The Luangwa River is one of the major tributaries of the Zambezi River, one of the four biggest rivers of Zambia. The river floods in the rainy season and falls in the dry season, it is one of the biggest unaltered rivers in Southern Africa and the 20,000 square miles that make up the surrounding valley are home to abundant wildlife. Note: distances stated are approximate straight-line distances from source; the Luangwa rises in the Lilonda and Mafinga Hills in north-east Zambia at an elevation of around 1500 m, near the border with Tanzania and Malawi, flows in a southwesterly direction through a broad valley. About 150 km from its source it has dropped to an elevation of about 690 m and becomes a meandering river with a flood-plain several kilometres wide. Over the next 300 km the meanders increase, with abandoned meanders. Near Mfuwe, the river's elevation has dropped to about 520 m, the flood plain is about 10 km wide and the valley reaches about 100 km wide, with a north-west escarpment about 700 m high, a south-western escarpment about 450 m high.
In the dry season some sections in the upper reaches, dry out leaving isolated pools. The upper and middle parts of the valley contain the North Luangwa National Park and South Luangwa National Parks of Zambia, which are among some of the finest in Africa; the river itself is home to large populations of crocodiles. The world's largest concentration of hippos lives in the Luangwa Valley. In the dry season they are restricted by the shrinking river and pools, are seen in isolated pools. In addition to being a source of water, the oxbow lakes and pools increase the biodiversity of the valley in other ways; the hippopotami which live in them feed on land vegetation at night. Their dung feeds some fish and fertilises the pools, increasing fish life which in turn feed crocodiles and birds. In the dry season, the grazing land animals and their predators congregate near the river and pools, are seen. In the rainy season they graze further afield and are more hidden in the growth of new vegetation. At about 500 km the valley narrows to about 50 km and becomes divided by a ridge into two parallel valleys, with a tributary, the Lukusashi River in a 25 km-wide valley to the north-west, the Luangwa in a 15 km wide valley to the southeast.
The river meanders less, the flood plain narrows. The principal settlement in the Middle and Upper Luangwa Valley is Mfuwe which serves the tourism industry and has an international airport. Few humans otherwise inhabit the valley. At 600 km the river abruptly enters a narrow valley between hills rising some 200 m from the broader valley floor, becoming a gorge. About 700 km from source the Luangwa merges with its tributary the Lukusashi after the latter has merged with the Lunsemfwa River coming from the opposite direction, turns due south through a steep narrow valley: this is its exit from the Luangwa Rift Valley. After only 20 km it emerges from the hills into the broad valley of the Zambezi and meanders over sandy flats about 1.5 km wide in a flood plain of 3–5 km wide. It merges with the deeper Zambezi at Luangwa town; this section explains the geomorphology of the Luangwa Valley. It is a rift valley or graben forming a south-west extension of the east African Rift, branching off its Lake Rukwa-Lake Malawi southern section, reaching as far as Lusaka.
The junction is not obvious because it filled with material spewed out from an ancient, extinct volcano. There are at least 20 hot springs, characteristic of a rift valley, in the valley or on its escarpments; the Luangwa flows along four-fifths of the Luangwa Rift Valley to the point where it meets the Lukusashi and the Lunsemfwa which has come from the opposite direction. At one time, millions of years ago, there was no way out and the Luangwa Rift filled with a Rift Valley Lake called the Madumabisa Lake, which rivalled Lake Malawi in size; the water of the lake overflowed in a river to the south-west, towards what is now the Kalahari, where it combined with the Okavango, Upper Zambezi and Kafue rivers, emptying into the Limpopo River and flowing to the Indian Ocean. Several geological events combined to produce the current river systems. Faulting produced another graben just to the south of the Luangwa Rift, running east-west: the Zambezi Rift Valley and the Chicoa Trough. A tributary of the Shire River at the south end of the Great Rift Valley cut back eastwards through the Chicao Trough and Zambezi Valley, capturing the southerly overspill of the Madumabisa Lake.
