A caricature is a rendered image showing the features of its subject in a simplified or exaggerated way through sketching, pencil strokes, or through other artistic drawings. In literature, a caricature is a description of a person using exaggeration of some characteristics and oversimplification of others. Caricatures can be insulting or complimentary and can serve a political purpose or be drawn for entertainment. Caricatures of politicians are used in editorial cartoons, while caricatures of movie stars are found in entertainment magazines; the term is derived from the Italian caricare -- to load. An early definition occurs in the English doctor Thomas Browne's Christian Morals, published posthumously in 1716. Expose not thy self by four-footed manners unto monstrous draughts, Caricatura representations. With the footnote: When Men's faces are drawn with resemblance to some other Animals, the Italians call it, to be drawn in Caricatura Thus, the word "caricature" means a "loaded portrait".
Until the mid 19th century, it was and mistakenly believed that the term shared the same root as the French'charcuterie' owing to Parisian street artists using cured meats in their satirical portrayal of public figures. Some of the earliest caricatures are found in the works of Leonardo da Vinci, who sought people with deformities to use as models; the point was to offer an impression of the original, more striking than a portrait. Caricature took a road to its first successes in the closed aristocratic circles of France and Italy, where such portraits could be passed about for mutual enjoyment. While the first book on caricature drawing to be published in England was Mary Darly's A Book of Caricaturas, the first known North American caricatures were drawn in 1759 during the battle for Quebec; these caricatures were the work of Brig.-Gen. George Townshend whose caricatures of British General James Wolfe, depicted as "Deformed and crass and hideous", were drawn to amuse fellow officers. Elsewhere, two great practitioners of the art of caricature in 18th-century Britain were Thomas Rowlandson and James Gillray.
Rowlandson was more of an artist and his work took its inspiration from the public at large. Gillray was more concerned with the vicious visual satirisation of political life, they were, great friends and caroused together in the pubs of London. In a lecture titled The History and Art of Caricature, the British caricaturist Ted Harrison said that the caricaturist can choose to either mock or wound the subject with an effective caricature. Drawing caricatures can be a form of entertainment and amusement – in which case gentle mockery is in order – or the art can be employed to make a serious social or political point. A caricaturist draws on the natural characteristics of the subject. Sir Max Beerbohm and published caricatures of the famous men of his own time and earlier, his style of single-figure caricatures in formalized groupings was established by 1896 and flourished until about 1930. His published works include Caricatures of Twenty-five Gentlemen, The Poets' Corner, Rossetti and His Circle.
He published in fashionable magazines of the time, his works were exhibited in London at the Carfax Gallery and Leicester Galleries. George Cruikshank created political prints that attacked leading politicians, he went on to create social caricatures of British life for popular publications such as The Comic Almanack and Omnibus. Cruikshanks' New Union Club of 1819 is notable in the context of slavery, he earned fame as a book illustrator for Charles Dickens and many other authors. Honoré Daumier created over 4,000 lithographs, most of them caricatures on political and everyday themes, they were published in the daily French newspapers Mort Drucker joined Mad in 1957 and became well known for his parodies of movie satires. He combined a comic strip style with caricature likenesses of film actors for Md, he contributed covers to Time, he has been recognized for his work with the National Cartoonists Society Special Features Award for 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, their Reuben Award for 1987. Alex Gard created more than 700 caricatures of show business celebrities and other notables for the walls of Sardi's Restaurant in the theater district of New York City: the first artist to do so.
Today the images are part of the Billy Rose Theatre Collection of The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts. Al Hirschfeld was best known for his simple black and white renditions of celebrities and Broadway stars which used flowing contour lines over heavy rendering, he was known for depicting a variety of other famous people, from politicians, musicians and television stars like the cast of Star Trek: The Next Generation. He was commissioned by the United States Postal Service to provide art for U. S. stamps. Permanent collections of Hirschfeld's work appear at the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Museum of Modern Art in New York, he boasts a star on the St. Louis Walk of Fame. S. Jithesh is known for his speedy style of Celebrity Caricaturing Stage Shows."Cartoons take shape in no time". The Hindu. Chennai, India. February 28, 2010.</ref> He performs a'Caricature Stage Show', a blend of poetry and socio-political satire
Paul Mellon was an American philanthropist and an owner/breeder of thoroughbred racehorses. He is one of only five people designated an "Exemplar of Racing" by the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame, he was co-heir to one of America's greatest business fortunes, derived from the Mellon Bank created by his grandfather Thomas Mellon, his father Andrew W. Mellon, his father's brother Richard B. Mellon. In 1957, when Fortune prepared its first list of the wealthiest Americans, it estimated that Paul Mellon, his sister Ailsa Mellon-Bruce, his cousins Sarah Mellon and Richard King Mellon, were all among the richest eight people in the United States, with fortunes of between 400 and 700 million dollars each. Mellon's autobiography, Reflections in a Silver Spoon, was published in 1992, he died at his home, Oak Spring, in Upperville, Virginia, on February 1, 1999. He was survived by his wife, his children, Catherine Conover and Timothy Mellon, two stepchildren, Stacy Lloyd III and Eliza, Viscountess Moore.
