The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Red Cedar River (Wisconsin)
The Red Cedar River in northwestern Wisconsin is a tributary of the Chippewa River, flowing 85 miles from Red Cedar Lake in northeastern Barron County to its confluence with the Chippewa southeast of Dunnville in southern Dunn County. Important tributaries include the Hay River. Important settlements along the river's course include Rice Lake, Cameron and Menomonie; the majority of the river's course is through Dunn County, which it nearly bisects from north to south. The Red Cedar flows through three other important lakes, Rice Lake in Barron County, two reservoirs in central Dunn County, Tainter Lake and Lake Menomin. Below the dam from Lake Menomin the Red Cedar river is well known for its large walleye population. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Red Cedar River "Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources: Red Cedar River". Retrieved April 21, 2013."UW-Stout leads Red Cedar River Reinvestment"
The Raquette River, sometimes spelled Racquette, originates at Raquette Lake in the Adirondack Mountains in New York. 146 miles long, it is the third longest river in the state of New York. The river is a popular destination for kayaking, it passes through many natural and man-made lakes to its final destination at Akwesasne on the Saint Lawrence River. The river is the source of 27 hydroelectric plants operated by Brookfield Power, which at capacity can produce up to 181 megawatts of power; the river was a part of the "Highway of the Adirondacks", by which it was possible to travel hundreds of miles by canoe or guideboat with short stretches of portage connecting various waterways. This route is still followed by the Northern Forest Canoe Trail, a 740-mile canoe trail from Old Forge to Fort Kent in Maine, it is the basis of the route of the Adirondack Canoe Classic, a three-day, 90-mile canoe race from Old Forge to Saranac Lake. Blue Mountain Lake, New York hamlet in Town of Indian Lake in Hamilton County Long Lake in Hamilton County Tupper Lake in Franklin County Colton in St. Lawrence County Hannawa Falls in St. Lawrence County Potsdam in St. Lawrence County Norwood in St. Lawrence County Norfolk in St. Lawrence County Massena in St. Lawrence County Mohawk Nation of Akwesasne in Franklin County List of New York rivers
Red Lake River
The Red Lake River is a river located in northwestern Minnesota. The river flows westward. After passing through Thief River Falls, Red Lake Falls, Crookston, the river merges with the Red River of the North in East Grand Forks; the total length of the river is 193 miles. The term "Forks" in Grand Forks comes from this forking of the Red and Red Lake rivers near downtown Grand Forks; as a tributary of the Red River, the Red Lake River contributed to the heavy flooding of Greater Grand Forks in 1997. The river caused damage in its own right, albeit less severe, in Crookston; the Red Lake River is a popular source of recreation for area residents, many enjoy the tubing and canoeing the river makes possible. The Red Lake River covers a wide variety of terrain. After leaving the Red Lake, the river flows through a marsh in the Red Lake Indian Reservation; the river flows through a prairie and through farmland. Afterward, St. Hilaire the sides of the river grow steeper; some parts of the riverbanks are thickly forested.
The river is smooth for most of the trip. There is a stretch between St. Hilaire and Crookston where there is a chain of rapids, which are navigated; the Red Lake River is one of the few Minnesota state canoe routes in the area. There are camping facilities along the route; the Minnesota State Department of Natural Resources website describing the nature of the river mentions three dams on the river: At river mile 181 City of Red Lake Falls City of Crookston Note: The Otter Tail Power Company site does not list the above 2 dams as a source of hydropower. Red Lake River Corridor. Red Lake River Corridor Enhancement Project. October 2005 report. State canoe routes: Red Lake River. Minnesota DNR website
The Raccoon River is a 30.8-mile-long tributary of the Des Moines River in central Iowa in the United States. As measured using the longest of its three forks, its length increases to 226 miles. Via the Des Moines River, it is part of the watershed of the Mississippi River; the river runs through an intensely cultivated area of croplands and livestock farming, receiving Tile drainage from slow-draining rich natural bottomland. The Des Moines metropolitan area has been obtaining its drinking water from the Raccoon River just before it empties into the Des Moines River through water utilities since the 19th century. During the Great Flood of 1993, the Raccoon River flooded the water treatment facility of Des Moines, shutting off the city's supply of drinking water; the Racoon River was first documented on the 1814 map by Lewis and Clark, though the USGS references the name to a map from 1843 named Hydrological Basin of the Upper Mississippi River based on field measurements by Joseph N. Nicollet during his Midwestern expeditions in the 1830´s.
