A river is a natural flowing watercourse freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, brook and rill. There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features, although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always: the language is vague. Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle. Potamology is the scientific study of rivers, while limnology is the study of inland waters in general. Most of the major cities of the world are situated on the banks of rivers, as they are, or were, used as a source of water, for obtaining food, for transport, as borders, as a defensive measure, as a source of hydropower to drive machinery, for bathing, as a means of disposing of waste.
A river begins at a source, follows a path called a course, ends at a mouth or mouths. The water in a river is confined to a channel, made up of a stream bed between banks. In larger rivers there is also a wider floodplain shaped by flood-waters over-topping the channel. Floodplains may be wide in relation to the size of the river channel; this distinction between river channel and floodplain can be blurred in urban areas where the floodplain of a river channel can become developed by housing and industry. Rivers can flow down mountains, through valleys or along plains, can create canyons or gorges; the term upriver refers to the direction towards the source of the river, i.e. against the direction of flow. The term downriver describes the direction towards the mouth of the river, in which the current flows; the term left bank refers to the left bank in the direction of right bank to the right. The river channel contains a single stream of water, but some rivers flow as several interconnecting streams of water, producing a braided river.
Extensive braided rivers are now found in only a few regions worldwide, such as the South Island of New Zealand. They occur on peneplains and some of the larger river deltas. Anastamosing rivers are quite rare, they have multiple sinuous channels carrying large volumes of sediment. There are rare cases of river bifurcation in which a river divides and the resultant flows ending in different seas. An example is the bifurcation of Nerodime River in Kosovo. A river flowing in its channel is a source of energy which acts on the river channel to change its shape and form. In 1757, the German hydrologist Albert Brahms empirically observed that the submerged weight of objects that may be carried away by a river is proportional to the sixth power of the river flow speed; this formulation is sometimes called Airy's law. Thus, if the speed of flow is doubled, the flow would dislodge objects with 64 times as much submerged weight. In mountainous torrential zones this can be seen as erosion channels through hard rocks and the creation of sands and gravels from the destruction of larger rocks.
A river valley, created from a U-shaped glaciated valley, can easily be identified by the V-shaped channel that it has carved. In the middle reaches where a river flows over flatter land, meanders may form through erosion of the river banks and deposition on the inside of bends. Sometimes the river will cut off a loop, shortening the channel and forming an oxbow lake or billabong. Rivers that carry large amounts of sediment may develop conspicuous deltas at their mouths. Rivers whose mouths are in saline tidal waters may form estuaries. Throughout the course of the river, the total volume of water transported downstream will be a combination of the free water flow together with a substantial volume flowing through sub-surface rocks and gravels that underlie the river and its floodplain. For many rivers in large valleys, this unseen component of flow may exceed the visible flow. Most but not all rivers flow on the surface. Subterranean rivers flow underground in caverns; such rivers are found in regions with limestone geologic formations.
Subglacial streams are the braided rivers that flow at the beds of glaciers and ice sheets, permitting meltwater to be discharged at the front of the glacier. Because of the gradient in pressure due to the overlying weight of the glacier, such streams can flow uphill. An intermittent river only flows and can be dry for several years at a time; these rivers are found in regions with limited or variable rainfall, or can occur because of geologic conditions such as a permeable river bed. Some ephemeral rivers flow during the summer months but not in the winter; such rivers are fed from chalk aquifers which recharge from winter rainfall. In England these rivers are called bournes and give their name to places such as Bournemouth and Eastbourne. In humid regions, the location where flow begins in the smallest tributary streams moves upstream in response to precipitation and downstream in its absence or when active summer vegetation diverts water for evapotrans
The Saco River is a river in northeastern New Hampshire and southwestern Maine in the United States. It drains a rural area of 1,703 square miles of forests and farmlands west and southwest of Portland, emptying into the Atlantic Ocean at Saco Bay, 136 miles from its source, it supplies drinking water to 250,000 people in thirty-five towns. The name "Saco" comes from the Eastern Abenaki word, meaning "land where the river comes out"; the Jesuit Relations, ethnographic documents from the 17th century, refer to the river as Chouacoet. The river rises at Saco Lake in Crawford Notch in the White Mountains and flows south-southeast through Bartlett and Conway in Carroll County, New Hampshire before crossing into Oxford County, Maine. Shortly after entering Fryeburg, the river branches into the "Old Course" Saco River and the more used "Canal River". Constructed in the 1800s to be more convenient for farmers, the 6-mile long canal is 15 miles shorter than the old course and is now considered to be the official course for the river, as the upstream end of the old course is silted over.
