880s, he entered a productive period at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, producing over 100,000 images of animals and humans in motion, capturing what the human eye could not distinguish as separate movements. During his years, Muybridge gave many public lectures and demonstrations of his photography and early motion picture sequences, returning to England and Europe to publicise his work, he edited and published compilations of his work, which influenced visual artists and the developing fields of scientific and industrial photography. He returned to his native England permanently in 1894. In 1904, the Kingston Museum, containing a collection of his equipment, was opened in his hometown.
Edward James Muggeridge was raised in England. Muggeridge changed his name several times, starting with "Muggridge". In 1855, in the United States, he used the surname "Muygridge". After he returned from Britain to the United States in 1867, he used the surname "Muybridge". In addition, he used, he used this as the name of his studio and gave it to his only son, Florado, as a middle name: Florado Helios Muybridge, born in 1874. While travelling in 1875 on a photography expedition in the Spanish-speaking nations of Central America, the photographer advertised his works under the name "Eduardo Santiago Muybridge" in Guatemala. After an 1882 trip to England, he changed the spelling of his first name to "Eadweard", the Old English form of his name; the spelling was derived from the spelling of King Edward's Christian name as shown on the plinth of the Kingston coronation stone, re-erected in 1850 in his town, 100 yards from Muybridge's childhood family home. He used "Eadweard Muybridge" for the rest of his career, but his gravestone carries his name as "Eadweard Maybridge".
Muybridge was born in Kingston upon Thames, in the county of Surrey in England, on 9 April 1830 to John and Susanna Muggeridge. His father was a grain and coal merchant, with business spaces on the ground floor of their house adjacent to the River Thames at No. 30 High Street. The family lived in the rooms above. After his father died in 1843, his mother carried on the business, his cousin Norman Selfe, who grew up in Kingston upon Thames, moved to Australia and, following a family tradition, became a renowned engineer. His great grandparents were Robert Hannah Charman, who owned a farm, their oldest son John Muggeridge was Edward's grandfather. Several uncles and cousins, including Henry Muggeridge, were corn merchants in the City of London. All were born in Surrey. Edward's younger brother George, born in 1833, lived with their uncle Samuel in 1851, after the death of their father in 1843. Muybridge emigrated to the United States at the age of 20. Five years he moved to San Francisco in 1855, a few years after California became a state, while the city was still the "capital of the Gold Rush".
He started a career as a publisher's agent for the London Printing and Publishing Company, as a bookseller. At the time, the city was booming, with 40 bookstores, nearly 60 hotels, a dozen photography studios. In his life, he wrote about having spent time in New Orleans during his early years in the United States. By 1860, Muybridge was a successful bookseller, he left his bookshop in care of his brother, prepared to sail to England to buy more antiquarian books. However, Muybridge missed the boat and instead left San Francisco in July 1860 to travel by stagecoach over the southern route to St. Louis, by rail to New York City by ship to England. In central Texas, Muybridge suffered severe head injuries in a violent runaway stagecoach crash which injured every passenger on board, killed one of them. Muybridge was bodily ejected from the vehicle, hit his head on a rock or other hard object, he was taken 150 miles to Fort Smith, for treatment. He was kept there for three months, trying to recover from symptoms of double vision, confused thinking, impaired sense of taste and smell, other problems.
He went to New York City, where he continued in treatment for nearly a year before being able to sai
Rose Theatre, Kingston
The Rose Theatre, Kingston is a theatre on Kingston High Street in the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames. The theatre seats 899 around a thrust stage, it opened on 16 January 2008 with Uncle Vanya by Anton Chekhov, with Sir Peter Hall directing. Hall had directed an "in the raw" production of As You Like It within the shell of the uncompleted building in December 2004; the theatre's layout is based on that of the Rose Theatre in London, an Elizabethan theatre that staged the plays of Christopher Marlowe and early plays by Shakespeare. It features a shallow thrust stage. Unlike the original Rose, it makes the Elizabethan design more comfortable by adding a roof and modern seats, rather like the Swan Theatre in Stratford-upon-Avon; the front rows of the stalls have no seats. The Rose was a project supported by Peter Hall and broadcaster David Jacobs CBE, who served as chairman of the Kingston Theatre Trust; the construction was undertaken with £5m support from the local council, involvement from Kingston University, Peter Hall, the Friends of Kingston Theatre.
The shell of the building was provided to the Trust for free by St George plc as one of the concessions for the construction of Charter Quay, a development on the bank of the Thames. In January 2008, a week after the theatre opened, Hall resigned and it was announced that from April 2008, Stephen Unwin, departing director of English Touring Theatre would take over the role of Artistic Director, while Hall would remain as Director Emeritus. On 25 November 2010 the Rose won an award for Commitment to the Community at the Kingston Business Awards; the same week, Sir Peter Hall won the Moscow Art Theatre Golden Seagull award for his contribution to World Theatre at the Evening Standard Awards. The Rose is supported by the Royal Borough of Kingston University. However, it receives no funding from Arts Council England; the Rose has staged an increasing number of home-grown productions. Some highlights include Love's Labour's Lost, directed by Sir Peter Hall. Curtains Much Ado About Nothing, starring Mel Giedroyc as Beatrice and John Hopkins as Benedick Kingston University has held its graduation ceremonies at the Rose Theatre since 2010.
