Flint River (Georgia)
The Flint River is a 344-mile-long river in the U. S. state of Georgia. The river drains 8,460 square miles of western Georgia, flowing south from the upper Piedmont region south of Atlanta to the wetlands of the Gulf Coastal Plain in the southwestern corner of the state. Along with the Apalachicola and the Chattahoochee rivers, it forms part of the ACF basin. In its upper course through the red hills of the Piedmont, it is considered scenic, flowing unimpeded for over 200 miles, it was called the Thronateeska River. The Flint River rises in west central Georgia in the city of East Point in southern Fulton County on the southern outskirts of the Atlanta metropolitan area as ground seepage; the exact start can be traced to the field located between Plant Street, Willingham Drive, Elm Street, Vesta Avenue. It travels under the runways of the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Flowing south through rural western Georgia, the river passes through Sprewell Bluff State Park 10 miles west of Thomaston.
Farther south, it comes within 5 miles of Andersonville, the site of the Andersonville prison during the Civil War. In southwestern Georgia, the river flows through the largest city on the river. At Bainbridge it joins Lake Seminole, formed at its confluence with the Chattahoochee River upstream from the Jim Woodruff Dam near the Florida state line. From this confluence, the Apalachicola River flows south from the reservoir through Florida to the Gulf of Mexico; the Flint River is fed by Kinchafoonee Creek just north of Albany, by Ichawaynochaway Creek in southwestern Mitchell County 15 miles northeast of Bainbridge. In addition to Lake Seminole, the Flint River is impounded 15 miles upstream from Albany to form the Lake Blackshear reservoir; the Flint River is one of only 40 rivers in the nation to flow more than 200 miles unimpeded by dams or other manmade systems, is valued for that. In the 1970s, a plan by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers to build a dam at Sprewell Bluff in Upson County was defeated by the Jimmy Carter, Governor of Georgia, other supporters.
Carter's hometown of Plains is located near the Flint River. The river is considered to have three distinct sections as it flows southward through western Georgia. In its upper reaches in the red hills of the Piedmont, it flows through a incised channel etched into crystalline rocks. South of its fall line near Culloden, the channel transforms to a broad, forested swampy flood plain. South of Lake Blackshear, it transforms again, flowing through a channel in limestone rock above the Upper Floridan Aquifer below southwestern Georgia and northwestern Florida; the river has been prone to floods throughout its history. In 1994, during flooding from Tropical Storm Alberto, the river crested at 43 feet in Albany, resulting in the emergency evacuation of over 23,000 residents, it caused one of the worst natural disasters in the state's history. Interstate 75 was closed in Macon, Albany State University was seriously flooded, as the river became a few miles or several kilometers wide in some places; the water lifted caskets from cemeteries and left them, along with drowned cattle and other livestock, stuck in trees and other places.
Montezuma, Georgia was inundated after the Flint River topped the 29-foot levee protecting the town from floodwater. The official depth of the river at the height of the flood was estimated at 34 feet; the nearby gauge was underwater. Cleanup and restoration of Albany took months to complete. In 1998 another serious flood occurred in Albany, but it was not as damaging as the one of 1994. Bainbridge flooded in 1998. Other significant floods occurred in 1841 and 1925. In January 2002, a winter storm blew through Atlanta the day after New Year's Day; the airport's drainage system overflowed. Although the antifreeze entered the drinking water of some residents, no one became ill; the airport changed its drainage system to prevent the problem in the future. No problems were reported after an unusually heavy 4 inches of rain fell at the airport at the beginning of March 2009. In May 2009, the National Fish Habitat Action Plan named the Lower Flint River one of its "10 Waters to Watch" for 2009 for its habitat restoration work.