This tributary became the Zambezi, which over millions of years captured the Kafue and the upper Zambezi. Faulting lowered the land between the Luangwa Rift and the Zambezi Rift allowing Madumabisa Lake to drain out into the Zambezi in a channel which became the lower Luangwa River; the Luangwa Rift Valley and rivers within it form a natural barrier, with a low population density. This, the steepness of the terrain, the existence of the wildlife reserves have resulted in no highways crossing the valley between the Lusaka-Kabwe roads in the west and the Isoka-Chisenga road in the north, a distance of about 800 km; the lower Luangwa Valley is crossed by just one road, the Great East Road at the Luangwa Bridge, about 10 km south of the Luangwa-Lunsemfwa confluence. Notes Further readingCamerapix: Spectrum Guide to Zambia, Camerapix International Publishing, Nairobi, 1996. Terracarta: Zambia, 2nd edition, International Travel Maps, Canada, 2000. Jean-Jacques Tiercelin et al. "Source Rocks and Reservoirs in Rift Lake Basins over the Past 300 Ma in Central and Eastern Africa", AAPG Ann
The Cuango or Kwango is a transboundary river of Angola and Democratic Republic of Congo. It is the largest left bank tributary of the Kasai River in the Congo River basin, it flows through Malanje town in Angola. The Kwango River basin has large resources of diamonds in the Chitamba-Lulo Kimberlite Cluster in Lunda Norte Province, discovered in the main river channel and on flats and terraces in its flood plains; the Rund Kingdom, which expanded to become the Lund Empire, encompassed territory stretching from Kwango River to the Laupala. Its rulers pursued slavery trade. Lunda expansion in the valley promoted a common political and cultural heritage while promoting slave trading, accounting for the low population densities between the Kwango and Kwilu rivers; the Portuguese replaced the Kingdom of Kasanje. The Kwango River was subject to a Portuguese treaty signing in Lisbon on May 25, 1891 and the Declaration of March 24, 1894. Cuango town, situated in Lunda Norte Province within the Cuango River valley, is considered to be “in the diamond heartland of northeastern Angola”, the richest diamond area in Angola.
This town played an important role during the civil war as both Uniao Nacional para a Independencia Total de Angola and government forces attempted to seize and hold the city. UNITA surrendered the town to the government on 30 September 1997 as part of the Lusaka Protocol; the Cuango originates in the highlands of Alto Chicapa in the Angolan province of Lunda Sul, flows south-north-west, crossing the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo, joining the Kasai River near the town of Bandundo. Thereafter, it empties into the Congo River. Rising in the Lunda plateau, the river forms a deep valley, it is 1,100 kilometres long from its source to its confluence with Congo River, of which 855 kilometres lies in Angola. The river drains a total catchment area of 263,500 square kilometres, its right bank tributaries are the Kwilu rivers. NavigationThe Cuango has a number of rapids. Navigability is achieved in the lower reaches of the river, spanning a length of 307 kilometres from its mouth to the Kingushi rapids.
Partial navigation is possible in the middle stretches of the river between Kingushi and the Franz Josef waterfalls over a distance of about 300 kilometres. Water resourcesThe; the average annual discharge in the lower reaches of the river is 2,700 cubic metres /s The river valley is inhabited by the Yaka, the Suku, the Mbala, the Pende tribal groups. Their crafting skills are seen in the form of mask carvings in geometric patterns of figurines, other carved objects. While the river is used for fishing, the valley is developed to the extent of providing subsistence agriculture only. Of note is palm oil and rubber production; the main economic activity and revenue to the Angolan State is derived by extraction of diamonds from the valley. The river basin has a rich source of diamonds in the Chitamba-Lulo Kimberlite Cluster in Lunda Norte Province, discovered in the main river channel and on flats and terraces in its flood plains; the provinces of Lunda Norte and Lund Sul in the river valley account for largest number of diamond mines in the valley and in Angola.