Paul Mellon was the son of Andrew W. Mellon, US Secretary of the Treasury from 1921 to 1932, Nora McMullen of Hertfordshire and brother of Ailsa Mellon-Bruce, he graduated from The Choate School in Wallingford, Connecticut, in 1925, where he wrote for the literary magazine and composed the school hymn. He went on to graduate from Yale College and the University of Cambridge. At Yale, he was a member of Chi Psi Fraternity and Key and served as vice-chairman of the Yale Daily News, he was a great benefactor of his alma maters, donating to the Forbes-Mellon Library at the University of Cambridge, the Mellon Arts Center and the Mellon Science Center to Choate, two residential colleges, the Yale Center for British Art. After graduating from Yale, he went to England to study at the University of Cambridge, receiving a BA in 1931, while his father served as the US Ambassador to the Court of St. James's from 1932 to 1933. In 1930, he was a founding member, alongside Sir Timothy William Gowers, of the CRABS, the Clare Rugby And Boating Society.
In 1938, he received an Oxbridge MA from Cambridge. He was a major benefactor to Clare College's Forbes-Mellon Library, opened in 1986. Mellon returned to Pittsburgh, to work for other businesses for six months. In 1935, he married Mary Conover Brown and the couple, who had two children and Timothy, moved to Virginia, he enrolled at St. John's College in Annapolis, Maryland in 1940 but six months joined the United States Army, asking to join the cavalry. Mellon served with the Morale Operations Branch of the Office of Strategic Services in Europe, he rose to the rank of major and was the recipient of four battle stars in the European Theatre of Operations. After his wife Mary's death in 1946 from an asthma attack, he married Rachel Lambert Lloyd, known as "Bunny", the former wife of Stacy Barcroft Lloyd Jr, she was a descendant of the Lambert family who formulated and marketed Listerine and an heiress to the Warner-Lambert corporate fortune. Bunny Mellon was an avid horticulturist and gardener, whose fondness for French Impressionist and Post-Impressionist painting, as well as American art, Mellon came to share.
By this marriage, he had two stepchildren: Eliza Lambert Lloyd. While Mellon did not share his father's interest in business, the two found common ground in their love of art and philanthropy. Shortly before Andrew Mellon's death in 1937, construction began on the West Building of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D. C. for which Andrew Mellon had provided funds. Four years Paul Mellon presented both the building by John Russell Pope and his father's collection of 115 paintings to the nation, he served on the museum's board for more than four decades: as trustee, as president, as board chair, as honorary trustee. Mellon commissioned I. M. Pei to build the East Building and, with his sister Ailsa, provided funds for its construction in the late 1970s. Over the years he and his wife Bunny donated more than 1,000 works to the National Gallery of Art, among them many French and American masterworks. In 1936, Mellon purchased his first British painting, "Pumpkin with a Stable-lad" by George Stubbs, who became a lifetime favorite of Mellon's.
Beginning in the late 1950s, with the help of English art historian Basil Taylor, Mellon amassed a major collection by the mid-1960s. London art dealer Geoffrey Agnew once said of his acquisitions: "It took an American collector to make the English look again at their own paintings." Mellon granted his extensive collection of British art, rare books, related materials to Yale University in the 1960s, along with the funding to create an appropriate museum to house it. He characteristically insisted that it not be named in honor of him, but rather would be called the Yale Center for British Art, to encourage others to support it as well. Mellon provided extensive endowment support to fund not only operations but an ongoing program of acquisitions, he made a generous bequest to the Center at the time of his death; the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art was founded in 1970 through a generous grant to Yale University, as a London-based affiliate of the New Haven center, to encourage study of British art and culture both at the undergraduate and the research scholar levels.