The Raccoon River is a 30.8-mile-long tributary of the Des Moines River in central Iowa in the United States. It flows for much of its length as three streams and when measured using the longest of its three forks, its length increases to 226 miles; the river runs through an intensely cultivated area of croplands of corn and soy and livestock farming, where slow-draining rich natural bottomlands have been tiled to drain them for agricultural cultivation. The North Raccoon River is, by far, the longest of the three, at 196 miles, it rises north of Marathon in northeastern Buena Vista County and flows southwardly into Sac County, where it turns southeastward for the remainder of its course through Calhoun, Carroll and Dallas counties. It passes the towns of Sac City, Jefferson and Adel; the Adel Island dam in Adel is the only dam along its course. The Middle Raccoon River, 92 miles long, rises in northwestern Carroll County and flows southeastwardly through Guthrie and Dallas counties, past Carroll, Coon Rapids, Springbrook State Park, Panora and Redfield.
The three dams located along its course are the Lake Panorama dam and the Lennon Mill dam at Panora, the Redfield dam at Redfield. Though the Lake Panorama dam, completed in 1970, was built for recreational purposes only, it has provided some additional benefits by controlling flooding along the Middle Raccoon River; the Middle Raccoon River flows into the South Raccoon River about 1 mile south of Redfield. The South Raccoon River, about 72 miles long, rises in northeastern Audubon County and flows southeastwardly through Guthrie and Dallas counties, past the town of Guthrie Center. South of Redfield, after the Middle Raccoon River flows into the South Raccoon River, a flow gauge operated jointly by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, the United States Geological Survey, the Iowa Department of Transportation provides data about potential flooding threats; the north and south forks join in Dallas County just west of Van Meter, the Raccoon River flows eastward into Polk County, past Walnut Woods State Park and West Des Moines.
It joins the Des Moines River just south of downtown Des Moines and is part of the watershed of the Mississippi River. Both the Raccoon and Des Moines rivers have been providing drinking water for the Des Moines metropolitan area through water utilities since the 19th century. During the Great Flood of 1993, the Raccoon River flooded the water treatment facility of Des Moines, shutting off the city's drinking water supply. Spring thaws, as in the spring of 2013, rainy spells after drought wash nitrate from fertilizer into the river. On November 20, 2014 nitrates spiked at 13.7 parts per million, making the water unsafe for pregnant women and infants. At the time, these were the highest readings in the nation. List of Iowa rivers Columbia Gazetteer of North America entry DeLorme. Iowa Atlas & Gazetteer. Yarmouth, Maine: DeLorme. ISBN 0-89933-214-5. GNIS entries for U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Raccoon River, U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Middle Raccoon River, U.
S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: North Raccoon River, U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: South Raccoon River Map of Raccoon River basin - Iowa Department of Natural Resources website South Raccoon River gage near Redfield - US Army Corps of Engineers website North Raccoon River at Perry - National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration website Middle Raccoon River at Panora - NOAA website South Raccoon River at Redfield - NOAA website Raccoon River at Van Meter - NOAA website Raccoon River at Des Moines Fleur Drive - NOAA website
Red Cedar River (Michigan)
The Red Cedar River is a tributary of the Grand River in central Michigan in the United States. The river is 51.1 miles long and drains a watershed of 461 square miles in the Lansing–East Lansing metropolitan area and suburban and rural areas to the east. The river was named for the juniper species Juniperus virginiana known as red cedar, a plant native to the region. Prior to a 1966 decision by the U. S. Board on Geographic Names, the river was shown as Cedar River on federal maps, despite being known as the Red Cedar River locally; the board's review was prompted by a 1962 letter from Milton P. Adams, then-secretary of the Michigan Water Resources Commission, who noted in his letter that "generations of M. S. U. Students have solemnly and with hearts full sung the glories of their Alma Mater'on the banks of the Red Cedar.' Countless great careers have been launched, lifelong romances have budded, strong characters have been wrought in these environs on the banks of the'Red' Cedar. The river's source is Cedar Lake in Marion Township in southern Livingston County.