Thames Ditton Foundry
The Thames Ditton Foundry was a foundry in Thames Ditton in Surrey which operated from 1874 to 1939 and which under various owners produced numerous major statues and monuments as one of the United Kingdom's leading firms of bronze founders. Located in Summer Road in Thames Ditton just outside the Greater London area, the Thames Ditton Foundry is believed to have been built on the site of an historic ‘melting house’ beside the River Thames, its owners were: Cox & Sons, Drew & Co, Moore & Co, Hollinshead & Burton and A. B. Burton; the foundry was established in Summer Road, Thames Ditton, in 1874 by Cox & Sons, a large firm of ecclesiastical furnishing suppliers, to cast ornaments and statues in bronze. A hand operated gantry crane, which moved the entire foundry floor to facilitate all major lifting work, was an integral part of the building constructed for this work; when the factory was demolished in 1976 this crane was preserved by Surrey Archaeological Society. The foundry was a leader in its field and produced fine bronze statues which it exported worldwide, including Matthew Noble's statue of Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, in Parliament Square, Thomas Thornycroft's equestrian statue of Richard Bourke, 6th Earl of Mayo for Calcutta, Matthew Noble's Oliver Cromwell in Manchester and his Robert Peel in Parliament Square, Thomas Brock's William Rathbone in Liverpool, George E. Ewing’s Robert Burns, Frederic Leighton's An Athlete wrestling with a Python, John Mossman’s David Livingstone, Thomas Woolner’s John Stuart Mill on the Victoria Embankment and Captain James Cook in Sydney, Richard Belt’s Lord Byron at Hyde Park, Thomas Brock’s Robert Raikes in the Victoria Embankment Gardens and Daniel O’Connell in Dublin, William Hamo Thornycroft's statues of General Gordon and related reliefs in the Victoria Embankment Gardens and John Bright in Rochdale.
Other works by the foundry include Joseph Edgar Boehm's statues of Lord Lawrence in Waterloo Place, Francis Drake in Tavistock, William Tyndale in the Victoria Embankment Gardens, The Duke of Wellington in Hyde Park Corner, Queen Victoria in Sydney, the equestrian Prince Albert in Windsor Great Park, among others. They cast Thomas Brock’s Sir Bartle Frere in the Victoria Embankment Gardens, Thomas Woolner's Bishop Dr James Fraser in Albert Square, George Anderson Lawson’s Robert Burns in Ayr, Albert Toft’s Henry Richard in Tregaron and Frederick William Pomeroy's statue of Queen Victoria in Chester Castle. From 1902 to 1933 the Thames Ditton Foundry came under the sole ownership of Arthur Brian Burton, the son of Eliza and Frederick Burton, a carpenter and joiner. Born in Surbiton, aged 16 Burton was apprenticed to the Bronze Foundry of Cox & Sons in Thames Ditton. Burton opened his own foundry in Southsea Road, Kingston before buying into the Thames Ditton Foundry in 1897, becoming the co-owner with Arthur John Hollinshead.
In 1887 he married Florence Louisa Moore, the daughter of the foundry’s owner, James John Moore. Button's daughter named Florence, married Louis Richard Tricker in 1913. A younger daughter, Dorothy'Dolly' Frances Victoria Burton died aged 14. Following the death of his partner Arthur John Hollinshead in 1902 Burton became the sole owner of the Thames Ditton Foundry, he served as a councillor on Surbiton Council, was a deacon of Surbiton Park Congregational Church, was a Sunday school teacher and a benefactor of the Scout Movement. He was a Special Constable during World War I. On his death in 1933 Burton was buried with his daughter Dolly and his wife Florence in Bonner Hill Cemetery. Above their grave atop a granite plinth is a statue in bronze of a winged angel with arms outstretched reaching up; this had been cast in Burton's own foundry. After Burton's death the business was continued under his name by Louis Tricker. In 1939 at the start of World War II Tricker closed the foundry and sold the premises rather than see it used for manufacturing munitions.
It was after used by London Metal Warehouses for making industrial castings and by Metal Centres Ltd as a metal warehouse until 1971/2 when it was sold to the District Council. The foundry was demolished in 1976 and the crane removed for preservation by the Surrey Archaeological Society. Today Burton Court stands on the site. Works from this period include Frederick William Pomeroy’s relief of Archbishop Frederick Temple in St Paul’s Cathedral, George Frederic Watts’s Physical Energy in Kensington Gardens, Goscombe John's figures for the Memorial to the King's Liverpool Regiment in Liverpool, the figural group on the RAMC Memorial in Aldershot, the equestrian statue of King Edward VII in Liverpool and the statue of General F. S. Maude in front of the British Residency in Baghdad. For Adrian Jones Burton cast the equestrian statue of Prince George, Duke of Cambridge in Whitehall and the forty-ton Quadriga on the Wellington Arch in Hyde Park Corner, one of the largest bronzes cast in Britain. Bronzes cast for Bertram Mackennal include statues in England and Australia such as the memorial statue of Edward VII in Adelaide, the equestrian memorial of Edward VII in Melbourne, the recumbent tomb effigy of the 15th Duke of Norfolk in Arundel Castle, various figures for the Shakespeare Memorial in Sydney and two figures representing the Australian Navy and Army on The Cenotaph in Whitehall.
For Thomas Brock among other works Burton cast two subsidiary groups for the Victoria Memorial facing Buckingham Palace. For Cecil