Bromus ramosus, the hairy brome, is a bunchgrass in the grass family Poaceae, native to Europe, northwest Africa and southwest Asia. The name Bromus comes from the term brome. Unlike most other bromes, it grows in shady sites under trees. Bromus ramosus is a perennial herbaceous bunchgrass reaching 1–2 metres tall; the leaves are long drooping, 20–50 cm long and 10–15 mm wide, finely hairy. The flower spike is gracefully arched with pendulous spikelets on long slender stems in pairs on the main stem. Bromus ramosus ssp. benekii – lesser hairy brome Bromus ramosus ssp. ramosus Media related to Bromus ramosus at Wikimedia Commons
Alchemilla is a genus of herbaceous perennial plants in the family Rosaceae, with the common name "lady's mantle" applied generically as well as to Alchemilla mollis when referred to as garden plant, the plant used as herbal tea or for medicinal usage such as gynaecological disorders is Alchemilla xanthochlora or in Middle Europe the so-called common lady's mantle Alchemilla vulgaris. There are about 300 species, the majority native to cool temperate and subarctic regions of Europe and Asia, with a few species native to the mountains of Africa and the Americas. Most species of Alchemilla are clump-forming or mounded, perennials with basal leaves arising from woody rhizomes; some species have leaves with lobes that radiate from a common point and others have divided leaves—both are fan-shaped with small teeth at the tips. The long-stalked, gray-green to green leaves are covered with soft hairs, show a high degree of water-resistance. Green to bright chartreuse flowers are small, have no petals and appear in clusters above the foliage in late spring and summer.
Alchemilla abyssinica Fresen. Alchemilla alpina L. — alpine lady's mantle Alchemilla argyrophylla Oliv. Alchemilla barbatiflora Juzepczuk Alchemilla bursensis Pawł. Alchemilla conjuncta Bab. Alchemilla diademata Rothm. — diadem lady's mantle Alchemilla ellenbeckii Engl. Alchemilla erythropoda — dwarf lady's mantle Alchemilla filicaulis Buser — thinstem lady's mantle Alchemilla glabra Neygenf. — smooth lady's mantle Alchemilla glaucescens Wallr. — waxy lady's mantle Alchemilla glomerulans Buser — clustered lady's mantle Alchemilla gracilis Engl. Alchemilla hungarica Soó Alchemilla japonica Nakai & H. Hara Alchemilla jaroschenkoi Grossh. — holotrichous lady's mantle Alchemilla johnstonii Oliv. Alchemilla lapeyrousii Buser — Lapeyrous' lady's mantle Alchemilla mollis Rothm. Alchemilla monticola Opiz — hairy lady's mantle Alchemilla orbiculata Ruiz & Pav. Alchemilla sericata Rchb. Alchemilla splendens Christ ex Favrat Alchemilla stricta Rothm. Alchemilla subcrenata Buser — broadtooth lady's mantle Alchemilla stuhlmanii Alchemilla subcrenata Alchemilla subnivalis Baker f.
Alchemilla triphylla Rothm. Alchemilla venosa Buser — boreal lady's mantle Alchemilla vestita Alchemilla vulgaris L. Alchemilla wichurae Stefanss. — grassland lady's mantle Alchemilla xanthochlora Rothm. Media related to Alchemilla at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Alchemilla at Wikispecies "Alchemilla L." Atlas of Living Australia
Bryophytes are an informal group consisting of three divisions of non-vascular land plants: the liverworts and mosses. They are characteristically limited in size and prefer moist habitats although they can survive in drier environments; the bryophytes consist of about 20,000 plant species. Bryophytes produce enclosed reproductive structures, they reproduce via spores. Bryophytes are considered to be a paraphyletic group and not a monophyletic group, although some studies have produced contrary results. Regardless of their status, the name is convenient and remains in use as an informal collective term; the term "bryophyte" comes from Greek βρύον, bryon "tree-moss, oyster-green" and φυτόν, phyton "plant". The defining features of bryophytes are: Their life cycles are dominated by the gametophyte stage Their sporophytes are unbranched They do not have a true vascular tissue containing lignin Bryophytes exist in a wide variety of habitats, they can be found growing in a range of temperatures and moisture.
Bryophytes can grow where vascularized plants cannot because they do not depend on roots for an uptake of nutrients from soil. Bryophytes can survive on bare soil. Like all land plants, bryophytes have life cycles with alternation of generations. In each cycle, a haploid gametophyte, each of whose cells contains a fixed number of unpaired chromosomes, alternates with a diploid sporophyte, whose cell contain two sets of paired chromosomes. Gametophytes produce haploid sperm and eggs which fuse to form diploid zygotes that grow into sporophytes. Sporophytes produce haploid spores by meiosis. Bryophytes are gametophyte dominant, meaning that the more prominent, longer-lived plant is the haploid gametophyte; the diploid sporophytes appear only and remain attached to and nutritionally dependent on the gametophyte. In bryophytes, the sporophytes produce a single sporangium. Liverworts and hornworts spend most of their lives as gametophytes. Gametangia and antheridia, are produced on the gametophytes, sometimes at the tips of shoots, in the axils of leaves or hidden under thalli.
