Hunter S. Thompson
Hunter Stockton Thompson was an American journalist and author, the founder of the gonzo journalism movement. He first rose to prominence with the publication of Hell's Angels, a book for which he spent a year living and riding with the Hells Angels motorcycle gang in order to write a first-hand account of the lives and experiences of its members. In 1970 he wrote an unconventional magazine feature entitled The Kentucky Derby Is Decadent and Depraved for Scanlan's Monthly which both raised his profile and established him as a writer with counterculture credibility, it set him on a path to establishing his own sub-genre of New Journalism which he called "Gonzo,", an ongoing experiment in which the writer becomes a central figure and a participant in the events of the narrative. Thompson remains best known for Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas, a book first serialized in Rolling Stone in which he grapples with the implications of what he considered the failure of the 1960s counterculture movement.
It was adapted on film twice: loosely in Where the Buffalo Roam starring Bill Murray as Thompson in 1980, directly in 1998 by director Terry Gilliam in a film starring Johnny Depp and Benicio del Toro. The Doonesbury cartoon character Duke –, modeled after Thompson – pens an essay about "my shoplifting conviction" entitled "Fear and Loathing at Macy's Menswear", a reference to Thompson's book. Politically minded, Thompson ran unsuccessfully for sheriff of Pitkin County, Colorado in 1970 on the Freak Power ticket, he became well known for his dislike of Richard Nixon, whom he claimed represented "that dark and incurably violent side of the American character". He covered Nixon's 1972 reelection campaign for Rolling Stone and collected the stories in book form as Fear and Loathing on the Campaign Trail'72. Thompson's output notably declined from the mid-1970s, as he struggled with the consequences of fame, he complained that he could no longer report on events as he was too recognized, he was known for his lifelong use of alcohol and illegal narcotics, his love of firearms, his iconoclastic contempt for authoritarianism.
He remarked: "I hate to advocate drugs, violence, or insanity to anyone, but they've always worked for me." Thompson died by suicide following a series of health problems. In accordance with his wishes, his ashes were fired out of a cannon in a ceremony funded by his friend Johnny Depp and attended by friends including then-Senator John Kerry and Jack Nicholson. Hari Kunzru wrote that "the true voice of Thompson is revealed to be that of American moralist... one who makes himself ugly to expose the ugliness he sees around him." Thompson was born into a middle-class family in Louisville, the first of three sons of Virginia Ray Davison, who worked as head librarian at the Louisville Free Public Library and Jack Robert Thompson, a public insurance adjuster and World War I veteran. His parents were introduced to each other by a friend from Jack's fraternity at the University of Kentucky in September 1934, married on November 2, 1935. Thompson's first name came from a purported ancestor on his mother's side, the Scottish surgeon John Hunter.
Hunter Stockton was named for Prestly Stockton Ray and Lucille Hunter. On December 2, 1943, when Thompson was six years old, the family settled at 2437 Ransdell Avenue in the affluent Cherokee Triangle neighborhood of The Highlands. On July 3, 1952, when Thompson was 14 years old, his father, aged 58, died of myasthenia gravis. Hunter and his brothers were raised by their mother. Hunter had a much older half-brother, James Thompson, Jr. from his father's first marriage, not part of the Thompson household. Virginia worked as a librarian to support her children, is described as having become a "heavy drinker" following her husband's death. Interested in sports and athletically inclined from a young age, Thompson co-founded the Hawks Athletic Club while attending I. N. Bloom Elementary School, which led to an invitation to join Louisville's Castlewood Athletic Club, a club for adolescents that prepared them for high-school sports, he never joined any sports teams in high school. Thompson attended I.
N. Bloom Elementary School, Highland Middle School, Atherton High School, before transferring to Louisville Male High School in September 1952. In 1952, he was accepted as a member of the Athenaeum Literary Association, a school-sponsored literary and social club that dated to 1862, its members at the time drawn from Louisville's wealthy upper-class families, included Porter Bibb, who became the first publisher of Rolling Stone at Thompson's behest. During this time, Thompson admired J. P. Donleavy's The Ginger Man; as an Athenaeum member, Thompson contributed articles to and helped produce the club's yearbook The Spectator. The group ejected Thompson in 1955. Charged as an accessory to robbery after being in a car with the perpetrator, Thompson was sentenced to 60 days in Kentucky's Jefferson County Jail, he served 31 days and, enlisted in the United States Air Force. While he was in jail, the school superintendent refused him permission to take his high-school final examinations, as a result he did not graduate.