In October 2009, AmericanRivers.org declared the Flint to be one of the most endangered rivers in the country due to new plans to put a dam on it. The Flint is one of four rivers in the southeast with significant remaining populations of Hymenocallis coronaria, the Shoals spider-lily. Four separate stands of the plant have been studied and documented in the river, ranging from Yellow Jacket Shoals to Hightower Shoals. In Gone With the Wind, author Margaret Mitchell describes the Flint River as bordering the fictional plantation Tara. American country music singer Luke Bryan, a native of Georgia, references the river in his songs "That's My Kind of Night". List of Georgia rivers Georgia Wildlife Federation: Flint River Sherpa Guides: Flint River Basin Jimmy Carter: Land Between the Rivers De Soto Trail historical marker
Forked Deer River
The Forked Deer River system is the main drainage of the central portion of West Tennessee. Locals pronounce the first word of the river's name with two syllables, as in “Forkéd”; the Forked Deer consists of their tributaries. Much of the Forked Deer drainage basin was wetlands. In the mid-20th century much of this was done under the auspices of the Obion-Forked Deer Basin Authority, a Tennessee state agency. Environmental concerns have led to the cessation of channelization on a widespread basis. Much of the channelized flow is routed into the Obion River just above the mouth of that river into the Mississippi, other streams related to the system have their own mouths into the Mississippi. In some areas where the historic channels are left in place after the bulk of the flow has been routed into new ones, the historic channels at times still demonstrate considerable flow after heavy rains. Local historians record that barges and small riverboats plied the Forked Deer in the early 19th century as far up river as the present location of the city of Jackson.
Siltation from agricultural run-off choked the river, channelization became a major focus of West Tennessee politicians until the 1970s. River cutoffs have left numerous small finger lakes that are popular with local crappie and bass fishers. Otherwise, the river is a slow-moving canal with little scenic appeal. North Fork of the Forked Deer River Middle Fork of the Forked Deer River South Fork of the Forked Deer River List of rivers of Tennessee Forked Deer River in Madison County Forked Deer River in Chester County
Five Mile River (East Brookfield River tributary)
The Five Mile River is a 10.1-mile-long river in central Massachusetts, part of the Chicopee River watershed. It rises north of Dean Pond in the Town of Oakham within Rutland State Forest and flows south through Dean Pond to Brooks Pond, 2.5 miles northeast of North Brookfield continues south to its mouth at the north end of Lake Lashaway in North Brookfield. The Five Mile River is a short river that connects the outflow portion of Brooks Pond located at the boundary between the towns of North Brookfield and Spencer, Lake Lashaway located downstream in North Brookfield; the river is a tributary, via the East Brookfield River, to the Quaboag River and is part of the Chicopee River Watershed. The Five Mile has been harnessed as a source of power for saw and grist mills and colonial foundry according to historical documentation; the proximity to iron ore, power from Brooks Pond, to power an air-blast bellows, nearby abundance of wood, made the Five Mile River a good location for blast furnace and iron works operated by Jonathan and Nicholas Jenks in 1782.
"Two Gilberts joined the enterprise and still the venture was split in two--two furnaces, two forges etc.-each family operating one." The Five Mile River is fed by the outflow from the Kittredge Dam Reservoir and the Horse Pond Brook Reservoir as well as drainage from the wetlands area extending from Brooks Pond to the north and Lake Lashaway to the south. This watershed is 14 square miles in addition to the Brooks Pond watershed. 42°21′53″N 72°01′27″W Head42°14′37″N 72°02′33″W Mouth List of rivers of Massachusetts http://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/wri994006/wrir99-4006.pdf
The Flathead River, in the northwestern part of the U. S. state of Montana, originates in the Canadian Rockies to the north of Glacier National Park and flows southwest into Flathead Lake after a journey of 158 miles, empties into the Clark Fork. The river is part of the Columbia River drainage basin, as the Clark Fork is a tributary of the Pend Oreille River, a Columbia River tributary. With a drainage basin extending over 8,795 square miles and an average discharge of 11,380 cubic feet per second, the Flathead is the largest tributary of the Clark Fork and constitutes over half of its flow; the Flathead River rises in forks in the Rocky Mountains of northwestern Montana. The largest tributary is the North Fork, which runs from the Canadian province of British Columbia southwards; the North Fork is sometimes considered the main stem of the Flathead River. Near West Glacier the North Fork combines with the Middle Fork to form the main Flathead River; the river flows westwards to join the South Fork and cuts between the Whitefish Range and Swan Range via Bad Rock Canyon.