Mellon provided important leadership gifts to the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts in Richmond, V
Ailsa Mellon Bruce
Ailsa Mellon Bruce was a prominent American socialite and philanthropist who established the Avalon Foundation. Ailsa was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on June 28, 1901, she was diplomat Andrew W. Mellon and Nora Mary Mellon, her parents divorced in 1912 and from 1921 to 1932, Ailsa served as her father's official hostess during his tenure as United States Secretary of the Treasury, again when he was U. S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom in 1932–1933, her only sibling was brother Paul Mellon, a philanthropist and was known as a prominent owner/breeder of thoroughbred racehorses. Ailsa attended Miss Porter's School in Farmington and spent her summers as a teenager in Europe. Bruce established the Avalon Foundation in 1940, which made grants to colleges and universities, medical schools and hospitals, youth programs and community services, environmental projects, an array of cultural and arts organizations. In 1947, the Avalon Foundation was instrumental in the establishment of the Hampton National Historic Site in Maryland.
In 1957, when Fortune prepared its first list of the wealthiest Americans, it estimated that Ailsa Mellon Bruce, her brother and her cousins, Sarah Mellon and Richard King Mellon, were all among the richest eight people in the United States, with fortunes of between 400 and 700 million dollars each. In 1968, Ailsa and Paul donated $20 million to build an annex to the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D. C. At her death in 1969, Ailsa Bruce bequeathed 153 paintings by 19th-century French artists, to the National Gallery of Art, as well as establishing a fund for future acquisitions. Among the many works acquired by the Gallery through the Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund was the portrait of Ginevra de' Benci, the only painting by Leonardo da Vinci in the United States. In 1969, the assets of Paul Mellon’s Old Dominion Foundation were merged into his sister's Avalon Foundation, renamed the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation in honor of their father, she dated Prince Otto Bismarck, the grandson of Otto von Bismarck, the "Iron Chancellor", was close to marrying him, but decided to marry David Bruce, an American, instead.
On May 23, 1926, she was married to David Kirkpatrick Este Bruce, a scion of a prominent Virginia family including his father William Cabell Bruce, a U. S. Senator from Maryland, brother James Cabell Bruce, the U. S. Ambassador to Argentina, their engagement and honeymoon were followed by the news media. In 1933, after seven years of marriage, Ailsa gave birth to her only child, they were the founders of the Taconic Foundation, a charitable giving organization, instrumental in the formation of the Council for United Civil Rights Leadership. She obtained a divorce from her husband in Palm Beach, Florida in April 1945 on the grounds of "desertion and mental cruelty", receiving sole custody of their 11 year old daughter. Following their divorce, her ex-husband would become the United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom from 1961 to 1969, the same position her father held. After her divorce, Mrs. Bruce was in a long rumored relationship with G. Lauder Greenway of the Lauder Greenway Family. In addition to their personal links, Greenway was a longtime trustee of Bruce's Avalon Foundation.
She died on August 1969 at Roosevelt Hospital in New York City. She had homes at 960 Fifth Avenue and a 121 acre estate in New York on Long Island, her obituary in The New York Times called her the "Richest Woman in U. S." When Audrey and her husband, Stephen Currier, died in a presumed plane crash in 1967, leaving three young children – Andrea Currier, Lavinia Currier, Michael Stephen Currier, she decided to bequeath her collection of 18th-century English furniture and ceramics to the Carnegie Institute of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Paintings acquired by the National Gallery of Art through the Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund Wealthiest Americans The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation The National Gallery of Art Ailsa Mellon Bruce at Find a Grave
William S. Paley
William Samuel Paley was the chief executive who built the Columbia Broadcasting System from a small radio network into one of the foremost radio and television network operations in the United States. Paley was born in Chicago, the son of Goldie and Samuel Paley, his family was Jewish, his father was an immigrant from Ukraine who ran a cigar company. As the company became successful, Paley became a millionaire, moved his family to Philadelphia in the early 1920s. William Paley matriculated at Western Military Academy in Alton and received his college degree from the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania in expectation that he would take an active role running the family cigar business. While at the University of Pennsylvania, Paley joined the Theta Chapter of Zeta Beta Tau Fraternity. In 1927, Samuel Paley, Leon Levy, some business partners bought a struggling Philadelphia-based radio network of 16 stations called the Columbia Phonographic Broadcasting System. Samuel Paley's intention was to use his acquisition as an advertising medium for promoting the family's cigar business, which included the La Palina brand.