Thompson completed basic training at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio and transferred to Scott Air Force Base in Belleville, Illinois, to study electronics. He applied to become an aviator, but the Air Force's aviation-cadet program rejected his application. In 1956, he transferred
The Aztec religion is the Mesoamerican religion of the Aztecs. Like other Mesoamerican religions, it had elements of human sacrifice in connection with a large number of religious festivals which were held according to patterns of the Aztec calendar. Polytheistic in its theology, the religion recognized a large and increasing pantheon of gods and goddesses. Aztec cosmology divides the world into thirteen heavens and nine earthly layers or netherworlds, each level associated with a specific set of deities and astronomical objects; the most important celestial entities in Aztec religion were the Sun, the Moon, the planet Venus —all of these bearing different symbolic and religious meanings as well as associations with certain deities and geographical places—whose worship was rooted in a significant reverence for the Sun and Moon. One name for the Aztecs is "Warriors of the Sun." Many leading deities of the Aztec pantheon were worshipped by previous Mesoamerican civilizations, gods such as Tlaloc and Tezcatlipoca, who were venerated by different names in most cultures throughout the history of Mesoamerica.
For the Aztecs important deities were the rain god Tlaloc, the god Huitzilopochtli—patron of the Mexica tribe—as well as Quetzalcoatl the feathered serpent, wind god, culture hero, god of civilization and order, elusive Tezcatlipoca, the shrewd god of destiny and fortune, connected with war and sorcery. Each of these gods had their own shrine, side-by-side at the top of the largest pyramid in the Aztec capital Mexico-Tenochtitlan—Tlaloc and Huitzilopochtli were both worshipped here at this dual temple, while a third monument in the plaza before the Templo Mayor was devoted to the wind god Ehecatl; the aztec priests had to perform many duties like fasting and performing sacrifices The concept of Teotl is central to the Aztecs. The term is translated as "god", but may have held more abstract aspects of divinity or supernatural energy akin to the Polynesian concept of Mana; the nature of Teotl is a key element in the understanding of the fall of the Aztec empire, because it seems that the Aztec ruler Moctezuma II and the Aztecs in general referred to Cortés and the conquistadors as "Teotl"—it has been believed that this means that they believed them to be gods, but a better understanding of "Teotl" might suggest that they were seen as "mysterious" or "inexplicable".
The many gods of the Aztecs can be grouped into complexes related to different themes. The Aztecs would adopt gods from different cultures and allow them to be worshiped as part of their pantheon – the fertility god, Xipe Totec, for example, was a god of the Yopi but became an integrated part of the Aztec belief system. Other deities, for example Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl, had roots in earlier civilizations of Mesoamerica and were worshiped by many cultures and by many names; some gods embodied aspects of nature. A large group of gods were related to pulque, excess and games. Other gods were associated with specific trades. Many gods had multiple aspects with different names, where each name highlighted a specific function or trait of the god. Two distinct gods were conflated into one, quite deities transformed into one another within a single story. Aztec images sometimes combined attributes of several divinities. Aztec scholar H. B. Nicholson classed the gods into three groups according to their conceptual meaning in general Mesoamerican religion.