It flows for 51.1 miles, first northwestward through Fowlerville westward through northern Ingham County. In Ingham County it flows through Williamston, East Lansing, Lansing, where it empties into the Grand River. In East Lansing the river passes through the campus of Michigan State University; the river is not navigable by boats larger than recreational size. The river's watershed is 461 square miles in size. Among the river's larger tributaries, ordered from its mouth to its source, are Sycamore Creek, Pine Lake Outlet, Sloan Creek, Deer Creek, Doan Creek, Kalamink Creek, the West Branch Red Cedar River, the Middle Branch Red Cedar River; the Red Cedar River Watershed contains a diverse mix of rural lands dominated by agricultural land use and small communities, suburban areas, urbanized lands. The watershed is home to thousands of residents who live, learn and recreate within its lands and waters. Farms and shopping malls are necessary for quality of life. Important are clean water for fishing and drinking, natural landscapes for aesthetic relief.
The river and its watershed are home for a myriad of plants and animals that rely on a clean, protected environment to flourish. Since the national Clean Water Act in 1972, the river has improved and is safe for swimming 74% of the year; the Red Cedar is monitored by MSU Water with the contaminant reports posted by the Michigan State University International Center. Despite these improvements and pollution into the river and onto its banks is a common problem and includes bikes, parking barricades, general trash, large items such as car tires and mopeds. To combat this problem, twice per year the undergraduate MSU Fisheries and Wildlife club holds a "Red Cedar Clean-Up" event that brings students, faculty and community members together to remove and recycle items found in the river and its banks; the Red Cedar River is a familiar campus landmark at Michigan State University. The name of the river is featured in the first line of MSU's fight song, MSU students can be found studying in the parkland along its banks.
A number of student activities centered around the Red Cedar over the course of MSU's history, including freshman vs. sophomore "tug-o-war" spanning the river and a Water Carnival featuring student made floats drifting in procession. People on campus feed the large community of mallard ducks that congregate near the river. Wildlife in the river includes 33 species of fish and various other aquatic animals, study of the river and its ecosystem is incorporated into relevant areas of the university's curricula. Fishing was banned on the campus in the 1960s; the river is popular in the summer for kayaking. During floods, the river forms a standing wave at the campus dam. In the winter, the river freezes over and students walk or play on the ice despite the inherent danger. During its inaugural season in 1922, the MSU hockey team played games on the frozen river. Alongside the river on MSU's campus is the W. J. Beal Botanical Garden, the oldest continuous botanical garden in the United States; the garden was started in 1873.
A variety of species of fish can be found in the Red Cedar River. From December 1979 to 1981, Dr. Patrick M. Muzzall from MSU's zoology department collected the following species: white sucker, northern hog sucker, spotted sucker, golden redhorse, silver redhorse, rock bass, green sunfish, pumpkin seed, bluegill, smallmouth bass, largemouth bass, black crappie, carp, hornyhead chub, common shiner, rosyface shiner, sand shiner, bluntnose minnow, blacknose dace, creek chub, grass pickerel, brook stickleback, black bullhead, yellow bullhead, brown bullhead, rainbow darter, johnny darter, yellow perch, blackside darter, central mudminnow. List of rivers of Michigan Real time water data United States Geological Survey Red Cedar River Watershed Management Plan, Michigan State University Institute for Water Research, 2015 Red Cedar River Watershed Management Plan, Upper Grand River Watershed Alliance, 2006 Red Cedar Watershed 2015 Stream Monitoring Report, Mid-Michigan Environmental Action Council
Red Bird River
The Red Bird River is a tributary of the South Fork Kentucky River, located in the Daniel Boone National Forest in extreme southeastern portion of the U. S. state of Kentucky. It drains an area of 195.7 square miles. Red Bird was the name of a Native American, murdered near the river, it rises as Red Bird Creek in northeastern Bell County becomes the Red Bird River at the confluence of the Phillips Fork just south of Queendale in Clay County. Continuing north, it forms the boundary between Clay and Leslie counties coming to a confluence with Goose Creek at Oneida to form the South Fork of the Kentucky River. List of rivers of Kentucky Red Bird River Petroglyphs University of Kentucky: Kentucky River Basin Report Daniel Boone National Forest: Red Bird Ranger District USGS GNIS Entry