Thunder River (Tapeats Creek tributary)
Thunder River is a river within the Grand Canyon National Park. It flows southeast from its source near the North Rim of the canyon to Tapeats Creek; the 0.5-mile-long river is one of the shortest in the United States, drops 1,200 feet over a series of waterfalls, making it the steepest river in the country. It is a rare instance where a river is a tributary of a creek. While Tapeats Creek was named by the second Powell Expedition in the winter of 1871–1872, the expedition did not discover Thunder River; the river can be reached by Thunder River Trail from the North Rim, only accessible from mid-May to late October. The upper portions of the trail were built in 1876 when rumors of placer gold led speculators to need a way into the area. Further trail work was performed beginning in 1925 under the US Forest Service and continued under the National Park Service with the final sections to Tapeats Creek completed in 1939; the creek is fed from the second-largest spring on the North Rim. Water emerges from the Muav Limestone in a deep cave system at 54 °F.
Since the spring flows year round, the river is a perennial river. In 1970, the spring was estimated to discharge twenty-one million US gal of water per day into the river. Common trees near the spring include Fremont's cottonwoods and white sumac. Along the river are willows, other shrubs, crimson monkeyflower, maidenhair fern and other riparian fauna. Common aquatic invertebrate found in the creek include caddisflies. List of rivers of Arizona Wallkill River, in New Jersey and New York drains into a creek
The Tchefuncte River drains into Lake Pontchartrain in Louisiana in the United States. It is about 70.0 miles long. The area around the river was inhabited by the hunter-gatherer Tchefuncte culture dating back to 500 BCE The name Tchefuncte is believed to derive from the word Hachofakti, the Choctaw word for the American chinquapin, used by Native Americans to relieve headaches and fevers; the native-americans gathered fresh-water clams and crawfish and built shell middens on the river. During the War of 1812 the Secretary of the Navy William Jones ordered Captain John Shaw to supervise the construction of a shallow-draft Blockship armed with 32 heavy cannons at the shipyard in Madisonville, Louisiana. On December 16, 1814 Major General Andrew Jackson wrote a letter to the Secretary of War John Armstrong Jr. demanding that the ship be completed. When the Battle of New Orleans began the vessel was still moored at the Madisonville Naval shipyard unfinished. In 1837, the Tchefuncte River Range Lights was built to guide vessels across Lake Pontchartrain to the mouth of the Tchefuncte River.
The lighting apparatus was supplied by Winslow Lewis and consisted of nine lamps with several fourteen-inch reflectors. The lighthouse was damaged sometime during the Civil War and was repaired in 1867; the U. S. Coast Guard took control over the lighthouse in 1939 and used an electrical automation system to power the lighthouse. In 1999 the local town of Madisonville, Louisiana assumed ownership and the Institute of Museum and Library Services issued a grant for restoring the historical property; the lighthouse survived the Hurricane Katrina and Rita and continues to be an important historical location. The Tchefuncte rises in northeastern Tangipahoa Parish and flows southward, it collects its largest tributary, the Bogue Falaya, at Covington and flows into Lake Pontchartrain about 2 miles south of Madisonville, near the lake's northern extremity. The Tchefuncte has been designated by the government of Louisiana as a "Natural and Scenic River." Fairview-Riverside State Park is located along the river, upstream of Madisonville.
In the 19th century it was an important commercial waterway, where building materials and other products of the North Shore of Lake Pontchartrain were loaded to be shipped across the Lake to New Orleans. List of Louisiana rivers Fairview-Riverside State Park
The Tallapoosa River runs 265 miles from the southern end of the Appalachian Mountains in Georgia, United States and westward into Alabama. It is formed by the confluence of McClendon Creek and Mud Creek in Georgia. Lake Martin at Alexander City, Alabama is a large and popular water recreation area formed by a dam on the river; the Tallapoosa joins the Coosa River about 10 miles northeast of Montgomery near Wetumpka to form the Alabama River. There are four hydroelectric dams on the Tallapoosa: Yates, Thurlow and Harris dams, they are important sources of electricity generation for Alabama Power and recreation for the public. The Tallapoosa River its lower course, was a major population center of the Creek Indians before the early 19th century; the contemporary name of the river is from the Creek words Talwa posa, which mean "Grandmother Town". The Creek consider the Tallapoosa branch of their tribe to be one of the oldest. Horseshoe Bend National Military Park, a U. S. National Military Park managed by the National Park Service, is located along the banks of the Tallapoosa River just upstream from Lake Martin.