The first group he called the "Celestial creativity – Divine Paternalism group", the second, the Earth-mother gods, the pulque gods and Xipe Totec. The third group, the War-Sacrifice-Sanguinary Nourishment group contained such gods as Ome Tochtli, Huitzilopochtli and Mixcoatl. Instead of Nicholson's subtle classification in the following a more impressionist classification is presented. Cultural Gods Tezcatlipoca – means "Smoking Mirror", a panmesoamerican shaman god, omnipotent universal power Quetzalcoatl – means "Feathered Serpent", a panmesoamerican god of life, the wind and the morning star Tlaloc – a panmesoamerican god of rainstorm and thunder or any storm Mixcoatl – means "Cloud Serpent", the tribal god of many of the Nahua people such as the Tlaxcalteca, god of war and hunting Huitzilopochtli – means "Left-handed Hummingbird", the tribal god of the Mexica of Tenochtitlan, the patron god aka the sunNature gods Metztli – the Moon Tlaltecuhtli – means "Earth Lord", goddess of the Earth Chalchiuhtlicue – means "Jade Her Skirt", goddess of springs Centzon Huitznahua – means "The 400 Southerners", gods of the stars Ehecatl - the Wind conflated with Quetzalcoatl and called "Quetzalcoatl-Ehecatl" Gods of creation Ometecutli and Omecihuatl on Heavens or Tonacatecutli and Tonacacihuatl on Earth – the couple creator gods Huehueteotl/Xiuhtecutli – means "Old God" and "Turquoise Lord", god of origin, time and old age Coatlicue/Toci/Teteo Innan/Tonantzin – progenitor goddessesGods of pulque and excess Tlazolteotl – goddess of filth and guilt and of cleansing Tepoztecatl – god of pulque worshipped at Tepoztlan Xochiquetzal – goddess of pleasure and indulgence, sex Mayahuel – goddess of pulque and maguey The Auiateteo: Macuiltochtli Macuilxochitl Macuilcuetzpalin Macuilcozcacuauhtli Macuilmalinalli Centzon Totochtin – "the 400 Rabbits", god of intoxication Ometochtli – means "Two Ra
Varuna is a Vedic deity associated with the sky also with the seas as well as Ṛta and Satya. He is found in the oldest layer of Vedic literature such as hymn 7.86 of the Rigveda. He is mentioned in the Tamil grammar work Tolkāppiyam, as the god of sea and rain. In the Hindu Puranas, Varuna is the god of oceans, his vehicle is a Makara and his weapon is a Pasha, he is the guardian deity of the western direction. In some texts, he is the father of the Vedic sage Vasishtha. Varuna is found in Japanese Buddhist mythology as Suiten, he is found in Jainism.. The theonym Varuṇa is a derivation from the verbal vṛ by means of a suffigal -uṇa-, for an interpretation of the name as "he who covers or binds", in reference to the cosmological ocean or river encircling the world, but in reference to the "binding" by universal law or Ṛta. Georges Dumézil made a cautious case for the identity of Varuna and the Greek god Ouranos at the earliest Indo-European cultural level; the etymological identification of the name Ouranos with the Sanskrit Varuṇa is based in the derivation of both names from the PIE root *ŭer with a sense of "binding" – the Indic king-god Varuṇa binds the wicked, the Greek king-god Ouranos binds the Cyclopes.
While the derivation of the name Varuṇa from this root is undisputed, this derivation of the Greek name is now rejected in favour of derivation from the root *wers- "to moisten, drip". In the earliest layer of the Rigveda, Varuna is the guardian of moral law, one who punishes those who sin without remorse, who forgives those who err with remorse, he is mentioned in many Rigvedic hymns, such as 1.25, 2.27 -- 30, 8.8, 9.73 and others. His relationship with waters and oceans is mentioned in the Vedas. Vedic poets describe him as an aspect and one of the plural perspectives of the same divine or spiritual principle. For example, hymn 5.3 of the Rigveda states: Varuna and Mitra are the gods of the societal affairs including the oath, are twinned Mitra-Varuna. Both Mitra and Varuna are classified as Asuras in the Rigveda, although they are addressed as Devas as well. Varuna, being the king of the Asuras, was adopted or made the change to a Deva after the structuring of the primordial cosmos, imposed by Indra after he defeats Vrtra.
According to Doris Srinivasan, a professor of Indology focusing on religion, Varuna-Mitra pair is an ambiguous deity just like Rudra-Shiva pair. Both have wrathful-gracious aspects in Indian mythology. Both Varuna and Rudra are synonymous with "all comprehensive sight, knowledge", both were the guardian deity of the north in the Vedic texts, both can be offered "injured, ill offerings", all of which suggest that Varuna may have been conceptually overlapping with Rudra. Further, the Rigvedic hymn 5.70 calls Mitra-Varuna pair as states Srinivasan. According to Samuel Macey and other scholars, Varuna had been the more ancient Indo-Aryan deity in 2nd millennium BCE, who gave way to Rudra in the Hindu pantheon, Rudra-Shiva became both "timeless and the god of time". In Vajasaneyi Samhita 21.40, Varuna is called the patron deity of physicians, one who has "a hundred, a thousand remedies". His capacity and association with "all comprehensive knowledge" is found in the Atharvaveda. Varuna finds a mention in the early Upanishads, where his role evolves.
