The Napa River 55 miles long, is a river in the U. S. state of California. It drains a famous wine-growing region, called the Napa Valley, in the mountains northeast of San Francisco. Milliken Creek and Mt. Veeder watersheds are a few of its many tributaries; the mouth is at Vallejo where the inter-tidal zone of fresh and salt waters flow into the Carquinez Straits on San Pablo Bay. The Napa River rises in northwestern Napa County just south of the summit of Mt. St. Helena in the Mayacamas Mountains of the California Coast Ranges; the source begins as seasonal Kimball Canyon Creek in Robert Louis Stevenson State Park at an elevation of 3,745 feet which descends the southern slope of Mt. St. Helena to Kimball Canyon Dam, it flows south for 4 miles. In the valley, it flows southeast past Calistoga, St Helena, Rutherford and through Napa, its head of navigation. Downstream from Napa, it forms a tidal estuary, entering Mare Island Strait, a narrow channel on the north end of San Pablo Bay, it discharges into San Pablo Bay through the Napa Sonoma Marsh.
The Napa River watershed encompasses 426 square miles. Larger tributaries, such as Dry and Soda creeks, show signs of recent incision and have graded to the incised current level of the mainstem Napa River. In some cases, smaller tributaries cutting across the valley floor have not adjusted to the lowered level of the mainstem and are elevated at their confluence with the mainstem, forming potential barriers to upstream fish migration. Several large dams were built between 1924 and 1959 on major eastside tributaries and the northern headwaters of the Napa River. In addition, many smaller dams can be found throughout the watershed; these numerous dams are impassable barriers to salmon and steelhead seeking their historic spawning grounds. The river supports a remarkable diversity of fishes and recovering salmonid populations chinook salmon and steelhead trout. In 2003 the Napa County Resource Conservation District began an ongoing salmon monitoring program, have recorded a run of 400 - 1000 fall-run Chinook salmon the past several years.
The Chinook run begins in late October through January. Conclusive evidence of historical chinook salmon populations in the Napa River basin have not been established, but the river provides appropriate habitat for salmon and its location near the entrance to the Sacramento/San Joaquin Rivers make it that salmon would have at least ventured into the Napa River. In 2013, a genetics study of Napa River chinook salmon revealed that two adults migrated from the Klamath River and spawned in the Napa River, since four juvenile chinook collected from the Napa River in 2010 were proved to be siblings from the close similarity of their DNA and that the latter was characteristic of Klamath River chinook; these findings have important implications for the protection of the federally endangered Coastal California Chinook Salmon ESU since the Napa River, nor any stream in the Bay Area, was included in this ESU. The Napa River basin is estimated to have supported a spawning run of 6,000–8,000 steelhead, as many as 2,000–4,000 coho salmon.
By the late 1960s, coho salmon were extirpated from the watershed and the steelhead population is now reduced to less than a few hundred adults. Flow reductions in key rearing streams have reduced food availability for juvenile steelhead, causing reduced growth and survival. A chum salmon was caught in the river. In addition, a fourth salmon species, sockeye salmon, was identified in the Napa River. Although diminished, the Napa River basin continues to support a fish community of greater diversity than the Sacramento and San Joaquin River systems, including a nearly intact community of sixteen native fish species, including Steelhead, fall-run Chinook salmon and river lamprey, hitch, tule perch, Sacramento splittail; because of this diversity the Napa River has been prioritized for special protection. White sturgeon and many other native and non-native fishes utilize the Napa River watershed; the California golden beaver was extant. Beaver have recolonized the Napa River and have been documented in Napa as well as near Rutherford and Oak Knoll.
As part of urban renewal in the 1970s, a concrete cover was removed from culverted sections of the Napa Creek, re-exposing the water to daylight. There is some debate as to whether this constituted one of the country's earliest "daylighting" projects, since the construction was undertaken with little thought to the river's ecology or restoration of riparian habitat. Napa Creek is a western tributary of the Napa River in downtown Napa; this construction is not believed to be responsible for flooding along the river. More vineyard owners with property that borders the Rutherford Reach, a 4.5-mile stretch of the Napa River between St. Helena and Oakville, are allowing prime land to return to a natural state in order to help preserve the ecology of the river; the project known as Rutherford Restoration Project involves 23 property owners have combined forces to provide 18 acres of land to this cause. After the restoration, native North American beaver returned to the area, establishing 3-4 beaver dams.
