Broad River (Carolinas)
For other rivers with the same name, see Broad River. The Broad River is a principal tributary of the Congaree River, about 150 miles long, in western North Carolina and northern South Carolina in the United States. Via the Congaree, it is part of the watershed of the Santee River, which flows to the Atlantic Ocean; the Broad River originates in the Blue Ridge Mountains of eastern Buncombe County, North Carolina and flows south-southeastwardly, through or along the boundaries of Rutherford and Cleveland Counties in North Carolina. In North Carolina, the river is dammed to form Lake Lure. Principal tributaries of the Broad River include the Green, Second Broad and First Broad Rivers in North Carolina; this is an incomplete list of dams starting at Lake Lure and moving downstream North Carolina Lake Lure Cliffside Steam Station on the Border of Rutherford and Cleveland Counties. South Carolina Gaston Shoals Dam Cherokee Falls Ninety Nine Islands Dam adjacent to the abandoned Cherokee Nuclear Power Plant Dam and canal at Lockhart Neal Shoals Dam Parr Shoals Dam forming Parr Reservoir Columbia Canal and Dam in Columbia The Broad River is crossed several times by many highways North Carolina Rutherford County US 64 / US 74 Alt.
NC 108 Grays Road Union Road US 74 Poors Ford Road Big Island Road Jack McKinney Road US 221 US 221 Alt. Cleveland County NC 150 South Carolina Gaffney/Cherokee County SC 18 I-85 US 29 SC 211 Chester and Union Counties SC 9 / SC 49 in Lockhart SC 72 / SC 215 in Carlisle Fairfield and Newberry Counties SC 34 SC 213 in Peak Columbia I-20 US 176 I-126 According to the Geographic Names Information System, the Broad River has been known as Eswa Huppeday Eswawpuddenah Line River Main Broad River Eswan HappedawIt was known in colonial times as the English Broad River to distinguish it from the French Broad River which originates in western North Carolina, but flows northwest into what was part of the claimed territory of New France; the present name is descriptive of the river's width. French Broad River List of North Carolina rivers List of South Carolina rivers
Lynches River, named for Thomas Lynch, Jr. signer of the Declaration of Independence, rises in North Carolina near Waxhaw, North Carolina, at about 700 feet elevation, flowing only a short distance to the South Carolina border, thence to join the Great Pee Dee River near Johnsonville. It is about 140 mi long and the drainage area is 1030 square miles. Several sections of the river have been designated by the state of South Carolina as a wild and scenic river, with the upper portions from Bishopville to the eastern boundary of Lynches River County Park receiving designation in 1994, the lower 57 mile section designated in 2008; the river is a favorite for canoeing, but Hurricane Hugo in 1989 felled many trees, blocking the flow at places, making navigation difficult at low water and dangerous at high water. River enthusiasts have been cleaning up the storm debris; the river is a popular fishing spot, with sunfish, redbreast and bass. The upper reaches of the River are in the Piedmont, an area of worn down mountains, consisting of metamorphic rocks, overlain by rocky clay soils.
Much of the Piedmont is forested with some agricultural land around Pageland, site of an annual watermelon festival. This section of the river was an important gold, minor iron mining area in the 19th century, with the first known gold being mined by placer in Lynches River and its tributaries near Pageland and Jefferson starting about 1828. Before the Civil War, 58 gold mines operated in South Carolina. All commercial mining ceased in 1942 when the federal government's War Labor Board and PL-208 outlawed gold mining across the country. With the value of gold locked at $35 per ounce, federal law prohibiting private citizens from holding gold between the 1930s and 1980s, nearly all gold mines in the United States became impractical and unprofitable to operate; when the price of gold was released by the federal government, prices rose, feasibility studies were begun on some of the old sites. At the Brewer gold mine, between Jefferson and Lynches River, it was deemed to have sufficient reserves to open it with modern machinery and technology.