In verse 3.9.26 of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, for example, he is stated to be the god of the western quarter, but one, founded on "water" and dependent on "the heart" and the fire of soul. In the Katha Upanishad, Aditi is identified to be same as the goddess earth, she is stated in the Vedic texts to be the mother of Varuna and Mitra along with other Vedic gods, in Hindu mythology she as mother earth is stated to be mother of all gods. In Yajurveda it is said: "In fact Varuna is Vishnu and Vishnu is Varuna and hence the auspicious offering is to be made to these deities." || 8.59 || Rama interacts with Varuna in the Hindu epic Ramayana. For example, faced with the dilemma of how to cross the ocean to Lanka, where his abducted wife Sita is held captive by the demon king Ravana, Rama performs a pravpavesha to Varuna, the Lord of Oceans, for three days and three nights, states Ramesh Menon. Varuna does not respond, Rama arises on the fourth morning, enraged, he states to his brother Lakshamana that "even lords of the elements listen only to violence, Varuna does not respect gentleness, peaceful prayers go unheard".
With his bow and arrow, Rama prepares to attack the oceans to burn up the waters and create a bed of sand for his army of monkeys to cross and thus confront Ravana. Lakshmana appeals to Rama, translates Menon, that he should return to "peaceful paths of our fathers, you can win this war without laying waste the sea". Rama shoots his weapon sending the ocean into flames; as Rama increases the ferocity of his weapons, Varuna arises out of the oceans. He bows to Rama, stating that he himself did not know how to help Rama because the sea is deep, vast and he cannot change the nature of sea. Varuna asked Rama to remember that he is "the soul of peace and love, wrath does not suit him". Varuna promised to Rama that he will not disturb him or his army as they build a bridge and cross over to Lanka; the Tolkāppiyam, a Tamil grammar work from 3rd century BCE divides the people of ancient Tamilakam into 5 Sangam landscape divisions: kurinji, paalai and neithal. Each landscape are designated with different gods.
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
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The Zapotec civilization was an indigenous pre-Columbian civilization that flourished in the Valley of Oaxaca in Mesoamerica. Archaeological evidence shows; the Zapotec left archaeological evidence at the ancient city of Monte Albán in the form of buildings, ball courts, magnificent tombs and grave goods including finely worked gold jewelry. Monte Albán was one of the first major cities in Mesoamerica and the center of a Zapotec state that dominated much of the territory that today belongs to the Mexican state of Oaxaca. Zapotec civilization originated in the Central Valleys of Oaxaca in the late 6th Century BC; the three valleys were divided between three different-sized societies, separated by 80 square kilometres “no-man’s-land” in the middle, today occupied by the city of Oaxaca. Archaeological evidence, such as burned temples and sacrificed captives, suggests that the three societies competed against each other. At the end of the Rosario phase, the valley's largest settlement San José Mogote, a nearby settlement in the Etla valley, lost most of their population.
During the same period, a new large settlement emerged in the “no-man’s-land” on top of a mountain overlooking the three valleys, called Monte Albán. Early Monte Albán pottery is similar to pottery from San José Mogote, which suggests that Monte Albán was populated by the people who left San José Mogote. Although there is no direct evidence in the early phases of Monte Albán's history and fortifications around the site during the archaeological phase Monte Alban 2 suggest that the city was constructed in response to a military threat. Archaeologists Joyce Marcus and Kent V. Flannery liken this process to what happened in ancient Greece -: a centralization of smaller dispersed populations congregated in a central city to meet an external threat; the Zapotec state formed at Monte Albán began to expand during the late Monte Alban 1 phase and throughout the Monte Alban 2 phase. During Monte Alban 1c to Monte Alban 2, Zapotec rulers seized control of the provinces outside the valley of Oaxaca because none of the surrounding provinces could compete with the valley of Oaxaca politically and militarily.
