The Machias River is a 60.0-mile-long river in Maine, USA. It flows through Washington County in the eastern part of the state, from Fifth Machias Lake, passing the town of Machias and emptying into Machias Bay; the name is believed to derive from a Passamaquoddy word meaning "bad run of water" or "bad little falls", either of which does describe the difficulty of canoeing some of the rapids in the river. The river was used as a seasonal migration route by Indians; the first European settlement is believed to have been an English trading post in 1633 immediately destroyed by the French. The first permanent settlement in the area in 1763 was intended to be a site for the production of lumber, with 1.6 million board feet produced in 1764. The river mouth and offshore waters were the scene of the Battle of Machias — the first naval battle of the American Revolution, occasioned by the British need for lumber for Boston. Lumber remained a main industry with the river powering the sawmills. Production was as high as 40 million feet in a year, but declined in the late 19th century to between 10 and 20 million feet per year.
The woods cut were pine, also hemlock and spruce. Natural water flow in the river varies seasonally the mills; the last dam was breached in 1973, removed in 2000. List of Maine rivers "Machias River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. 30 September 1980. Retrieved 2009-09-27
The Manistee River in the U. S. state of Michigan, runs 190 miles through the northwestern Lower Peninsula. It is considered, like the nearby Au Sable River, to be one of the best trout fisheries east of the Rockies; the river rises in the sand hills in southeastern Antrim County, on the border with Otsego County, about 6 miles southeast of the town of Alba. These deep glacial sands provide it with a remarkably stable flow of clean cold water year round, making it a popular river for fishing as well as canoeing. Over the course of its length, it drops in elevation from around 1,250 to 579 feet, with an average stream gradient of about 2.9 feet per mile. The name "Manistee" is from an Ojibwe word. However, it may be from ministigweyaa, "river with islands at its mouth"; the Ojibwe and Ottawa peoples lived along the river, with the Ottawa having a reservation on the river from 1836. The federally recognized Little River Band of Ottawa Indians continues to occupy its reservation in Manistee County, as well as lands in Mason County.
The upper river was renowned for its outstanding grayling fishery, among the finest in the world. Catches in excess of 1000 fish per weekend outing were reported up until the 1880s, when extensive logging in the area ruined the streams and habitat. Logging in the area commenced in earnest by European-American settlers between 1880 and 1910, with peak production occurring in the 1890s. Logging denuded habitat areas, with silt runoff and logging debris degrading the water quality of the river; the river's large size, stable flows, dearth of cataracts or other difficult passages made it ideal for the transportation of lumber. During this period huge numbers of white pine logs, some as large as 6 feet in diameter, were floated down the river to the port at Manistee and on to the lumber markets of Grand Rapids and Chicago; the wood was used to build the towns of the Midwestern United States. Some of these logs became trapped at various points on the river, can be seen today along the river bottom.
Today the river is used extensively for recreation, offering excellent conditions for canoeing and fishing. Having been restored since the ravages of the logging era, the river is again considered among the finest trout and salmon rivers in the country. Commercial navigation is possible in the lower stretches of the river below the Tippy Dam
The Malheur River is a 190-mile-long tributary of the Snake River in eastern Oregon in the United States. It drains the Blue Mountains and the Snake. Despite the similarity of name, the river does not flow into nearby Malheur Lake, located in the enclosed Harney Basin southwest of the watershed of the river; when water levels were higher, Malheur Lake would drain into the Malheur River. The Malheur River rises in the southern Blue Mountains of southern Grant County, south of Strawberry Mountain in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness, it flows south through Malheur National Forest southeast past Drewsey and through Warm Springs Reservoir. At Riverside in western Malheur County it receives the South Fork Malheur River from the south turns back northward to Juntura, where it receives the North Fork Malheur River from the north. From Juntura it flows east past Vale, joining the Snake from the west two miles north of Ontario, Oregon; the mouth of the Malheur River is at Snake river mile 370 or river kilometer 600.
The name of the river is derived from the French for "misfortune." The name was attached to the river by French Canadian voyageur trappers working for the North West Company on the Snake County Expeditions of Donald Mackenzie as early as 1818 for the unfortunate circumstance that some beaver furs they had cached there were snatched by Indians. The name first appears in the record in 1826 when Peter Skene Ogden, a fur trapper with the Hudson's Bay Company, referred to it as "River au Malheur" and thereafter as "Unfortunate River." The river lived up to its name a second time in 1845, when mountain man Stephen Meek, seeking a faster route along the Oregon Trail, led a migrant party up the river valley into the high desert along a route that has since become known as the Meek Cutoff. After leaving the river valley the party was unable to find a water supply and lost 23 people by the time they reached The Dalles on the Columbia River. In 1853, 1854 and 1859 the river was used more as the route of the Elliott Cutoff.