Between 1987 and 1991 the mine produced 118,000 troy ounces of gold, by crushing the ore and leaching it with a cyanide solution to dissolve the gold. In 1990 an accidental spill released cyanide into Lynches River and 11,000 fish died; the mine was closed for a few months for repair. The river drops off the Piedmont between Bethune and McBee, cutting through the sand hills region, an old ocean shoreline with hills that are thought to be former beach dunes, now used for peach orchards and pine plantations. Near the river is the Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge and the Sandhills State Forest both in Chesterfield County. At Bethune, South Carolina you'll find the only bridge in the world that crosses the same river three times and the river does not fork; the Lynches River forms a large'S" at the place where US Highway 1 crosses the river one mile north of Bethune. Below this the river valley widens and it begins to meander more, as it finishes its course through the coastal plain; as it passes Bishopville, South Carolina and Lynchburg, South Carolina, it flows through a traditional cotton farming belt.
Bishopville is the site of the South Carolina Cotton Museum. Lee State Park is located 4 miles. Although river access is limited at the park, several boat ramps are located nearby. Fishing may be enjoyed from the park's riverbanks. Children under 14 may fish in the Artesian Lake, stocked with catfish. There is a boardwalk out into the Lynches River floodplain. At Coward, South Carolina, Florence County owns Lynches River County Park, which features nature trails, an elevated canopy walk, Splash Pad, geocaching and standards-based environmental education programs; as the floodplain widens, the riversides become forested with tupelo, bald cypress, red maple, other water loving vegetation. The uplands from Effingham to Johnsonville, South Carolina are rich agricultural areas. Tobacco is the primary money crop for farmers, but cotton, wheat and vegetables are grown. Effingham is the site of South Carolina's only canning factory. At Johnsonville, the stream passes what was the largest factory along its length, that of Wellman Industries, a fiber processing and recycling plant.
Just below Johnsonville, Lynches River empties into the Great Pee Dee River. Part of Lynches River has been designated by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service as critical habitat for the federally endangered Carolina heelsplitter, Lasmigona decorata, a freshwater mussel; the Carolina heelsplitter is a medium-sized freshwater mussel, reaching 4.5 inches in length, with a greenish brown to dark brown shell. It is threatened by pollution and silting and only six small populations still are known to exist. Another aquatic invertebrate that inhabits the Lynches River is a gastropod called, Ridged Lioplax, Lioplax subcarinata. South Carolina has designated it a Species of Concern, it has only been found in the Lynches and Waccamaw Rivers. Https://web.archive.org/web/20070819080132/http://www.dnr.sc.gov/water/envaff/river/scenic/lynches.html https://web.archive.org/web/20060923052425/http://www.sc.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/LynchesRiverWater.html http://www.house.gov/list/press/sc05_spratt/042905_brewer_gold_mine.html http://www.fws.gov/endangered/r/fr93505.html
The Catawba River originates in Western North Carolina and the name of the river changes to the Wateree River in South Carolina. The river is 220 miles long, it rises in the Appalachian Mountains and drains into the Piedmont, where it has been impounded through a series of reservoirs for flood control and generation of hydroelectricity. The river is named after the Catawba tribe of Native Americans. In their Siouan language, they identified as the Kawahcatawbas, "the people of the river", it rises in the Blue Ridge Mountains in western McDowell County, North Carolina 20 miles east of Asheville. It flows ENE, along with the Linville River, Lake James, it passes north of Morganton southeast through Lake Hickory just north of Hickory, NC, into the Lake Norman reservoir. From Lake Norman it flows south, passing west of Charlotte flowing through the Mountain Island Lake and Lake Wylie reservoirs, where it forms 10 miles of the border between North Carolina and South Carolina; the confluence of the South Fork Catawba River and Catawba River is submerged by Lake Wylie near the NC/SC state line.