Prospecting permits have been awarded to BRC, extending to an area of 2,150 kilometres between Tembo and Kasonga Lunda over the Kwango River stretch of about 185 kilometres. Under the mining license held by Soiadale de Desenvolvimento Mineiro, the areas of production is on the Tazua and Ginge River diversions on the Cuango
The Mania River is a river in Madagascar that flows from the central mountains of the island, emptying into the Mozambique Channel. It flooded during the major cyclone in 2000 which killed many people
The Sankuru River is a major river in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Its approximate length of 1,200 km makes it the longest tributary of the Kasai River. In the upper course it is known as Lubilash, it flows northwards and westwards crossing through a few towns, most notably Mbuji-Mayi and Lusambo. It enters the Kasai River near Bena-Bendi, at 4°17′S 20°25′E
The Tugela River is the largest river in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. It is one of the most important rivers of the country; the river originates in Mont-aux-Sources of the Drakensberg Mountains and plunges 947 metres down the Tugela Falls. The Mont-aux-Sources is the origin of tributaries of two other major South African rivers, the Orange and the Vaal. From the Drakensberg range, the Tugela follows a 502 kilometres route through the KwaZulu-Natal midlands before flowing into the Indian Ocean; the total catchment area is 29,100 square kilometres. Land uses in the catchment are rural subsistence farming and commercial forestry; the Tugela has a number of tributaries coming off the Drakensberg, the largest being the Mzinyathi River, but the Little Tugela River, Klip River, Mooi River, Blood River, Sundays River Ingagani River and Bushman River. The Buffalo River joins the Tugela some 19 kilometres east of Tugela Ferry at 28°43′04″S 30°38′41″E; the Blood River was named by the Boers, led by Andries Pretorius, after they defeated the Zulu king Dingane on 16 December 1838, when the river is said to have run red with the blood of Zulu warriors.
Below the Blood River is a crossing point and a battle site, in the Anglo-Zulu War. The Scaly Yellowfish is found in the Tugela River System, it is a common endemic fish in KwaZulu-Natal Province and it is found in different habitats between the Drakensberg foothills and the coastal lowlands, including rivers such as the Umkomazi. The spelling "Tugela" was used for most of the twentieth century. Nineteenth-century writers adopted a variety of spellings including: Isaacs used a number of different spellings in his book and Adventures in Eastern Africa, including "Ootergale" and "Ootoogale". C. R. Maclean, writing in the Nautical Magazine in 1853, used the spelling Zootagoola Angus, a nineteenth-century artist, used the name "Tugala" on the captions to his sketches; some of the variations can be accounted for by the early European writers being unaware that Zulu grammar uses prefixes a "i-" or a "u-", to denote the noun class of a noun. List of rivers in South AfricaDams on the TugelaDriel Barrage Dam Spioenkop Dam Woodstock Dam Media related to Tugela River at Wikimedia Commons
The Cunene River or Kunene River is a river in Southern Africa. It flows from the Angola highlands south to the border with Namibia, it flows west along the border until it reaches the Atlantic Ocean. It is one of the few perennial rivers in the region, it is about 1,050 kilometres long, with a drainage basin 106,560 square kilometres in area. Its mean annual discharge is 174 m³/s at its mouth; the Epupa Falls lie on the river. Olushandja Dam dams a tributary of the river, the Etaka, helps provide the Ruacana Power Station with water; the Namibian government proposed in the late 90's to build the Epupa Dam, a controversial hydroelectric dam on the Cunene. In 2012 the Governments of Namibia and Angola announced plans to jointly build the Orokawe dam in the Baynes Mountains. According to the indigenous Himba who would have been most affected by the construction of the dam, the dam threatens the local ecosystem and therefore the economic basis of the Himba. During February 2012, traditional Himba chiefs issued a declaration to the African Union and to the United Nations Human Rights Council of the United Nations, titled "Declaration of the most affected Ovahimba, Ovatwa and Ovazemba against the Orokawe Dam in the Baynes Mountains," which outlines the fierce objections against the dam from the traditional Himba chiefs and communities that reside near the Kunene River.
September 2012, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples visited the Himba, heard their concerns. November 23, 2012, hundreds of Himba and Zemba from Omuhonga and Epupa region protested in Okanguati against Namibia’s plans to construct a dam in the Kunene River in the Baynes Mountains, against increasing mining operations on their traditional land and human rights violations against them. March 25, 2013, over thousand Himba and Zemba people marched in Opuwo to protest again against Namibia's plans to build the Orokawe dam in the Baynes Mountains at the Cunene River without consulting with the indigenous peoples that do not consent to the construction plans. Tourists frequent campsites or lodges in Epupa which offer water sports on the river including rafting and canoeing. There are ancient baobab trees alongside the gorge, there is an attractive and well-kept viewpoint high above the village and falls, but both are spoiled by broken bottles and abundant garbage.
