The Assabet River is a small river about 20 miles west of Boston, United States. The river is 34.4 miles long. OARS: the Organization for the Assabet and Concord Rivers, headquartered in West Concord, Massachusetts, is a non-profit organization dedicated to the preservation and enhancement of the natural and recreational features of these three rivers and their watershed; the Assabet and Sudbury Rivers merge in Concord to become the Concord River. The river has had many variations of the same name over the centuries, without anyone knowing for sure what it means; some traditional meanings are associated with the place. Assabet is said to come from the Algonquian word for "the place where materials for making fish nets comes from." Other traditional meanings are "at the miry place" or "it is miry." It is possible to decode this name in the southern New England branch of Algonquian, spoken by the Nipmuc, Native Americans who once fished there. The name is segmented assa-pe-t from assa, "turn back", pe, a short form of nippe, "water", used in compounds, a locative suffix, -t, a shorter form of -et after the vowel.
The meaning would be "at the place where the river turns back." During floods the Assabet River reaches peak height sooner than the Sudbury River, so that at the junction of the two rivers the Sudbury's direction of flow can be temporarily reversed. A counter-argument is. On various historic maps and documents the name has been spelled as Asibath, Asabett, Elizbeth, Elizabet and Isabaeth; the form of spelling was not uniform until at least 1850. Historic maps up to 1830 are showing Elizabeth River, but by 1856 Assabet River. In present-day Stow, the Elizabeth Brook flows into the Assabet River; the Assabet rises at a swampy area in Westborough and flows northeast 34 miles, starting at an elevation of 320 feet and descending through the towns of Northborough, Berlin, Stow, Maynard and Concord, where it merges with the Sudbury River at Egg Rock to form the Concord River, at an elevation of 100 ft. As of 2017 there are nine dams on the Assabet River. Seven were built to power mills. Present-day names: Aluminum City, Allen Street, Gleasondale, Ben Smith and Damonmill/Westvale.
Two are modern dams for flood control: Tyler. The Damonmill Dam is breached, so it does not retain water, although it slows flow at flood times. A tenth mill dam, the Paper Mill Dam, in Maynard, was destroyed by the 1927 flood; as of 2017, 39 road bridges, two Assabet River Rail Trail bridges, one abandoned railroad bridge and one active railroad bridge cross the river. Its watershed covers 177 square miles; the Assabet marshes in Stow total about 900 acres, the Assabet River National Wildlife Refuge and environs in Stow, Maynard and Marlborough total about 2,600 acres. The Powdermill dam was constructed for the American Powder Mills complex of 40 buildings on 400 acres along both sides of the river through the towns of Acton, Concord and Sudbury; these buildings were used for manufacture of gunpowder from 1835 to 1940. Evidence of the 23 recorded explosions during that period remains at a few locations along the river; this dam is owned by Acton Hydro Company Inc., in the process of renovating the hydropower facility in order to generate electricity.
None of the other historic mill dams have any current function. Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote in its praise: "Rowing our boat against the current, between wide meadows, we turn aside into the Assabeth. A more lovely stream than this, for a mile above its junction with the Concord, has never flowed on earth." Henry David Thoreau took his students, including Louisa May Alcott on educational boat trips up the Assabet River," and he wrote a poem entitled "The Assabet" to a love interest stating: "Up this pleasant stream let's row, For the livelong summer's day, Sprinkling foam where'er we go, In wreaths as white as driven snow". The portion of the river upstream from the Ben Smith Dam in Maynard offers five miles of flat water for boating and fishing. Below the dam, the portion flowing through Maynard is rated as class I-II whitewater, suitable for beginning whitewater canoeists. Find out from experienced canoeists and kayakers the safe water depth for this passage. Too low and boats will ground in the shallows.
Too high and it will be impossible to get under the seven bridges. Search on USGS Assabet for real-time water conditions. According to U. S. Geological Survey records. February and April average > 300 cubic feet per second. July and September average <100 cfs, with weeks at a time < 40 cubic feet per second. Five municipal wastewater treatment plants discharge cleaned water into the Assabet River. In summer months this cumulative contribution of more than 10,000,000 US gallons per day can be more than half of the river's total volume; the official designation of major flooding on the Assabet River is a water depth of more than seven feet and a flow rate of 2,300 cfs at the gauge maintained by the U. S. Geological Survey on a site in the river behind McDonald's Restaurant. Last two major floods were 2010 and 1987; the gauge site is downstream of 114 of the 177 square miles making up the Assabet River drainage. Major tributaries below the gauge, which can contribute to downstream flooding, are Fort Pond and Nashoba Brooks
South Nashua River
The South Nashua River is a river in Massachusetts that flows 5.1 miles through Clinton and Lancaster. It starts at the Wachusett Dam on the Wachusett Reservoir and ends by joining the North Nashua River to form the Nashua River. Rivers of Massachusetts http://www.nashuariverwatershed.org/
The Mystic River is a 7.0-mile-long river in Massachusetts, in the United States. Its name derives from the Wampanoag word muhs-uhtuq, which translates to "big river." In an Algonquian language, missi-tuk means "a great river whose waters are driven by waves," alluding to the original tidal nature of the Mystic. The resemblance to the English word mystic is a coincidence; the Mystic River lies to the north of Boston and flows parallel to the lower portions of the Charles River. Encompassing 76 square miles of watershed, the river flows from the Lower Mystic Lake and travels through the Boston-area communities of East Boston, Charlestown, Medford and Arlington; the river joins the Charles River to form inner Boston Harbor. Its watershed contains 44 lakes and ponds, the largest of, Spot Pond in the Middlesex Fells, with an area of 307 acres. Significant portions of the river's shores are within the Mystic River Reservation and are administered by the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, which include a variety of recreation areas.