The emigrants followed the ruts of Stephen Meek. From here they sought more direct routes to the Deschutes River, where they turned south until reaching the Free Emigrant Road; the road was built over the Cascades through Willamette Pass and brought emigrants into Central Oregon. The lower Malheur River is used for irrigation in the agricultural potato-growing in the Snake River Plain along the Idaho-Oregon border. There are 370 miles of irrigation-related canals and ditches in the lower basin of the Malheur River and its tributary Willow Creek; the streamflow of the Malheur and its tributaries is influenced by a complex system of irrigation diversions and canals, which begin near Malheur river mile 65, near Namorf and Harper, Oregon. This irrigation system extends downstream to the mouth of the Malheur at Oregon. Irrigation is used on about 132,000 acres within the Malheur River basin; the irrigation system is part of the Bureau of Reclamation's Vale Project, which includes a number of water impoundments, the largest of which are Warm Springs Reservoir on the mainstem Malheur River, Beulah Reservoir on the North Fork Malheur, Bully Creek Reservoir on Bully Creek, Malheur Reservoir on Willow Creek.
The project is maintained by the Vale-Oregon Irrigation District. Agricultural runoff has resulted in a phosphorus pollution problem in its lower reaches; the Malheur River watershed was once a major spawning ground for anadromous fish such as salmon. In the early 20th century a number of dams on the Snake River blocked fish migration. A 13.7-mile segment of the Malheur River from Bosenberg Creek to the Malheur National Forest boundary became protected as wild and scenic in 1988 as part of the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System. The protected area includes 3,758 acres of land along the river. List of longest streams of Oregon List of National Wild and Scenic Rivers List of rivers of Oregon Malheur River Malheur Watershed Council
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Machias River (Aroostook River tributary)
The Machias River is a major tributary of the Aroostook River, flowing 33.4 miles through Aroostook County in the northern part of the state of Maine, USA. From the outflow of Big Machias Lake in Maine Township 12, Range 8, WELS, the river runs southeast and east to its confluence with the Aroostook in Ashland. List of Maine rivers "Machias River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. 30 September 1980. Retrieved 2010-03-09
Mad River (Cocheco River tributary)
The Mad River is a 5.2-mile-long river in eastern New Hampshire in the United States. It is a tributary of the Cocheco River, part of the Piscataqua River watershed leading to the Atlantic Ocean; the river is located in the town of Farmington. It rises in Nubble Pond, between Nubble Mountain and Hussey Mountain, flows northwest northeast, reaching the Cocheco near the town center of Farmington; the river drops in places falling over scenic ledges. List of rivers of New Hampshire
The Mascoma River is a 31.6-mile-long river located in western New Hampshire in the United States. It is a tributary of the Connecticut River; the Mascoma comprises two sections which are split by Mascoma Lake in the communities of Enfield and Lebanon. Counting the lake would add 2.7 miles to the river's length. The Mascoma River begins at Cummins Pond in a forested part of the town of Dorchester, New Hampshire and flows south into the town of Canaan, collecting water flowing from Reservoir Pond, Clark Pond, Canaan Street Lake before reaching the Indian River. Here it turns west, collecting tributaries arriving from Goose Pond and Crystal Lake, before it passes through the mill town of Enfield and arrives at Mascoma Lake. At the western end of Mascoma Lake, the Mascoma River, now in Lebanon, drops over rapids and occasional falls, passing numerous small hydroelectric dams in the center of Lebanon and on its way to West Lebanon, where it reaches the Connecticut River; the section of the river downstream of the Mascoma Lake dam is reserved for fly fishing only, while other portions of the river are open for all types of fisherman.
The river is stocked by Game Department. For most of its path from the Indian River to the Connecticut, the Mascoma River and its valley have influenced the location of numerous transportation routes, including U. S. Route 4 and an inactive, state-owned rail line known as the Northern Railroad, which has now been converted in some areas to a "rail trail" bike path. List of rivers of New Hampshire