It flows into northern South Carolina, passing Rock Hill, through Fishing Creek Reservoir near Great Falls, into the Lake Wateree reservoir 30 miles northeast of Columbia. At the now-submerged confluence with Wateree Creek, it becomes known as the Wateree River; the Catawba has been controlled by several dams, including the following: North Carolina Lake James Dam Rhodhiss Dam Oxford Dam Lookout Shoals Dam Cowans Ford Dam, creating Lake Norman Mountain Island Lake DamSouth Carolina Lake Wylie Dam in India Hook Fishing Creek Reservoir in Great Falls Dearborn-Great Falls Dam Cedar Creek Reservoir Dam Lake Wateree Dam In 2006 the river became the center of a water use controversy between the residents of the Catawba watershed and Cabarrus County, North Carolina. The cities of Concord and Kannapolis are expecting a daily shortfall of 22 million US gallons of water a day by 2035 and want to pump up to 36 million US gallons of water daily from the Catawba River; the Concord/Kannapolis Interbasin Transfer proposal calls for water to be permanently transferred from one river basin to another river basin.
Such a transfer is unlike the more common water usage, in which municipalities within the Catawba basin pump water from the river and treat it for residential use. Much of that treated water returns to the Catawba River. Though neither Concord nor Kannapolis is located in the Catawba River basin, the cities said the Catawba River is a regional resource. Opponents of the IBT argued that towns and cities along the Catawba River basin are growing as well, that the cities' request is too large. On January 10, 2007, the North Carolina state environmental panel authorized Concord and Kannapolis to pump up to 10 million US gallons a day from the Catawba River; this decision represented a compromise recommended by hearing officers for the Environmental Management Commission. The mayors of Morganton and Valdese said that they were adamantly against the transfer and that the panel's ruling was skewed and biased. Concord's city manager said the approval of the water transfer was "bittersweet", since the panel authorized an amount much lower than was requested and the action is to be delayed by lawsuits.
“Well, Hickory are going to file an appeal,” said Concord Mayor Scott Padgett, who spoke with Hickory Mayor Rudy Wright after the EMC meeting. “His major concern is changing the process. My appeal to him is. To file an appeal is just going to prolong something we deserve, is less than what we asked for and is going to further hard feelings this has created.” The controversy ended in early 2010. It further limits the amount of water available to Kannapolis under drought conditions. Starting in the early autumn months of 2007, residents and businesses of the Catawba basin, along with large swaths of the Southern United States, began to feel the effects of an extreme drought. On October 15, 2007, the Morganton News Herald reported that North Carolina Governor Mike Easley described the drought as "the worst in recorded history". On January 29, 2008, Duke Energy, the utility responsible for managing the Catawba River, extended its estimated time frame for Stage 4 water restrictions to August; the extension was possible because of conservation measures and the 6 inches of rain the basin received in December.
However, area leaders converged on Valdese to hear presentations from representatives of the N. C. Rural Center, N. C. Department of Commerce, N. C. Department of Environment and Natural Resources, the Appalachian Regional Commission about grants and loans available to help pay for solutions to the drought. In April 2008 the environmental group American Rivers named the Catawba-Wateree River "the most endangered river in America." Reasons cited for the river's condition are the drought, the presence of 11 hydroelectric dams, global warming, unchecked development along its banks, with the latter reported as the most serious threat. On June 11, 2008, South Carolina Governor Mark Sanford signed legislation denoting the Catawba as a state scenic river; the designation carries no land-use restrictions, but it allows the state to convene an advisory group to address river-related concerns. On June 29, 2009, the EPA announced that four of the top 44 "High Hazard Ash Ponds" in the United States are on the Catawba River.
Two ash ponds are adjacent to and discharge into Mount
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area, it separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe and Africa to the east, the Americas to the west; as one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, the Southern Ocean in the south. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean at about 8°N. Scientific explorations of the Atlantic include the Challenger expedition, the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office; the oldest known mentions of an "Atlantic" sea come from Stesichorus around mid-sixth century BC: Atlantikoi pelágei and in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC: Atlantis thalassa where the name refers to "the sea beyond the pillars of Heracles", said to be part of the sea that surrounds all land.