The Mystic River has a long history of a continuing water quality problem. It is undergoing an extensive cleanup as part of the construction of Everett's new Encore Boston Harbor casino. Before recorded history, Native Americans and later colonists used weirs to catch alewives and fertilize their crops. In 1631, after the arrival of the English, the first ship built by Europeans in Massachusetts, the Blessing of the Bay, was launched from the river's shores. A few years the first bridge was built. Over one hundred years the Mystic River played a role in the American Revolution when on September 1, 1774, a force of 260 British regulars rowed from Boston up the Mystic River to a landing point near Winter Hill in today's Somerville. From there, they marched about a mile to the Powder House where a large supply of provincial gunpowder was kept, after sunrise they removed all the gunpowder, sparking a popular uprising known as the Powder Alarm. In 1775, the Battle of Chelsea Creek took place in the river's watershed in May, the British attacked via the river's beach in the Battle of Bunker Hill in June.
In 1805 the Middlesex Canal linked the Charles and Mystic Rivers to the Merrimack River in Lowell, during the 19th century, 10 shipyards along the Mystic River built more than 500 clipper ships. Shipbuilding peaked in the 1840s as schooners and sloops transported timber and molasses for rum distilleries between Medford and the West Indies. By 1865, overfishing and pollution all but eliminated commercial fishing. Extensive salt marshes lined the banks of the Mystic until 1909, when the first dam was built across the river, converting salt marsh to freshwater marsh and enabling development. A dam named for Amelia Earhart, was built in 1966, it has three locks to allow the passage of boats, is equipped with pumps to push fresh water out to the harbor during high tide. Dam operators leave the locks open at times to allow the passage of fish. There is a fish ladder; the dam is closed to the public. In 1950, construction was completed on the Maurice J. Tobin Bridge which spans the Mystic River, joining Charlestown and Chelsea.
At one time, the Mystic River was home to many species of fish, including salmon, blueback herring, striped bass, smallmouth bass, largemouth bass, bluegill and more. Although most of these species still live in the Mystic River and dam building have damaged the populations. Pollution came from a small ship building yard in the past; the main source of pollution in the 20th century and into the present is from drainage from cities and towns in the watershed. Many of the records of nearby drainage pipes have been lost, or have undocumented changes and diversions. Once described as having so many herring that one could cross the river on their backs, the Mystic River herring run is much smaller than it was in historic times. Pollution has raised turbidity, making it unfavorable for fish to live in. In 1844, Medford abolitionist and writer Lydia Maria Child described her journey across the Mystic to her grandfather's house in the poem "Over the River and Through the Wood." John Townsend Trowbridge's popular 1882 novel, The Tinkham Brothers' Tide-Mill, had its setting along the river at a time when saltwater still reached the Mystic Lakes.
In Dennis Lehane's novel of the same name, Boston-area Mystic River holds a pivotal narrative development in the mystery. Clint Eastwood directed the acclaimed film adaptation. In the 1861 poem "Paul Revere's Ride" by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Paul Revere rides along the banks of the Mystic River. Mystic River Jewish Project "History of the Mystic". About the Mystic River Watershed. Retrieved 2009-03-17. Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth. "Paul Revere's Ride". Retrieved 2008-01-03. Mystic River Watershed Association Mystic River Reservation Mystic River Watershed map and 2015 water quality grades
Stillwater River (Nashua River tributary)
The Stillwater River is part of the Nashua River watershed. This river is part of the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority system that supplies drinking water to the greater Boston area; the Stillwater River rises in Princeton, the watershed known as the Upper Worcester Plateau, or the Monadnock Upland. This watershed tops at the highest feature in the area. Water flowing east from this high ground feeds the Nashua River Watershed, water flowing west feeds the Ware River or the Millers River, both heading to the Connecticut River; the Stillwater flows 8.1 miles through Princeton and Sterling before joining the Quinapoxet River at the Wachusett Reservoir in West Boylston to form the south branch of the Nashua River. The Stillwater and Quinapoxet rivers are the two major tributaries to the Wachusett Reservoir, which serves as the primary source of water for 2.5 million consumers in 43 communities of central and eastern Massachusetts. The U. S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, operates stream-flow monitoring gages near the mouths of both rivers.