These keystone species have been shown to increase fish, bi
The Navarro River is a 28.3-mile-long river in Mendocino County, United States. It flows northwest through the Coastal Range to the Pacific Ocean; the main stem of the Navarro River begins less than 1 mile south of the town of Philo at the confluence of Rancheria Creek and Anderson Creek. The mouth of the Navarro is 10 miles south of the city of Mendocino. State Route 128 starts from the intersection of State Route 1 at the mouth of the Navarro River, follows the river valley upstream to Philo; the river is close to the highway through the lower canyon but is some distance south of the highway as the Anderson Valley widens upstream of Wendling. The river provides wildlife habitat including cold freshwater habitat for fish migration and spawning, it provides recreation and navigation including 26 miles of whitewater suitable for rafting and kayaking upstream of Rancheria Creek. Near Philo the river runs through Hendy Woods State Park, a state park of more than 800 acres, featuring two virgin redwood stands.
Near the coast the river runs through Navarro River Redwoods State Park. The river recharges groundwater for agricultural and industrial water supply for residents living along the western portion of California State Route 128, its 315 square miles watershed includes the Anderson Valley, a well-known wine-growing region in Mendocino County. A sawmill was constructed at the mouth of the river in 1861; the mill was capable of cutting 35,000 board feet of lumber per day by 1883. A railroad extended 14 miles upriver to bring logs to the mill; the original mill burned in 1890 and a replacement bandsaw mill burned in 1902. A replacement sawmill was built near Wendling on the North Fork Navarro River and operated until September, 1927; the Wendling sawmill operation included logging railway branches along the North Fork connecting over Keen's Summit to shipping facilities at Albion via an isolated segment of the Northwestern Pacific Railroad. Rail service was discontinued in 1930 and the railway was dismantled for scrap in 1937.
List of rivers in California
New Creek is an 18.4-mile-long stream in eastern West Virginia. It is the third major West Virginia tributary to the North Branch Potomac River. Via the Potomac, it is part of the watershed of Chesapeake Bay. New Creek rises on New Creek Mountain in northern Grant County and flows northeastwardly through western Mineral County, past the community of New Creek, it joins the North Branch of the Potomac at the city of Keyser. The creek was named after an area pioneer. List of West Virginia rivers
The Navasota River is a river in east Texas, United States. It is about 125 miles long, beginning near Mount Calm and flowing south into the Brazos River at a point where Brazos and Washington counties converge; the river has been known by several names. The indigenous people called it the Nabasoto, Domingo Terán de los Ríos called it San Cypriano, Fray Isidro Félix de Espinosa called it the San Buenaventura, in 1727, Pedro de Rivera y Villalón named it the Navasota; the Navasota River is dammed to form several lakes, including Lake Mexia, Springfield Lake, Joe Echols Lake, Lake Groesbeck, Lake Limestone, Martin Lake, Lake Fort Parker in Fort Parker State Park. List of rivers of Texas Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, Third Edition. Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster Incorporated, 1997
The Nashua River, 37.5 miles long, is a tributary of the Merrimack River in Massachusetts and New Hampshire in the United States. It is formed in eastern Worcester County, Massachusetts, by junction of its north and south branches near Lancaster, flows north-northeast past Groton to join the Merrimack at Nashua, New Hampshire; the Nashua River Watershed occupies a major portion of north-central Massachusetts and a much smaller portion of southern New Hampshire. The north branch rises west of Westminster, it flows about 30 miles southeast past Fitchburg, joins the south branch about 5 miles below its issuance from the Wachusett Reservoir. The Nashua River was used for industry during the colonial period and the early United States. During the late 18th century and early 19th century, the heavy concentration of paper mills and the use of dyes near Fitchburg resulted in pollution that notoriously turned the river various colors downstream from the factories. In the mid-1960s, Marion Stoddart started a campaign to restore the Nashua River and its tributaries.