Within a year, under William's leadership, cigar sales had more than doubled, and, in 1928, the Paley family secured majority ownership of the network from their partners. Within a decade, William S. Paley had expanded the network to 114 affiliate stations. Paley grasped the earnings potential of radio and recognized that good programming was the key to selling advertising time and, in turn, bringing in profits to the network and to affiliate owners. Before Paley, most businessmen viewed stations as stand-alone local outlets or, in other words, as the broadcast equivalent of local newspapers. Individual stations bought programming from the network and, were considered the network's clients. Paley changed broadcasting's business model not only by developing successful and lucrative broadcast programming but by viewing the advertisers as the most significant element of the broadcasting equation. Paley provided network programming to affiliate stations at a nominal cost, thereby ensuring the widest possible distribution for both the programming and the advertising.
The advertisers became the network's primary clients and, because of the wider distribution brought by the growing network, Paley was able to charge more for the ad time. Affiliates were required to carry programming offered by the network for part of the broadcast day, receiving a portion of the network's fees from advertising revenue. At other times in the broadcast day, affiliates were free to offer local programming and sell advertising time locally. Paley's recognition of how to harness the potential reach of broadcasting was the key to his growing CBS from a tiny chain of stations into what was one of the world's dominant communication empires. During his prime, Paley was described as having an uncanny sense for popular taste and exploiting that insight to build the CBS network; as war clouds darkened over Europe in the late 1930s, Paley recognized Americans' desire for news coverage of the coming war and built the CBS news division into a dominant force just as he had built the network's entertainment division.
During World War II, Paley served as director of radio operations of the Psychological Warfare branch in the Office of War Information at Allied Force Headquarters in London, where he held the rank of colonel. While based in England during the war, Paley came to know and befriend Edward R. Murrow, CBS's head of European news who expanded the news division's foreign coverage with a team of war correspondents known as the Murrow Boys. In 1946, Paley promoted Frank Stanton to president of CBS. CBS rode the post-World War II boom to surpass NBC, which had dominated radio. CBS has owned the Columbia Record Company and its associated CBS Laboratories since 1939. In 1948, Columbia Records introduced the 33-1/3-rpm long-playing vinyl disc to compete with RCA Victor's 45-rpm vinyl disc. CBS Laboratories and Peter Goldmark developed a method for color television. After lobbying by RCA President David Sarnoff and Paley in Washington, D. C. the Federal Communications Commission approved the CBS system, but reversed the decision based on the CBS system's incompatibility with black and white receivers.
The new, compatible RCA color system was selected as the standard, CBS sold the patents to its system to foreign broadcasters as PAL SECAM. CBS broadcast few color programs during this period, they did, however and license some RCA equipment and technology, taking the RCA markings off of the equipment, relying on Philips-Norelco for color equipment beginning in 1964, when color television sets became widespread. PAL or Phase Alternating Line, an analogue TV-encoding system, is today a television-broadcasting standard used in large parts of the world. "Bill Paley erected two towers of power: one for entertainment and one for news," 60 Minutes creator Don Hewitt claimed in his autobiography, Tell Me a Story. "And he decreed that there would be no bridge between them.... In short, Paley was the guy who put Frank Sinatra and Edward R. Murrow on the radio and 60 Minutes on television." Paley was not fond of one of the network's biggest stars. Arthur Godfrey had been working locally in DC and New York City hosting morning shows.
Paley did not consider him worthy of CBS. When Paley went into the Army and took up his assignment in London, Frank Stanton assumed his duties, he decided to try Godfrey on the network. By th
Henry Ford was an American captain of industry and a business magnate, the founder of the Ford Motor Company, the sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production. Although Ford did not invent the automobile or the assembly line, he developed and manufactured the first automobile that many middle-class Americans could afford. In doing so, Ford converted the automobile from an expensive curiosity into a practical conveyance that would profoundly impact the landscape of the 20th century, his introduction of the Model T automobile revolutionized American industry. As the owner of the Ford Motor Company, he became one of the richest and best-known people in the world, he is credited with "Fordism": mass production of inexpensive goods coupled with high wages for workers. Ford had a global vision, with consumerism as the key to peace, his intense commitment to systematically lowering costs resulted in many technical and business innovations, including a franchise system that put dealerships throughout most of North America and in major cities on six continents.