This and other continuous monitoring serves to maintain the overall quality of water within the reservoir. The water of these tributaries to the Wachusett Reservoir has been of high quality for decades. About 47% of the Stillwater sub-basin is permanently protected open space; the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority owns much of the land. The Town of Holden owns over 600 acres as the Trout Brook Conservation Area, the Massachusetts Audubon Society owns several hundred acres in the Wachusett Meadow Wildlife Sanctuary in addition to other properties within this sub-basin. List of rivers of Massachusetts Stillwater River information Nashua River watershed, Stillwater River information Stream-flow gage at Sterling, MA Court order and statement of facts about MWRA facilities
Salmon Brook (Merrimack River tributary)
Salmon Brook is one of the 6 major tributaries of the Merrimack River in northeastern Massachusetts in the United States. Its watershed is one of the 14 subwatersheds of the Merrimack River, it passes through Groton and Tyngsborough, through Nashua, New Hampshire. Salmon Brook begins at Martins Pond in Groton, it flows 17.5 miles north-northeast to the Merrimack River. It runs through Lost Lake/Knops Pond, Whitney Pond, Cow Pond, Upper and Lower Massapoag Ponds. All of these water bodies are dammed; the brook runs parallel to the Nashua River from Lost Lake to the brook's mouth in Nashua. List of rivers of Massachusetts List of rivers of New Hampshire U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Salmon Brook
The Sudbury River is a 32.7-mile-long tributary of the Concord River in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, in the United States. Originating in the Cedar Swamp in Westborough, near the boundary with Hopkinton, the Sudbury River meanders northeast, through Fairhaven Bay, to its confluence with the Assabet River at Egg Rock in Concord, Massachusetts, to form the Concord River, it has a 162-square-mile drainage area. A 1775 map identifies the river by this name as passing through the town of Sudbury, itself established 1639. On April 9, 1999, nearly 17 miles of the river were "recognized for their outstanding ecology, scenery, recreation values, place in American literature," by being designated as a part of the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System; the 14.9-mile segment of the Sudbury River beginning at the Danforth Street Bridge in the town of Framingham, downstream to the Route 2 bridge in Concord, is designated as a Scenic River, the 1.7-mile segment from the Route 2 bridge downstream to its confluence with the Assabet River at Egg Rock is designated as a Recreational River, along with adjoining stretches of the Assabet and Concord rivers.
Mercury contamination was discovered in the 1970s from the Nyanza plant in Ashland. The EPA subsequently led a cleanup effort to repair the damage, it is still recommended. An 1834 book on the history of Concord, Lemuel Shattuck, stated that in Concord the river upstream of the Assabet River was considered a continuation of the Concord River, but some instances the south branch of the Concord and the Assabet the north branch. In Sudbury town records the river was referred to as the Great River early on the Sudbury River. West of Framingham the Sudbury was called the Hopkinton River. Not until 1856 maps was it the Sudbury River from Westborough to Concord; the Sudbury River starts at Cedar Swamp Pond in a swampy area in Westborough and flows northeast 32.7 miles, starting at an elevation of 327 feet and descending through the towns of Westborough, Southborough, Framingham, Sudbury and Concord, where it merges with the Assabet River at Egg Rock to form the beginning of the Concord River, at an elevation of 100 ft.
As of 2017 there are five historic dams on the Sudbury River: two Framingham Reservoir dams, Fenwick Steet Dam and Saxonville Dam in Framingham, Myrtle Street Dam, in Ashland. The river is crossed by five railroad bridges and two footbridges, its watershed covers 162 square miles. Starting in November 1979 the U. S. Geological Survey installed and maintains a gauge for river depth and flow rate on the Sudbury River, downstream of the Danforth Street Bridge, Framingham; the upstream watershed is 65 % of the total Sudbury River watershed. The average flow rate for 37 years of complete data is 201 cubic feet per second. Flow rate changes with seasons - summer months average 80 cfs while spring months average 375 cfs. Highest recorded flow was 2,570 cfs on March 31, 2010. Water depth at the gauge on that date was 13.95 feet. Any time depth exceeds 13.0 feet. Last major flood before 2010 was April 1987, 13.47 feet. Water caltrop, more known as water chestnut, species Trapas natans, is an invasive waterplant from western Asia.
The initial introductions in the U. S. were in the 1870s in Cambridge, MA, followed by deliberate introduction into ponds near the Concord and Sudbury Rivers. This is now an habitat-destroying plant across many of the eastern states. On the Sudbury River, OARS organizes annual plant pulling events. Volunteers in canoes hand-pull the surface-floating rosettes of leaves and nuts before the nuts mature and fall to the bottom; the infestation on the Sudbury River is bad between the Fenwick Street and Saxonville dams, where the water surface can be more than 80% covered. OARS - the Organization for the Assabet and Concord Rivers has detailed on-line and downloadable maps for six sections of the Sudbury River, including locations and descriptions of put-ins for canoes or kayaks. For those interested in renting, the South Bridge Boat House, on Route 62 west of the center of Concord offers "Rent a canoe or kayak and explore miles of peaceful waterways on the Assabet and Concord Rivers." McAdow, Ron. The Concord and Assabet Rivers, A Guide to Canoeing and History, Second Edition.
Bliss Publishing Co. Inc. ISBN 0-9625144-4-6. Zwinger, Ann & Teale, Edwin Way. A Conscious Stillness: Two Naturalists on Thoreau's Rivers. New York, NY: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-015002-5