She built coalitions with labor leaders and business leaders, in particular the paper companies who were the worst polluters of the river. With federal help, eight treatment plants were upgraded along the river. A broad conservation buffer was created along its two main tributaries. By the early-1990s, most of the industry was still located along the river, but many parts of the river were once again safe for swimming, her work is the subject of a 30-minute documentary movie. Recovery has sparked recreational use of the river at places like Mine Falls Park in Nashua; the volunteer Nashua River Watershed Association, based in Groton, oversees the condition of the river. On January 23, 2013, Rep. Niki Tsongas introduced the Nashua River Wild and Scenic River Study Act, a bill that would amend the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act to designate certain segments concerning the Nashua River for study for potential addition to the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System. From its impoundment at the Wachusett Reservoir in Clinton, the South Branch of the Nashua River flows north and joins the North Branch of the Nashua River in Lancaster, Massachusetts.
The North Branch of the Nashua River flows southeast from Fitchburg and Leominster, Massachusetts, to Lancaster. The Nashua River flows northward from Lancaster, meandering its way through the north-central Massachusetts towns of Harvard, Groton and Pepperell, before emptying into the Merrimack River at Nashua, New Hampshire; the Nashua River Watershed has a total drainage area of 538 square miles, with 454 square miles of the watershed occurring in Massachusetts and 74 square miles in New Hampshire. The Nashua River flows for 56 miles, with 46 of those miles flowing through Massachusetts; the Squannacook, Stillwater, North Nashua, South Nashua rivers feed it. The watershed encompasses all or part of 31 communities, 7 in southern New Hampshire and 24 in central Massachusetts; the watershed’s largest water body is the Wachusett Reservoir, which provides drinking water to two-thirds of the Commonwealth's population. Wachusett Reservoir is the largest water body; the Stillwater River feeds Wachusett Reservoir from the northwest.
The Quinapoxet River feeds Wachusett Reservoir from the west. Wachusett Reservoir Dam impounds the Nashua River; the North Nashua River joins the main river at Lancaster from the northwest. The Squannacook River joins the Nashua River from the northwest at the junction of the town boundaries of Shirley and Ayer; the Nissitissit River joins the Nashua River from the northwest at Pepperell. List of rivers of Massachusetts List of rivers of New Hampshire Nashua River Rail Trail Nashaway people "The Promise of Restoration", National Geographic Magazine, November, 1993, Special Edition: Water. Parfit, Michael, "New Ideas, New Understanding, New Hope", National Geographic Magazine, November, 1993, Special Edition: Water. Nashua River Watershed Association
The Neponset River is a river in eastern Massachusetts in the United States. Its headwaters are at the Neponset Reservoir near Gillette Stadium. From there, the Neponset meanders northeast for about 29 miles to its mouth at Dorchester Bay between Quincy and the Dorchester section of Boston, near the painted gas tank; the Neponset River forms the southern boundary of the city of Boston, passing through the neighborhoods of Readville, Hyde Park and Dorchester, forming with the northern border of the city of Quincy. In addition, the Neponset touches the towns of Foxborough, Sharon, Canton, Westwood and Milton; the Neponset River is fed by a drainage basin of 130 square miles, a watershed that includes numerous aquifers, wetlands and surrounding upland areas. Some 250,000 people live in the Neponset River watershed, which in addition to the towns listed above, includes portions of Stoughton, Medfield and Randolph; the Canton River, a tributary of the Neponset River, is located in Massachusetts. It flows under the Canton Viaduct.
Before Europeans arrived, the area was inhabited by Algonquian-speaking Native American tribes. The Wamsutta site is a paleoindian site, dated to 10210 ± 60 BP). Evidence of habitation along the Neponset River includes the Middle Archaic at sites such as Green Hill near the Blue Hills; the river's recorded history begins in 1619 when Native Americans traveled down the Neponset River to Thompson's Island, where they traded furs with English settlers. The falling waters of the Neponset provided the energy for the country's first water-powered grist mill, gunpowder mill, paper mill and the Revere Copper Company, among others; the upper stretch of the Neponset River, in Foxborough and Norwood, is steeply sloped, dropping about 228 feet over its first 12 miles, so the earliest years of the Industrial Revolution brought the Neponset to prominence. In 1635, Israel Stoughton built the first dam on the Neponset for his grist mill, it was the first of three mills for flour and paper making. In 1639, English settlers in Dedham began digging a canal connecting the Charles River with Mother Brook, a tributary of the Neponset, in order to provide their town with water power for mills.