Ford left most of his vast wealth to the Ford Foundation and arranged for his family to control the company permanently. Ford was widely known for his pacifism during the first years of World War I, for promoting antisemitic content, including The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, through his newspaper The Dearborn Independent and the book The International Jew, having an influence on the development of Nazism and Adolf Hitler. Henry Ford was born July 1863, on a farm in Greenfield Township, Michigan, his father, William Ford, was born in County Cork, Ireland, to a family, from Somerset, England. His mother, Mary Ford, was born in Michigan as the youngest child of Belgian immigrants. Henry Ford's siblings were Margaret Ford, his father gave him a pocket watch in his early teens. At 15, Ford dismantled and reassembled the timepieces of friends and neighbors dozens of times, gaining the reputation of a watch repairman. At twenty, Ford walked four miles to their Episcopal church every Sunday. Ford was devastated when his mother died in 1876.
His father expected him to take over the family farm, but he despised farm work. He wrote, "I never had any particular love for the farm—it was the mother on the farm I loved."In 1879, Ford left home to work as an apprentice machinist in Detroit, first with James F. Flower & Bros. and with the Detroit Dry Dock Co. In 1882, he returned to Dearborn to work on the family farm, where he became adept at operating the Westinghouse portable steam engine, he was hired by Westinghouse to service their steam engines. During this period Ford studied bookkeeping at Goldsmith, Bryant & Stratton Business College in Detroit. Ford married Clara Jane Bryant on April 11, 1888, supported himself by farming and running a sawmill, they had one child: Edsel Ford. In 1891, Ford became an engineer with the Edison Illuminating Company of Detroit. After his promotion to Chief Engineer in 1893, he had enough time and money to devote attention to his personal experiments on gasoline engines; these experiments culminated in 1896 with the completion of a self-propelled vehicle which he named the Ford Quadricycle.
He test-drove it on June 4. After various test drives, Ford brainstormed ways to improve the Quadricycle. In 1896, Ford attended a meeting of Edison executives, where he was introduced to Thomas Edison. Edison approved of Ford's automobile experimentation. Encouraged by Edison, Ford designed and built a second vehicle, completing it in 1898. Backed by the capital of Detroit lumber baron William H. Murphy, Ford resigned from the Edison Company and founded the Detroit Automobile Company on August 5, 1899. However, the automobiles produced were of higher price than Ford wanted; the company was not successful and was dissolved in January 1901. With the help of C. Harold Wills, Ford designed and raced a 26-horsepower automobile in October 1901. With this success and other stockholders in the Detroit Automobile Company formed the Henry Ford Company on November 30, 1901, with Ford as chief engineer. In 1902, Murphy brought in Henry M. Leland as a consultant. With Ford gone, Murphy renamed the company the Cadillac Automobile Company.
Teaming up with former racing cyclist Tom Cooper, Ford produced the 80+ horsepower racer "999" which Barney Oldfield was to drive to victory in a race in October 1902. Ford received the backing of an old acquaintance, Alexander Y. Malcomson, a Detroit-area coal dealer, they formed a partnership, "Ltd." to manufacture automobiles. Ford went to work designing an inexpensive automobile, the duo leased a factory and contracted with a machine shop owned by John and Horace E. Dodge to supply over $160,000 in parts. Sales were slow, a crisis arose when the Dodge brothers demanded payment for their first shipment. In response, Malcomson brought in another group of investors and convinced the Dodge Brothers to accept a portion of the new company. Ford & Malcomson was reincorporated as the Ford Motor Company on June 16, 1903, with $28,000 capital; the original investors included Ford and Malcomson, the Dodge brothers, Malcomson's uncle John S. Gray, Malcolmson's secretary James Couzens, two of Malcomson's lawyers, John W. Anderson and Horace Rackham.
Ford demonstrated a newly designed car on the ice of Lake St. Clair, driving 1 mile in 39.4 seconds and setting a ne
J. Paul Getty
Jean Paul Getty, known as J. Paul Getty, was a naturalized British American petrol-industrialist, the patriarch of the Getty family, he founded the Getty Oil Company, in 1957 Fortune magazine named him the richest living American, while the 1966 Guinness Book of Records named him as the world's richest private citizen, worth an estimated $1.2 billion. At his death, he was worth more than $6 billion. A book published in 1996 ranked him as the 67th richest American who lived, based on his wealth as a percentage of the concurrent gross national product. Despite his vast wealth, Getty was famously frugal, notably negotiating his grandson's Italian kidnapping ransom in 1973. Getty was an avid collector of art and antiquities, his collection formed the basis of the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles and more than $661 million of his estate was left to the museum after his death, he established the J. Paul Getty Trust in 1953; the trust is the world's wealthiest art institution, operates the J. Paul Getty Museum Complexes: The Getty Center, The Getty Villa and the Getty Foundation, the Getty Research Institute, the Getty Conservation Institute.