By 200 AD, the Zapotecs had extended their influence, from Quiotepec in the North to Ocelotepec and Chiltepec in the South. Monte Albán had become the largest city in what are today the southern Mexican highlands, retained this status until 700 AD; the expansion of the Zapotec empire peaked during the Monte Alban 2 phase. Zapotecs colonized settlements far beyond The Valley of Oaxaca. Most notably, this expansion is visible in the sudden change of ceramics found in regions outside the valley; these region's own unique styles were replaced with Zapotec style pottery, indicating their integration into the Zapotec empire. Archaeologist Alfonso Caso, one of the first to do excavations in Monte Albán, argued that a building on the main plaza of Monte Albán is further evidence for the dramatic expansion of the Zapotec state. What today is called Building J is shaped like an arrowhead and displays more than 40 carved stones with hieroglyphic writing. Archaeologists interpreted the glyphs to represent the provinces controlled by the Zapotecs.
Each glyph group depicts a head with an elaborate head dress carved into the slabs. These are assumed to illustrate the rulers of the provinces. Heads turned upside down are believed to represent the rulers of those provinces taken by force, while the upright ones may represent those who did not resist colonization and had their lives spared. For this reason, Building J is called “The Conquest Slab”. Marcus and Flannery write about the subsequent dramatic expansion of the Monte Albán state: "a great disparity in populations between the core of a state and its periphery, it may only be necessary for the former to send colonists to the latter. Small polities, may accept a face-saving offer. Larger polities unwilling to lose their autonomy may have to be subdued militarily. During the expansion of Monte Alban 2 state, we think we see both colonization and conquest"; the name Zapotec is an exonym coming from Nahuatl tzapotēcah, which means "inhabitants of the place of sapote". The Zapotec referred to themselves by some variant of the term Be'ena'a, which means "The Cloud People".
The Zapotec languages belong to a language family called Oto-manguean, an ancient family of Mesoamerican languages. It is estimated that today's Oto-manguean languages branched off from a common root at around 1500 BC; the Manguean languages split off first, followed by the Oto-pamean branch while the divergence of Mixtecan and Zapotecan languages happened still. The Zapotecan group includes the Zapotec languages and the related Chatino. Zapotec languages are spoken in parts of the Northern Sierra, the Central Valleys as well as in parts of the Southern Sierra, in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and along parts of the Pacific Coast. Due to decades of out-migration, Zapotec is spoken in parts of Mexico City and Los Angeles, CA. There are over 100 dialects. Zapotec is a tone language, which means that the meaning of a word is determined by voice pitch, essential for understanding the meaning of different words; the Zapotec languages features up to 4 distinct tonemes: high, low and falling. Between Monte Alban phases 1 and 2 there was a considerable expansion of the population of the Valley of Oaxaca.
As the population grew, so did the degree of social differentiation, the centralization of political power
The Otomi are an indigenous people of Mexico inhabiting the central Mexican Plateau region. The two most populous groups are: Highland Otomí, living in the mountains of La Huasteca, they self-identify as Ñuhu or Ñuhmu, depending on the dialect they speak. Mezquital Otomí, living in the Mezquital Valley in the eastern part of the state of Hidalgo, in the state of Querétaro, they self-identify as Hñähñu. Smaller Otomi populations exist in the states of Puebla, Tlaxcala, Michoacán and Guanajuato; the Otomi language belonging to the Oto-Pamean branch of the Oto-Manguean language family is spoken in many different varieties, some of which are not mutually intelligible. One of the early complex cultures of Mesoamerica, the Otomi were the original inhabitants of the central Mexican Altiplano before the arrival of Nahuatl speakers around c. 1000 CE, who replaced and marginalized them. However, the Otomi and their nomadic lifestyle allowed them to adapt to different environments avoid enemies and defend traditional lands and villages.