In 1640, shipbuilding began at Gulliver's Creek Wharf, in 1673 John Trescott built a lumber mill on the river. In 1765, a chocolate mill was established by Dr. James Baker and Irish immigrant John Hannon in the Lower Mills section of Dorchester, in 1770 Daniel Vose's Wholesale Shipping Warehouses at the second Milton Town Landing at Lower Mills were at the peak of their operation. Ship building and commercial shipping were the major river industries at the estuary. In 1773, George Clark built a paper mill on remnants of Trescott's Lumber Mill, which became the Tileston and Hollingsworth Paper Mill in 1836. In 1826, the river became the terminus of the Granite Railway, the first commercial railway in the United States; this river was central to the establishment of the town of Walpole. The river now flows through the Dorchester-Milton Lower Mills Industrial District. Today the Neponset River and its watershed are being protected and opened up as a recreational destination for the benefit of local residents.
Several recommendations of the 1966 Lower Neponset River Reservation Master Plan have been implemented, including the reclamation of the former Hallet Street landfill and the old Neponset Drive-In to provide the 66-acre Pope John Paul II Park, which opened to the public in 2001. At Squantum Point in Quincy, phase one of Squantum Point Park, 25 acres of a 50-acre former U. S. Navy Airfield, was developed as waterfront parkland with assistance from National Grid plc and dedicated in the spring of 2001; the Neponset River figures in the movie Black Mass, referencing an area south and east of the Keystone Shoreline in Dorchester, Massachusetts on the north bank, underneath the area where the Interstate 93 / Southeast Expressway / Route 1 bridge spans the river. A character in the movie makes reference to the area as "Bulger's Burial Ground", where crime boss James "Whitey" Bulger had the bodies of several of his murder victims buried; that unmarked burial ground did exist, but in actuality was one mile north of the area referenced in the film, near Tenean Beach in the Dorchester Shores Reservation.
2.4 miles of the Lower Neponset River Trail opened in 2003. The trail follows the former right-of-way of the Dorchester and Milton Branch Railroad, the western part of, used by the MBTA Ashmont–Mattapan High Speed Line. Neponset River Watershed Association Neponset Watershed Map Neponset River Watershed Association The Neponset River Massachusetts Water Resources Authority River Bank Destruction, Squantum Point, Neponset River Neponset River Reservation Department of Conservation and Recreation Neponset River Greenway Map Department of Conservation and Recreation
The Nestucca River flows for about 57 miles through forests near the Pacific coast of northwest Oregon in the United States. It drains a timber-producing area of the Northern Oregon Coast Range west of Portland. Rising in the mountains of western Yamhill County, it is impounded near its headwaters to create McGuire Reservoir, the primary water source for the city of McMinnville; the river flows west through Bureau of Land Management land and the Siuslaw National Forest, past Beaver southwest past Hebo and Cloverdale. It enters Nestucca Bay, on the Pacific Ocean, from the north at Pacific City; the Little Nestucca River enters Nestucca Bay from the south. Madelynne Sheehan in Fishing in Oregon calls the Nestucca River "a real gem of an all-around stream." Anglers can fish for spring chinook salmon, fall chinook, coho salmon, coastal cutthroat trout, steelhead. Winter steelhead on this river average 10 to 14 pounds, while summer steelhead of 4 to 7 pounds can sometimes appear "almost nose to tail throughout a 20-mile section of the river".
Bank access to the lower river is limited because much of the land is owned, but the stream, 50 to 100 feet wide on the lower reaches, is fished from boats. Cloverdale, Farmer Creek, Three Rivers, Pacific City have public boat ramps, there are less formal put-in places upriver. Upstream of Moon Creek, more than half of the land along the river is publicly owned, is managed by the Siuslaw National Forest and the BLM, includes five campgrounds; the upper river between Moon Creek and Elk Creek is fished for winter steelhead, no fishing is allowed upstream of Elk Creek. An 8-mile stretch of the upper river between Rocky Bend Campground and Blaine offers whitewater canoeing and kayaking possibilities when the flow is about 1,000 cubic feet per second; the first 2 miles of the run include a class 4 rapid followed by a class 5 and another class 4. An alternate put-in is available at a log bridge downstream of the second class 4. Below the bridge, class 2 and 3 whitewater continues for the remaining 6 miles of the run.
List of rivers of Oregon List of longest streams of Oregon