Thus, on one hand, the name refers to Atlas, the Titan in Greek mythology, who supported the heavens and who appeared as a frontispiece in Medieval maps and lent his name to modern atlases. On the other hand, to early Greek sailors and in Ancient Greek mythological literature such as the Iliad and the Odyssey, this all-encompassing ocean was instead known as Oceanus, the gigantic river that encircled the world. In contrast, the term "Atlantic" referred to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast; the Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of millions of years ago. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century. During the Age of Discovery, the Atlantic was known to English cartographers as the Great Western Ocean; the term The Pond is used by British and American speakers in context to the Atlantic Ocean, as a form of meiosis, or sarcastic understatement.
The term dates to as early as 1640, first appearing in print in pamphlet released during the reign of Charles I, reproduced in 1869 in Nehemiah Wallington's Historical Notices of Events Occurring Chiefly in The Reign of Charles I, where "great Pond" is used in reference to the Atlantic Ocean by Francis Windebank, Charles I's Secretary of State. The International Hydrographic Organization defined the limits of the oceans and seas in 1953, but some of these definitions have been revised since and some are not used by various authorities and countries, see for example the CIA World Factbook. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies; the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait of Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean; the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border.
In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean. The Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays and seas; these include the Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea all of the Scotia Sea, other tributary water bodies. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific. Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23.5% of the global ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23.3% of the total volume of the earth's oceans. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3; the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench, is 8,486 m.
The bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S; the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2,000 m along most of its length, but is interrupted by larger transform faults at two places: the Romanche Trench near the Equator and the Gibbs Fracture Zone at 53°N; the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the othe
The Combahee River is a short blackwater river in the southern Lowcountry region of South Carolina formed at the confluence of the Salkehatchie and Little Salkehatchie rivers near the Islandton community of Colleton County, South Carolina. Part of its lower drainage basin combines with the Ashepoo River and the Edisto River to form the ACE Basin The Combahee empties into Saint Helena Sound near Beaufort, which in turn empties into the Atlantic Ocean; the river is named for the Combahee tribe of Native Americans. Europeans settled the area as early as the 1680s, so the Combahee and others of the Cusabo group are known as Settlement Indians. Land was set aside for the Yemassee people including the Combahee; the Yemassee War of 1715-1717 saw skirmishes in the area. On August 27, 1782, one of the last fights in the Revolutionary War took place along the Combahee River; the British made an attempt at foraging, which the Americans, headed by General Gist and Colonel John Laurens opposed. Laurens, the son of Henry Laurens, a former president of the Continental Congress, died in the action.
The Combahee River bordered and supplied the water for some of the largest, most productive rice plantations prior to the Civil War. It was the site of an important military incident during the Raid at Combahee Ferry; this was a Union raid into the interior of South Carolina. Harriet Tubman, an escaped slave herself, well known for leading others hundreds of miles to safety on the Underground Railway, led this endeavor on June 2, 1863; the bridge across the Combahee on US Highway 17 is the location today. The Combahee River Collective was a Black feminist lesbian organization, formed in 1974 and named after the battle; the Collective was instrumental in highlighting that the white feminist movement was not addressing the particular needs of black women. They are best known for developing the Combahee River Collective Statement, a key document in the history of contemporary Black feminism and the development of the concepts of identity as used among political organizers and social theorists. U.
S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Combahee River Combahee River Collective
The Coosawhatchie River is a river in the U. S. state of South Carolina. It rises in Allendale County near the towns of Allendale and Fairfax and accepts drainage from Swallow Savanna, Harters Pond, Little Duck Branch, Duck Branch, Beech Branch, Blood Hill Creek, Cedar Branch; the channel flows southeast to the Broad River. It is 50 mi/80 km long. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Coosawhatchie River