In the early colonial New Spain period, Yųhmų Otomi of Tlaxcala helped the Spanish conquistadors as mercenaries and allies, allowing them to extend into territories such as Querétaro and Guanajuato inhabited by semi-nomadic Chichimecs. The Otomi traditionally worshipped the moon as their highest deity. In modern times, many Otomi populations practice shamanism and hold prehispanic beliefs such as Nagualism. Like most sedentary Mesoamerican peoples, Otomis traditionally subsisted on maize and squash, but the maguey was an important cultigen used for production of alcohol and fiber. Although the Otomi Indians eat what Westerners would consider a balanced diet, they maintain reasonably good health by eating tortillas, drinking pulque, eating most fruits available around them. In 1943 to 1944, a report about a nutritional study about the Otomi villages located in the Mezquital Valley of Mexico, recorded that despite the arid climate and land unfit for agriculture without irrigation, the Otomi people chiefly depended on the production of maguey.
Maguey is used to produce weaving fibers and “pulque”, a fermented unfiltered juice that played an important part in the Otomi’s economy and nutrition. However, this practice has begun to decline due to its new large-scale production; the maguey plant was so depended on that huts were constructed out of the plant's leaves. During this time, most of the region was vastly underdeveloped and most agriculture was low-yielding. At times, settlement areas would be confused as locations remote of habitation; the Otomi were blacksmiths and traded valuable metal items with other indigenous confederations, including the Aztec Triple Alliance. Their metal crafts included ornaments and weaponry, although metal weaponry was not as useful as obsidian weaponry; some historians believe that the Otomi were the first inhabitants of the Valley of Mexico they were expelled from the valley by the Tepanec in 1418. The Otomi were one of various ethnic groups present within the city of Teotihuacán. Around the year 1100 AD, Otomi-speaking peoples formed Xaltocan.
Xaltocan soon acquired power--enough power to demand tribute from nearby communities up until its subjugation. Thereafter, the Otomi kingdom was conquered during the 14th century by its alliances; the Otomi people were subject to pay a tribute to the Triple-Alliance as their empire grew. While some Otomi resettled elsewhere, other Otomi still resided near current-day Mexico City, but most settled in areas near the Mezquital Valley in Hidalgo, the highlands of Puebla, areas between Tetzcoco and Tulancingo, as far as Colima and Jalisco. A sizable portion of the Otomi resided in the state of Tlaxcala, where they joined forces with Spanish Conquistador Hernan Cortes, who fought the Aztec Triple-Alliance, defeated them; this allowed the ixtenco Otomi. They settled in many towns in the state now known as Guanajuato; the Hñähñu Otomi of Mezquital maintained a state of war upon the Spanish and their ixtenco otomi allies with records indicating that the hñähñu resisted assimilation and maintained nomadic raiding parties that attacked any Spanish settlement within hidalgo maintaining a state of war that lasted until the first silver mines were opened The ixtenco otomi allegiance with the Spanish led to many converting to Roman Catholicism, but they held onto their ancient customs.
While being colonized, the ixtenco Otomi language was dispersed to various other states such as Guanajuato, Querétaro,that included the states of Puebla, with Michoacán and Tlaxcala, where most remained farmers. In the Mezquital Valley a traditional homeland to the Otomi, the terrain was so not well equipped for farming as the land was dry, so many Otomi people hired each other as laborers and relied on the maguey-based drink, pulque; the Spanish banned the drink but soon attempted to manage a business through its production which led to the Otomi people using the drink for their own consumption. During Mexico’s War of Independence, the Otomi sided with the rebellion as they wanted their land back, taken from them under the encomienda system. Around 1940-50, government agencies had promised to assist the indigenous people by helping them gain access to better education and economic advancemen
The religion of the Olmec people influenced the social development and mythological world view of Mesoamerica. Scholars have seen echoes of Olmec supernatural in the subsequent religions and mythologies of nearly all pre-Columbian era Mesoamericans cultures; the first Mesoamerican civilization, the Olmecs, developed on present-day Mexico southern Gulf Coast in the centuries before 1200 BCE. The culture lasted until 400 BCE, at which time thir center of La Venta lay abandoned; the Olmec culture is considered a "mother culture" to Mesoamerican cultures. There is no surviving direct account of the Olmec's religious beliefs, unlike the Mayan Popol Vuh, or the Aztecs, with their many codices and conquistador accounts. Archaeologists, have had to rely on other techniques to reconstruct Olmec beliefs, most prominently: Typological analysis of Olmec iconography and art. Comparison to better documented pre-Columbian cultures. Comparison to modern-day cultures of the indigenous peoples of the Americas; the latter two techniques assume that there is a continuity extending from Olmec times through Mesoamerican cultures to the present day.