All of the headwaters forks are or in part designated National Wild and Scenic Rivers. After the river leaves the canyon it flows into the broad Flathead Valley and arcs southwest, passing Columbia Falls and Kalispell, before it is joined by the Stillwater River and its Whitefish River tributary, empties into Flathead Lake, where the Swan River joins. Near Polson the river leaves the natural basin of Flathead Lake, but first passes through Kerr Dam, which maintains the level of Flathead Lake artificially. After flowing through the dam the river turns south and meanders through the Flathead Valley west of the Mission Mountains, at Dixon it is joined by the small Jocko River. At the Jocko River confluence it turns west, a few miles after flows into the Clark Fork near Paradise. Fur traders employed by the North West Company and Hudson's Bay Company entered the Flathead Valley in the early 19th century. Trading posts were established north of Flathead Lake; the first settlers began arriving in the 1860s.
Irrigation agriculture began in the 1880s. The river is a Class I river in Montana for purposes of recreational access; the South fork of the Flathead, from Youngs Creek to Hungry Horse reservoir. It is part of the National Scenic Rivers System. Reaches designated wild and scenic include the entire North Fork south of the Canada–US border, the entire Middle Fork, the South Fork above Hungry Horse Reservoir; the North Fork Flathead River in Montana is designated a National Scenic River. The river is not afforded any protection in British Columbia; this has been the subject of 33 years of dispute between the United States and Canada. In 1988 the International Joint Commission, ruled that a proposed open pit coal mine would violate the 1909 Boundary Waters Treaty. Energy development once threatened the North Fork, deemed the "wildest river in the continental United States" by The New York Times in 2004. On February 21, 2008, BP announced to drop plans to obtain drilling rights for coalbed methane extraction in the river's headwaters.
However, the Cline Mining Corporation still intends to start a mountaintop-removal coal mining project. On February 9, 2010, the British Columbia government announced that it would not permit mining and gas development and coalbed gas extraction in British Columbia's portion of the Flathead Valley, praised by environmental groups and the U. S. Senators from Montana. There is a proposal to protect one-third of British Columbia's Flathead River by adding it to the Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park. In 2003 Parks Canada requested the province of British Columbia to take part in a park feasibility study. British Columbia has yet to agree to this. Sullivan, Gordon. Saving Homewaters–The Story of Montana’s Streams and Rivers. Woodstock, Vermont: The Countryman Press. ISBN 978-0-88150-679-2. List of rivers of Montana Montana Stream Access Law Montana Wilderness Association Tributaries of the Columbia River Flathead Lake http://www.nwcouncil.org/fw/subbasinplanning/flathead/plan/ Flathead Wild. Keep it Wild.