C. Michael Hogan. 2012. Kunene River. Eds. P. Saundry & C. Cleveland. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC. F. C.de Moor, H. M. Barber-James, A. D. Harrison, C. R. Lugo-Ortiz. 2000. The macroinvertebrates of the Cunene River from the Ruacana Falls to the river mouth and assessment of the conservation status of the river. African Journal of Aquatic Science. Vol.25, no.1 Mikiyasu Nakayama. 2003. International Waters in Southern Africa. United Nations University Press. ISBN 92-808-1077-4. Google eBook Images near Kunene River Map of the Cunene River basin at Water Resources eAtlas
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent, being behind Asia in both categories. At about 30.3 million km2 including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west; the continent includes various archipelagos. It contains 54 recognised sovereign states, nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition; the majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere. Africa's average population is the youngest amongst all the continents. Algeria is Africa's largest country by area, Nigeria is its largest by population. Africa central Eastern Africa, is accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade, as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors as well as ones that have been dated to around 7 million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster—the earliest Homo sapiens, found in Ethiopia, date to circa 200,000 years ago.
Africa encompasses numerous climate areas. Africa hosts a large diversity of ethnicities and languages. In the late 19th century, European countries colonised all of Africa. African nations cooperate through the establishment of the African Union, headquartered in Addis Ababa. Afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of then-known northern Africa to the west of the Nile river, in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean; this name seems to have referred to a native Libyan tribe, an ancestor of modern Berbers. The name had been connected with the Phoenician word ʿafar meaning "dust", but a 1981 hypothesis has asserted that it stems from the Berber word ifri meaning "cave", in reference to cave dwellers; the same word may be found in the name of the Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania, a Berber tribe from Yafran in northwestern Libya. Under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province it named Africa Proconsularis, following its defeat of the Carthaginians in the Third Punic War in 146 BC, which included the coastal part of modern Libya.
The Latin suffix -ica can sometimes be used to denote a land. The Muslim region of Ifriqiya, following its conquest of the Byzantine Empire's Exarchatus Africae preserved a form of the name. According to the Romans, Africa lay to the west of Egypt, while "Asia" was used to refer to Anatolia and lands to the east. A definite line was drawn between the two continents by the geographer Ptolemy, indicating Alexandria along the Prime Meridian and making the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea the boundary between Asia and Africa; as Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of "Africa" expanded with their knowledge. Other etymological hypotheses have been postulated for the ancient name "Africa": The 1st-century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus asserted that it was named for Epher, grandson of Abraham according to Gen. 25:4, whose descendants, he claimed, had invaded Libya. Isidore of Seville in his 7th-century Etymologiae XIV.5.2. Suggests "Africa comes from the Latin aprica, meaning "sunny".
Massey, in 1881, stated that Africa is derived from the Egyptian af-rui-ka, meaning "to turn toward the opening of the Ka." The Ka is the energetic double of every person and the "opening of the Ka" refers to a womb or birthplace. Africa would be, for the Egyptians, "the birthplace." Michèle Fruyt in 1976 proposed linking the Latin word with africus "south wind", which would be of Umbrian origin and mean "rainy wind". Robert R. Stieglitz of Rutgers University in 1984 proposed: "The name Africa, derived from the Latin *Aphir-ic-a, is cognate to Hebrew Ophir." Ibn Khallikan and some other historians claim that the name of Africa came from a Himyarite king called Afrikin ibn Kais ibn Saifi called "Afrikus son of Abrahah" who subdued Ifriqiya. Africa is considered by most paleoanthropologists to be the oldest inhabited territory on Earth, with the human species originating from the continent. During the mid-20th century, anthropologists discovered many fossils and evidence of human occupation as early as 7 million years ago.
Fossil remains of several species of early apelike humans thought to have evolved into modern man, such as Australopithecus afarensis (radiometrically dated to 3.9–3.0 million years BP, Paranthropus boisei and Homo ergaster have been discovered. After the evolution of Homo sapiens sapiens 150,000 to 100,000 years BP in Africa, the continent was populated by groups of hunter-gatherers; these first modern humans left Africa and populated the rest of the globe during the Out of Africa II migration dated to 50,000 years BP, exiting the continent eith