This assumption is called the Continuity Hypothesis. Using these techniques, researchers have discerned several separate deities or supernaturals embodying the characteristics of various animals. Olmec religious activities were performed by a combination of rulers, full-time priests, shamans; the rulers seem to have been the most important religious figures, with their links to the Olmec deities or supernaturals providing legitimacy for their rule. There is considerable evidence for shamans in the Olmec archaeological record in the so-called "transformation figures". Specifics concerning Olmec religion are a matter of some conjecture. Early researchers found religious beliefs to be centered upon a jaguar god; this view was challenged in the 1970s by Peter David Joralemon, whose Ph. D. paper and subsequent article posited what are now considered to be 8 different supernaturals. Over time Joralemon's viewpoint has become the predominant exposition of the Olmec pantheon; the study of Olmec religion, however, is still in its infancy and any list of Olmec supernaturals or deities can be neither definitive nor comprehensive.
The names and identities of these supernaturals are only provisional and the details concerning many of them remain poorly known. The confusion stems in part because the supernaturals are defined as a cluster of icongraphic motifs. Any given motif may appear in multiple supernaturals. For example, "flame eyebrows" are seen at times within representations of both the Olmec Dragon and the Bird Monster, the cleft head is seen on all five supernaturals that appear on Las Limas Monument 1. To add to the confusion, Joralemon suggested that many of these gods had multiple aspects – for example, Joralemon had identified a God I-A through a God I-F. Despite the use of the term "god", none of these deities and supernaturals show any sexual characteristics which would indicate gender. Known as the Earth Monster, the Olmec Dragon has flame eyebrows, a bulbous nose, bifurcated tongue; when viewed from the front, the Olmec Dragon has trough-shaped eyes. Fangs are prominent rendered as an upside-down U-shaped bracket.
With the Bird Monster, the Olmec Dragon is one of the most depicted supernaturals. Miller & Taube differentiate a Personified Earth Cave, equating it with Joralmon's God I-B. Another probable supernatural is identified by the plants sprouting from its cleft head. A carved celt from Veracruz shows a representation of God II, or the Maize God, growing corn from his cleft, shows this god with the snarling face associated with the jaguar; this deity is shown with a full body. There is considerable disagreement between researchers whether the Rain Spirit and were-jaguar are one distinct or two separate supernaturals. Christopher Pool, Anatole Pohorilenko, Miller & Taube each equate the were-jaguar with the Rain Deity, while Joralemon finds them to be two separate supernaturals. Joralemon states that the Olmec rain spirit "is based on were-jaguar features", but is not the were-jaguar per se. More recent scholarship by Carolyn Tate questions the existence of "were-jaguar" imagery and instead argues for the centrality of embryo-corn kernel iconography within Olmec iconography.
In a paper, Taube proposed that the Rain Spirit was instead the seed phase version of the Maize God. This enigmatic deity is named for the narrow band that runs along the side of its face through its almond-shaped eye with its round iris. Like many other supernaturals, the Banded-eye God has a downturned mouth. Unlike others, the Banded-eye God is only known from its profile - these renditions are concentrated on bowls from the Valley of Mexico, although the Banded-eye God is one of the five supernaturals shown on Las Limas Monument 1 from the Olmec heartland. Rather than a distinct supernatural in its own right, Taube finds God VI to be yet another aspect of the Maize God. Designated God VII by Scott Pelly, the feathered serpent depicted throughout Mesoamerica first appears in Olmec times, although there is some disagreement concerning its importance to the Olmec; the Feathered Serpent appears on La Venta Stele 19 and within a Juxtlahuaca cave painting, locations hundreds of miles apart. Most recognized by its shark tooth, the head of the monster features a crescent-shaped eye, a small lower jaw.
When depicted in its full-body form, such as on San Lorenzo Monument 58 or on the Young