The two channels merge again near Maine. After running through six hydropower stations operated by NextEra Energy Resources, the river enters York County, crosses under Interstate 95, passes between Saco and Biddeford, where it is bridged by U. S. Route 1, it enters Saco Bay on the Atlantic with Camp Ellis in Saco on the north shore and Hills Beach in Biddeford on the south shore. The United States government maintains two stream gauges on the Saco river; the first is at New Hampshire where the river's watershed is 385 square miles. Discharge here averages 962 cubic feet per second and has ranged from a minimum of 40 cubic feet per second to a maximum of 47,200 cubic feet per second; the second is at Maine where the watershed is 1,293 square miles. Flow here averages 2,756 cubic feet per second and has ranged from a minimum of 244 cubic feet per second to a maximum of 46,600 cubic feet per second; the Saco is a popular recreational river, drawing an estimated 3,000 to 7,000 people per summer weekend on the stretch from Swan's Falls, to Brownfield, Maine.
There are many sand beaches along the Saco when not at flood stage and camping is allowed along some of these beaches for free. Misuse, including large quantities of garbage left behind by users and illegal fires, as well as discourtesy toward landowners, has led many beaches to be posted and monitored. A permit is required from the State of Maine for campfires along any unposted river beaches; the Saco is a major attraction for canoeists. One area of the river, Walker's Rip, is a set of rapids that has caused less talented canoers to capsize, although it can be navigated successfully. Several canoeing rentals are available throughout the river's distance; the Saco river is famous for sport fishing though the number of fish in it has decreased tremendously throughout time. Multiple violent and alcohol-related incidents in 2001 led to increased police patrols and efforts by livery companies and government agencies to improve conditions. Local legends have held. Listed from source to mouth: Dry River Sawyer River Rocky Branch Ellis River East Branch Saco River Swift River Cold River Charles River Outlet, Kezar Lake Kezar River Shepards River Tenmile River Hancock Brook Ossipee River Little Ossipee River List of rivers of Maine List of rivers of New Hampshire EPA Saco River Watershed Profile Saco River Profile at MaineRivers.org Real-time flow data for the Conway, NH and Cornish, ME gages Saco River Corridor Commission Saco River Cleanup, an annual event sponsored by the Saco River Recreation Council "Popular river struggles with balancing act", Portland Press Herald, Aug. 11, 2002
Saint Joe River
The Saint Joe River is a 140-mile long tributary of Coeur d'Alene Lake in northern Idaho. Beginning at an elevation of 6,487 feet in the Northern Bitterroot Range of eastern Shoshone County, it flows west through the Saint Joe River Valley and the communities of Avery and Calder. Past Calder, it flows into Benewah County and through the town of St. Maries, where it receives its largest tributary, the Saint Maries River, it turns northwest, passing through Heyburn State Park before reaching its mouth just north of the Kootenai County line. Much of the river's route through Heyburn State Park is flooded due to raised water levels from the Washington Water Power dam at Post Falls on the Spokane River below Coeur d'Alene Lake. With a mouth elevation of 2,129 feet, it is the highest navigable river in the world. In 1978, 66.3 miles of the river were protected by the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System, with 26.6 miles designated as wild and another 39.7 miles designated as recreational. The Saint Joe River drains 1,850 square miles of the Idaho Panhandle.