Some bryophytes, such as the liverwort Marchantia, create elaborate structures to bear the gametangia that are called gametangiophores. Sperm are flagellated and must swim from the antheridia that produce them to archegonia which may be on a different plant. Arthropods can assist in transfer of sperm. Fertilized eggs become zygotes. Mature sporophytes remain attached to the gametophyte, they consist of a stalk called a single sporangium or capsule. Inside the sporangium, haploid spores are produced by meiosis; these are dispersed, most by wind, if they land in a suitable environment can develop into a new gametophyte. Thus bryophytes disperse by a combination of swimming sperm and spores, in a manner similar to lycophytes and other cryptogams; the arrangement of antheridia and archegonia on an individual bryophyte plant is constant within a species, although in some species it may depend on environmental conditions. The main division is between species in which the antheridia and archegonia occur on the same plant and those in which they occur on different plants.
The term monoicous may be used where antheridia and archegonia occur on the same gametophyte and the term dioicous where they occur on different gametophytes. In seed plants, "monoecious" is used where flowers with anthers and flowers with ovules occur on the same sporophyte and "dioecious" where they occur on different sporophytes; these terms may be used instead of "monoicous" and "dioicous" to describe bryophyte gametophytes. "Monoecious" and "monoicous" are both derived from the Greek for "one house", "dioecious" and "dioicous" from the Greek for two houses. The use of the "oicy" terminology is said to have the advantage of emphasizing the difference between the gametophyte sexuality of bryophytes and the sporophyte sexuality of seed plants. Monoicous plants are hermaphroditic, meaning that the same plant has both sexes; the exact arrangement of the antheridia and archegonia in monoicous plants varies. They may be borne on different shoots, on the same shoot but not together in a common structure, or together in a common "inflorescence".
Dioicous plants are unisexual. All four patterns occur in species of the moss genus Bryum. Traditionally, all living land plants without vascular tissues were classified in a single taxonomic group a division. More phylogenetic research has questioned whether the bryophytes form a monophyletic group and thus whether they should form a single taxon. Although a 2005 study supported the traditional view that the bryophytes form a monophyletic group, by 2010 a broad consensus had emerged among systematists that bryophytes as a whole are not a natural group, although each of the three extant groups is monophyletic; the three bryophyte clades are the Marchantiophyta and Anthocerotophyta. The vascular plants or tracheophytes form a fourth, unranked clade of land plants called the "Polysporangiophyta". In this analysis, hornworts are sister
Vascular plants known as tracheophytes, form a large group of plants that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant. They have a specialized non-lignified tissue to conduct products of photosynthesis. Vascular plants include the clubmosses, ferns and angiosperms. Scientific names for the group include Tracheophyta and Equisetopsida sensu lato; the term higher plants should be avoided as a synonym for vascular plants as it is a remnant of the abandoned concept of the great chain of being. Vascular plants are defined by three primary characteristics: Vascular plants have vascular tissues which distribute resources through the plant; this feature allows vascular plants to evolve to a larger size than non-vascular plants, which lack these specialized conducting tissues and are thereby restricted to small sizes. In vascular plants, the principal generation phase is the sporophyte, which produce spores and is diploid. By contrast, the principal generation phase in non-vascular plants is the gametophyte, which produces gametes and is haploid.
They have true roots and stems if one or more of these traits are secondarily lost in some groups. The formal definition of the division Tracheophyta encompasses both these characteristics in the Latin phrase "facies diploida xylem et phloem instructa". One possible mechanism for the presumed switch from emphasis on the haploid generation to emphasis on the diploid generation is the greater efficiency in spore dispersal with more complex diploid structures. In other words, elaboration of the spore stalk enabled the production of more spores, enabled the development of the ability to release them higher and to broadcast them farther; such developments may include more photosynthetic area for the spore-bearing structure, the ability to grow independent roots, woody structure for support, more branching. A proposed phylogeny of the vascular plants after Kenrick and Crane is as follows, with modification to the gymnosperms from Christenhusz et al. Pteridophyta from Smith et al. and lycophytes and ferns by Christenhusz et al.
This phylogeny is supported by several molecular studies. Other researchers state that taking fossils into account leads to different conclusions, for example that the ferns are not monophyletic. Water and nutrients in the form of inorganic solutes are drawn up from the soil by the roots and transported throughout the plant by the xylem. Organic compounds such as sucrose produced by photosynthesis in leaves are distributed by the phloem sieve tube elements; the xylem consists of vessels in flowering plants and tracheids in other vascular plants, which are dead hard-walled hollow cells arranged to form files of tubes that function in water transport. A tracheid cell wall contains the polymer lignin; the phloem however consists of living cells called sieve-tube members. Between the sieve-tube members are sieve plates, which have pores to allow molecules to pass through. Sieve-tube members lack such organs as nuclei or ribosomes, but cells next to them, the companion cells, function to keep the sieve-tube members alive.