Keep it Connected. Wildsight
Fore River (Maine)
The Fore River is a short horn-shaped estuary 5.7 miles long, separating Portland and South Portland in Maine in the United States. Many of the port facilities of the Portland harbor are along the estuary, formed just southwest of Portland by the confluence of several creeks; the estuary was known as Levett's River, so named by the first English settler of the Casco Bay region, Capt. Christopher Levett, but shortly afterwards, the estuary came to have the name by which it is known today. The Stroudwater River flows into the Fore River estuary; the Cumberland and Oxford Canal connected the estuary with Sebago Lake via the Stroudwater River from 1832 through 1870. The estuary enters Casco Bay on the southeast edge of Portland. Like other coastal areas along the Gulf of Maine, it experiences moderately high tides, thus the water level in the estuary and the harbor varies throughout the day, leaving mud flats at low tide, it is spanned by the Pan Am Railways bridge and three highway bridges: the Casco Bay Bridge which connects Portland to South Portland, Veteran's Memorial Bridge which carries Route 1, a causeway which carries I-295
The Fishing River is a 39.0-mile-long tributary of the Missouri River in western Missouri in the United States. It rises in the northeastern extremity of Kansas City in Clay County and flows eastward and southeastward through Clay and southeastern Ray counties, past the town of Mosby, it joins the Missouri River about 3 miles south of the town of Orrick. Downstream of Mosby, it collects the East Fork Fishing River, which rises at the town of Lawson and flows 20.6 miles southward through Ray and Clay counties, through the resort community of Crystal Lake and past the town of Excelsior Springs. Fishing River was named for the fact. In 1808, William Clark of the Lewis and Clark Expedition established Fort Osage along the Missouri near the mouth of the Fishing River; the fort became a center of trade among Native Americans in the region. Mouth Confluence with the Missouri River in Ray County, Missouri: 39°10′31″N 94°08′27″W Source Clay County, Missouri: 39°18′53″N 94°29′45″W List of Missouri rivers
The Flambeau River is a tributary of the Chippewa River in northern Wisconsin, United States. The Chippewa is in turn a tributary of the upper Mississippi River; the Flambeau drains an area of 1,860 square miles and descends from an elevation of 1,570 feet to 1,060 feet above sea level. The Flambeau is an important recreational destination in the region, it is notable among canoeists in the Midwest for outstanding canoe camping, including excellent scenery and whitewater. The river and its forks have a variety of possible trip lengths from short day outings, to overnight camping, to voyages of a week or more; the name flambeau means "torch" in French. Many place names in Wisconsin have French origins due to the early French explorers and traders in the region in the colonial era. A common interpretation is that early explorers saw the local Ojibwe people fishing at night by torchlight; the Flambeau River rises in two major forks -- the South Fork. Both originate in north-central Wisconsin and flow southwest to their confluence continue as the main Flambeau southwesterly, to the mouth at the Chippewa River near Bruce, Wisconsin.
The North Fork is formed by the confluence of the Manitowish and Bear rivers just above Turtle-Flambeau Flowage. The South Fork's source is Round Lake in Wisconsin. Major tributaries of the Flambeau include the Turtle River, flowing into the North Fork in the Turtle-Flambeau Flowage, the Elk River, which flows into the South Fork. Swamp Creek is the largest of 23 streams flowing into the Flambeau River. While the South Fork is free-flowing below a small dam at the outlet of Round Lake, the North Fork and the main river have several dams that impound small reservoirs, known locally as flowages. Below the dam impounding the Turtle-Flambeau Flowage, the North Fork has three dams between Park Falls and Oxbo. On the main Flambeau below the Forks, there are four more dams: Big Falls Dam, Rural Electric Agency Dam and the Thornapple Dam; the communities of Park Falls and Oxbo are located along the North Fork. Fifield and Lugerville border the South Fork. Ladysmith is the only city on the main Flambeau.
The river flows through remote areas dominated by second-growth forest, with few road crossings or approaches. The Flambeau River is best known as a classic canoeing stream. Both forks are canoeable from their sources, but most trips start at or downstream of access points near Oxbo on the North Fork or Lugerville on the South Fork, end upstream of the Big Falls Flowage on the main stem. For much of the length of these sections of river, the Flambeau and its forks flow through the Flambeau River State Forest; the North Fork in this section is rated class I to II on the international scale of river difficulty at normal water conditions. Major named rapids are Flambeau Falls; the South Fork is a more difficult whitewater river, with runnable rapids up to class III and a portage at Little Falls. Major named rapids include Stonewall, Big Bull, Slough Gundy, Scratch. Below the confluence, the main Flambeau is class II down to the Big Falls Flowage; the notable rapids on the main Flambeau are Beaver Dam.
The Flambeau system is considered an important fish habitat and fishing resource for smallmouth bass and muskellunge. Seeburger, William "First up the Dore Flambeau", reprinted in Malcolm Rosholt's Lumbermen on the Chippewa beginning at page 342. An account of building an early logging camp on the Flambeau in 1872-1873. Life Lessons Flow Along The Flambeau River Video produced by Wisconsin Public Television