It is part of the Spokane River watershed. About 68 percent is owned by the United States Forest Service, 4 percent is owned by the Bureau of Land Management, 2 percent is owned by the State of Idaho, the rest is owned; the Saint Joe River watershed is covered by mixed coniferous forest, which includes species such as Douglas fir, true fir and pine. Alder is common in the riparian zones of high altitude river valleys, while cottonwood dominates the lower altitude riparian zones, much of which have been converted to agricultural land. Rush and cattails are common in the river's floodplains, which are used to grow wild rice; the river is home to many species of fish, including native westslope cutthroat trout, mountain whitefish, cedar sculpin and other cottids and nonnative rainbow and brook trout and Kokanee Salmon. The upper Saint Joe River is home to the last self-sustaining population of vulnerable bull trout in the Coeur d'Alene Lake watershed. List of rivers of Idaho List of longest streams of Idaho List of National Wild and Scenic Rivers Tributaries of the Columbia River St. Joe River Country Documentary produced by Idaho Public Television
St. Mary River (Alberta–Montana)
The Saint Mary River is a cross-border tributary of the Oldman River, itself a tributary of the South Saskatchewan River. The Saint Mary together with the Belly River and Waterton River drains a small portion of Montana, in the United States, to the Hudson Bay watershed in Canada; the river rises as a stream on Gunsight Mountain in Glacier National Park and flows into Gunsight Lake flows into Saint Mary Lake, exits the park and flows on into Lower St. Mary Lake in the Blackfeet Indian Reservation. From the reservation, the St. Mary River flows into the St. Mary Reservoir, it flows into the Oldman River which reaches the Saskatchewan River. It passes near the town of Cardston and the city of Lethbridge, Alberta; the St. Mary River provides water for irrigation in Southern Alberta; the St. Mary River Irrigation District is Canada’s largest irrigation district delivering water through 2,060 kilometres of canals and pipelines to 1,505 square kilometres of land south of the Oldman and South Saskatchewan Rivers between Lethbridge and Medicine Hat.
The irrigation project was started in 1898, on September 4, 1900, the first water was brought to Lethbridge by the project. In December 1945 the Canadian Pacific Railway transferred control of the projects to the government of Alberta, creating the St. Mary and Milk River Development. A dam was created in 1946 on the St. Mary River, to service the irrigation system, water reached Medicine Hat in 1954 upon the completion of the St. Mary Main Canal. List of rivers of Alberta List of rivers of Montana Montana Stream Access Law St. Mary Reservoir
St. Joseph River (Maumee River tributary)
The St. Joseph River is an 86.1-mile-long tributary of the Maumee River in northwestern Ohio and northeastern Indiana in the United States, with headwater tributaries rising in southern Michigan. It drains a rural farming region in the watershed of Lake Erie; the St. Joseph River of Lake Michigan is an separate river that rises in western Michigan, dips into Indiana, flows west into Lake Michigan. At the end of the Wisconsin glaciation, the glacier's Erie Lobe retreated toward the northeast, leaving large debris deposits called moraines; the St. Joseph formed as a meltwater channel between the north limbs of two of these moraines, the Wabash Moraine on the west and the Fort Wayne Moraine on the east. At that time it joined the St. Marys River to drain into the Wabash River; the shrinkage of Glacial Lake Maumee, the ancestor of modern Lake Erie, brought about the opening of the modern Maumee River, which captured the flow of the St. Joseph and the St. Marys, causing the St. Marys to reverse its course to meet the flow of the St. Joseph head-on.