The most abundant compound in all plants, as in all cellular organisms, is water which serves an important structural role and a vital role in plant metabolism. Transpiration is the main process of water movement within plant tissues. Water is transpired from the plant through its stomata to the atmosphere and replaced by soil water taken up by the roots; the movement of water out of the leaf stomata creates a transpiration pull or tension in the water column in the xylem vessels or tracheids. The pull is the result of water surface tension within the cell walls of the mesophyll cells, from the surfaces of which evaporation takes place when the stomata are open. Hydrogen bonds exist between water molecules; the draw of water upwards may be passive and can be assisted by the movement of water into the roots via osmosis. Transpiration requires little energy to be used by the plant. Transpiration assists the plant in absorbing nutrients from the soil as soluble salts. Living root cells passively absorb water in the absence of transpiration pull via osmosis creating root pressure.
It is possible for there to be no evapotranspiration and therefore no pull of water towards the shoots and leaves. This is due to high temperatures, high humidity, darkness or drought. Xylem and phloem tissues are involved in the conduction processes within plants. Sugars are conducted throughout the plant in the phloem and other nutrients through the xylem. Conduction occurs from a source to a sink for each separate nutrient. Sugars are produced in the leaves by photosynthesis and transported to the growing shoots and roots for use in growth, cellular respiration or storage. Minerals are transported to the shoots to allow cell division and growth. Fern allies Non-vascular plant “Higher plants” or “vascular plants”
Artemisia campestris is a common and widespread species of plants in the sunflower family, Asteraceae. It is native to a wide region of North America. Common names include field wormwood, beach wormwood, northern wormwood, Breckland wormwood boreal wormwood, Canadian wormwood, field sagewort and field mugwort. Artemisia campestris is a branching, aromatic plant up to 150 cm tall, it grows in open sites on dry sandy soils, in steppes, rocky slopes, waste areas. SubspeciesArtemisia campestris subsp. Alpina Arcang. - central Europe Artemisia campestris subsp. Borealis H. M. Hall & Clem. - northern + central Europe - northern North America Artemisia campestris subsp. Bothnica - Eurasia Artemisia campestris subsp. Bottnica Lundstr. Ex Kindb. - Eurasia Artemisia campestris subsp. Campestris - Eurasia Artemisia campestris subsp. Canadensis Scoggan - Greenland, Maine Artemisia campestris subsp. Caudata H. M. Hall & Clem. - central Canada, eastern + central United States Artemisia campestris subsp. Glutinosa Batt.
Artemisia campestris subsp. Inodora Nyman Artemisia campestris subsp. Lednicensis Greuter & Raab-Straube Artemisia campestris subsp. Maritima Arcang. Artemisia campestris subsp. Pacifica H. M. Hall & Clem. - western North America Artemisia campestris subsp. Variabilis Greuter Chayka, Katy. "Artemisia campestris". Minnesota Wildflowers. Go Botany, New England Wildflower Society LuontoPortti Naturegate Tree of Life On-line Atlas of the British & Irish Flora Electronic Atlas of the Flora of British Columbia Pollen Library
Agrostis curtisii is a species of grass in the Poaceae family native to Eurasia. It is densely tufted, with hair like leaves. Stems grow up to 60 cm, its spikelets are yellow-green in colour, its lemmas are awned. The ligule is pointed, it has no stolons. Bristle Bent flowers in the UK from June until July and is found on dry heaths and moors
Ajuga chamaepitys is a species of flowering plant of the family Lamiaceae. Popularly known as yellow bugle or ground-pine, the plant has many of the same characteristics and properties as Ajuga reptans. A. chamaepitys can be found in Europe, the Eastern part of the Mediterranean, North Africa. A. chamaepitys is a small herbaceous perennial -- 40 cm in height. The leaves have an opposite arrangement. It's flowering season is in late spring. Ground pine is a plant whose richness has been reduced by changes to downland farming. At first sight, A. chamaepitys looks like a tiny pine tree with a reddish purple four-cornered hairy stem. The leaves can get up to 4 cm long, are divided into three linear lobes which, when crushed, have a smell similar to pine needles. Ground pine sheds its shiny black seeds close to the parent plant and the seeds can remain alive in the soil for up to 50 years. A. chamaepitys has stimulant and emmenagogue action and is considered by herbalists to form a good remedy for gout and rheumatism and to be useful in female disorders.
Ground pine is a plant well known to Tudor herbalists who exploited the resins contained within the leaves. The herb was regarded as a specific in gouty and rheumatic affections; the plant leaves were reduced to powder. It formed an ingredient of Portland Powder, it was composed of the leaves of A. Chamaepitys, which has a turpentine-like smell and a rough taste, with properties described as being similar to diluted alcohol