Getty was born into a Scottish American family in Minneapolis, Minnesota, to Sarah Catherine McPherson and George Getty, an attorney in the insurance industry. Getty was raised as a Methodist by his parents, his father was a devout Christian Scientist and both were strict teetotalers. In 1903, when Getty was 10 years old, George Getty travelled to Bartlesville and bought the mineral rights for 1,100 acres of land. Within a few years Getty had established wells on the land which were producing 100,000 barrels of crude oil a month; as newly minted millionaires, the family moved to Los Angeles to escape the harsh Minnesota winters. At age 14, Getty attended Harvard Military School for a year, followed by Polytechnic High School, where he was given the nickname "Dictionary Getty" because of his love of reading, he became fluent in French and Italian. Getty was conversational in Spanish, Greek and Russian. A love of the classics led Getty to acquire reading proficiency in Latin, he enrolled at the University of Southern California at the University of California, but left both before obtaining a degree.
Enamored with Europe after traveling abroad with his parents in 1910, Getty enrolled at the University of Oxford on November 28, 1912. A letter of introduction by then-President of the United States William Howard Taft enabled him to gain independent instruction from tutors at Magdalen College. Although he was not registered at Magdalen, he claimed the aristocratic students "accepted me as one of their own" and he fondly boasted of the friends he made, including Edward VIII, the future King of the United Kingdom and Emperor of India, he obtained degrees in economics and political science from Oxford in June 1913 spent months traveling throughout Europe and Egypt before meeting his parents in Paris and returning with them to America in June 1914. In the autumn of 1914, George Getty gave his son $10,000 to invest in expanding the family's oil field holdings in Oklahoma; the first lot he bought, the Nancy Taylor No. 1 Oil Well Site near Haskell, Oklahoma was crucial to his early financial success.
The well struck oil in August 1915 and by the next summer the 40 percent net production royalty he accrued from it had made him a millionaire. In 1919, Getty returned to business in Oklahoma. During the 1920s, he added about $3 million to his sizable estate, his succession of marriages and divorces so distressed his father that Getty inherited only $500,000 of the $10 million fortune his father left at the time of his death in 1930. Getty was left with one-third of the stock from George Getty Inc. while his mother received the remaining two-thirds, giving her a controlling interest. In 1936, Getty's mother convinced him to contribute to the establishment of a $3.3 million investment trust, called the Sarah C. Getty Trust, to ensure the family's ever-growing wealth could be channeled into a tax-free, secure income for future generations of the Getty family; the trust enabled Getty to have easy access to ready capital, which he was funneling into the purchase of Tidewater Petroleum stock. Shrewdly investing his resources during the Great Depression, Getty acquired Pacific Western Oil Corporation and began the acquisition of the Mission Corporation, which included Tidewater Oil and Skelly Oil.
In 1967, Getty merged these holdings into Getty Oil. Beginning in 1949, Getty paid Ibn Saud $9.5 million in cash and $1 million a year for a 60-year concession to a tract of barren land near the border of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, although no oil had been discovered there. Since 1953, Getty's gamble produced 16 million barrels a year, which contributed to the fortune responsible for making him one of the richest people in the world. Getty’s wealth and ability to speak Arabic enabled his unparalleled expansion into the Middle East. Getty owned the controlling interest in about 200 businesses, including Getty Oil. Getty owned Getty Oil, Getty Inc. George F. Getty Inc. Pacific Western Oil Corporation, Mission Corporation, Mission Development Company, Tidewater Oil, Skelly Oil, Mexican Seaboard Oil, Petroleum Corporation of America, Spartan Aircraft Company, Spartan Cafeteria Company, Minnehoma Insurance Company, Minnehoma Financial Company, Pierre Hotel, Pierre Marques Hotel, a 15th-century palace and nearby castle at Ladispoli on the coast northwest of Rome, a Malibu ranch home, Sutton Place, a 72-room mansion near Guildford, Surrey.
Getty moved to Britain in the 1950s and became a prominent admirer of England, its