The St. Joseph River forms in northern Williams County, Ohio, at the confluence of the East and West branches at 41°38′54″N 84°33′55″W. Both branches rise in southern Hillsdale Michigan; the headwaters of the East Branch are within 3 miles of those of the St. Joseph River of Lake Michigan. Both branches flow southeast turn to the southwest to flow across the northwestern corner of Ohio past Montpelier; the St. Joseph enters De Kalb County in northeastern Indiana, flowing southwest past Saint Joe and into the city of Fort Wayne, where it meets the St. Marys River to form the Maumee River at 41°04′58″N 85°07′56″W; the US Army Corps of Engineers built a flood control project in Fort Wayne that includes a floodwall and upper roadway along the St. Joseph River. From the mouth: Becketts Run Tiernan Ditch Ely Run Cedar Creek Cedarville Reservoir Nettlehorst Ditch Warner Ditch Wittmer Ditch Haifley Ditch Swartz-Carnahan DitchDunton Lake Boger Ditch Metcalf Ditch Walker Ditch Dilley Ditch Wade Ditch Bear Creek North Branch Hursey Ditch Carper Ditch South Branch Hursey Ditch Swander Ditch Nancy Davis Ditch Sol Shank Ditch Weicht Ditch Sebert Ditch Varner Ditch Hoodelmier Ditch Melissa Ditch Buck Creek Smith Ditch Mason Ditch Metcalf Ditch Harwood Ditch Christoffel Ditch Willow Run Amaden Ditch Greens Ditch Foulks Ditch Peter Grube Ditch Big Run Ayford Ditch Walters Ditch Streeter Ditch Praul Ditch Mary Metcalf Ditch Teutsch Ditch Donnell Ditch King Ditch John Smith Ditch Haverstolk Ditch Russell Run Fish Creek Cornell Ditch Hiram Sweet Ditch Baker Ditch Hamilton LakeBlack Creek Haughey Ditch Lillian Metz Ditch Burch Ditch Ball Lake Myers Ditch Perfect Lake West Branch Fish Creek Donald Nunkle Ditch Bluff Run Bear Creek Tamarack Ditch Eagle Creek North Branch Eagle Creek Nettle CreekNettle Lake Mill Stream Drain East Branch St. Joseph River Clear Fork Silver CreekMerry Lake Laird Creek Nile Ditch Ransom Ditch Bird CreekBird Lake Newton Drain Dillon Drain Anderson Drain Goose Creek Lake Number OneLake Number Two Pittsford Millpond Otto Drain Deer LakeTwin Lake West Branch St. Joseph River Lake Seneca outflow from Lake La Su An East Fork West Branch St. Joseph River Jonas Brown Drain Carruthers Drain outflow from Cub Lake Cambria Millpond Cambria Drain Meade Drain Bear Lake Pike LakeBroom Lake Lake WilsonBankers Lake West Fork West Branch St. Joseph River Joe Drain Prouty Drain Rebeck LakeMead LakeTurner Lake The St. Joseph River and tributaries drain all or portions of the following: Allen County, Indiana Cedar Creek Township Cedarville Eel River Township Fort Wayne Grabill Milan Township Perry Township St. Joseph Township Springfield Township Washington Township DeKalb County, Indiana Auburn Butler Township Butler Concord Township Franklin Township Garrett Jackson Township Keyser Township Newville Township Richland Township Grant Township Fairfield Township Saint Joe Smithfield Township Spencer Township Spencerville Stafford Township Troy Township Union Township Waterloo Wilmington Township Noble County, Indiana Avilla Allen Township Green Township LaOtto Swan Township Wayne Township Steuben County, Indiana Clear Lake Township Hamilton Otsego Township Richland Township York Township Defiance County, Ohio Milford Township Williams County, Ohio Bridgewater Township Blakeslee Center Township Edgerton Edon Florence Township Madison Township Montpelier Northwest Township Pioneer St. Joseph Township Superior Township Hillsdale County, Michigan Adams Township Amboy Township Cambria Township Camden Township Camden Jefferson Township Osseo Pittsford Township Ransom Township Reading Township Wheatland Township Woodbridge Township Wright Township List of Indiana rivers List of Michi
Salado Creek is a waterway in San Antonio that runs from northern Bexar County for about 38 miles to the San Antonio River near Buena Vista. In 1992, a well was plugged in Fort Sam Houston, used for irrigation for farmers; the well had maintained the ecosystem of the creek since a decline in the number of springs that had fed it. In 1995, plans to revitalize the creek began. Groups such as the Salado Creek Foundation began work to restore the historic significance of the creek as a link of Northern Bexar County to the missions in the South; the creek was affected by the Floods of 1998 causing property damage and unconstructive erosion to the creek bed. In March 2001, the San Antonio Water System's Salado Creek WRC began using recycled water to help the creek flow for the first time in ten years; the creek was given its name in 1716 by Spanish explorer Domingo Ramón. It has been the site of two battles in Texas history, including the 1813 Battle of Rosillo and the 1842 Battle of Salado Creek following the Texas Revolution.
The Battle of Rosillo Creek started as a siege of Presidio La Bahía from November 7, 1812, to February 19, 1813, for the purpose of trying to recapture the fort after the Republican Army of the North under Bernardo Gutiérrez de Lara and Samuel Kemper, numbered at 600 to 900 men, had taken over. The Spanish Royal Army of Texas, under Governor Manuel María de Salcedo and Nuevo León Governor Simón de Herrera, had retreated to San Antonio. In March 1813, the Spanish army, numbering 950 to 1,500, had planned an ambush on the republicans as they marched and searched for food along the creek banks; the republicans caught sight of the royal forces first and routed them within an hour, killing between 100 and 330 soldiers and capturing most of their arms and ammunition, six cannons, 1,500 horses and mules, at the expense of only six men. After the battle, the Spanish army retreated to San Antonio, signed a truce with Kemper on April 1, surrendered Salcedo and Herrera. On April 3, Herrera, 12 prisoners of war were executed by a vengeful Mexican soldier, near the site of the battle.
On April 6, 1813, the first Declaration of Independence and Constitution for Texas were drafted and Gutiérrez was named president, establishing the first Republic of Texas. The new republic was destroyed four months at the fateful Battle of Medina. A Battle of Salado Creek was fought between the volunteers of the Texas Republic and the Mexican forces of Brig. General and French Mexican soldier Adrián Woll; the conflict began following Brig. General Ráfael Vásquez's incursion into San Antonio in March 1842; the volunteers prepared for battle, but believed that peace was on the horizon after the release of prisoners from the failed Texan Santa Fe Expedition. Because of this, a potential attack was called off by President Sam Houston. However, on September 11, 1842, Brig. Gen. Adrián Woll entered San Antonio with 1,000 regular infantry and 500 irregular cavalry. After this, about 200 volunteers from Gonzales and other lower Colorado River settlements joined together under Capt. Mathew Caldwell on the east bank of Salado Creek.
They met with Capt. John C. Hays's regiment of 14 rangers; the men took advantage of their good position on the bank and killed 60 Mexicans, losing only one of their own. Capt. Nicholas Mosby Dawson was traveling from La Grange with his 53-man company of volunteers to meet with Caldwell. Cut off from the larger body of their men and surrounded by Mexicans, they surrendered after a brief skirmish; the Mexicans killed 36 Texians and wounded several others, in what Americans called the Dawson Massacre. According to Texas Parks and Wildlife, Rio Grande cichlids, alligator gar, common carp have been caught in Salado Creek. List of rivers of Texas Salado Creek at The Edwards Aquifer Website
St. Regis River
The St. Regis River is an 86-mile-long river in northern New York in the United States, it flows into the Saint Lawrence River at the hamlet of Saint Regis in the St. Regis Mohawk Reservation; the Saint Regis River basin includes Upper and Lower St. Regis Lakes, Saint Regis Pond in the Saint Regis Canoe Area. List of rivers in New York St. Regis River regional information St. Regis watershed information