It preserves a battle site associated with the Creek War. The river below Thurlow Dam provides a short run of outstanding Class II, III and IV whitewater kayaking. Tallapoosa, Georgia is named for the river; the first hydroelectric dam in Alabama was built on the Tallapoosa River in 1902, by Henry C. Jones, an Auburn University electrical engineer, at the site of the current Yates Dam, it was rebuilt. The dam belonged to the Montgomery Light & Water Power Company. In 1928 it was replaced by the Yates Dam. There are four hydroelectric dams on the Tallapoosa River: Yates Dam, Thurlow Dam, Martin Dam, R. L. Harris Dam; the table below outlines the four impoundments on the Tallapoosa River from south to north. The Tallapoosa River's drainage has many significant tributaries which reflected below based on their location within the watershed; the Coosa-Alabama River Improvement Association, founded in 1890 in Gadsden, Alabama to promote navigation on the Coosa River is a leading advocate of the economic and environmental benefits of the Coosa and Tallapoosa River systems.
The Alabama Rivers Alliance works to unite the citizens of Alabama to protect peoples right to clean, waters. Alabama Water Watch is dedicated to volunteer citizen monitoring of water quality in Alabama Rivers; the Alabama Power Foundation is a non-profit foundation providing grants for watershed and community projects along the Tallapoosa River and within the state of AlabamaThe Coosa River Basin Initiative is a grassroots environmental organization with the mission of informing and empowering citizens so that they may become involved in the process of creating a clean and economically viable Coosa River Basin. A number of significant cities lie on the banks of the Tallapoosa River, they include: Heflin, Alabama - headwaters Buchanan, Georgia - headwaters Tallapoosa, Georgia - headwaters Wedowee, Alabama - near R. L Harris Lake Lineville, Alabama - near R. L harris Lake (Lake Wedowee Alexander City, Alabama - north flank of Lake Martin Dadeville, Alabama - south flank of Lake Martin Tallassee, Alabama - site of Lower Tallassee Dam Wetumpka, Alabama - near confluence with Coosa River forming the Alabama River Montgomery, Alabama - Tallapoosa River is major source of drinking water for city.
Atkins, Leah Rawls. "Developed for the Service of Alabama" - The Centennial History of the Alabama Power Company 1906-2006. Birmingham, Alabama: Alabama Power Company. ISBN 978-0-9786753-0-1. Jackson, Harvey H. III. Putting Loafing Streams To Work-The Building of Lay, Mitchell and Jordan Dams, 1910-1929. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: The University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0879-2. Jackson, Harvey H. III. Rivers of History-Life on the Coosa, Tallapoosa and Alabama. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: The University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0771-0. "Tallapoosa, a river of Georgia and Alabama". The American Cyclopædia. 1879
The Tensas River is a river in Louisiana in the United States. The river, known as Tensas Bayou in its upper reaches, begins in East Carroll Parish in the northeast corner of the state and runs southwest for 177 miles more or less in parallel with the Mississippi River; the Tensas River merges with the Ouachita River in Jonesville in Catahoula Parish to become the Black River, not to be confused with Black Lake in Natchitoches Parish in north central Louisiana. For the twenty miles south of Interstate 20 between Delhi and Tallulah, the river winds its way through the Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, established in 1980 "for the preservation and development of environmental resources" about the river; the name Tensas is derived from the historic indigenous Taensa people. List of Louisiana rivers Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, http://www.fws.gov/tensasriver/, Retrieved 23 April 2005
The Tahquamenon River is an 89.1-mile-long blackwater river in the U. S. state of Michigan that flows in a eastward direction through the eastern end of the Upper Peninsula. It drains 820 square miles of the Upper Peninsula, including large sections of Luce County and Chippewa County, it begins in the Tahquamenon Lakes in northeast Columbus Township of Luce County and empties into Lake Superior near the village of Paradise. M-123 runs alongside a portion of the river; the meaning of "Tahquamenon" is not known. Some called it the "River of the Head Winds" because they bucked the wind on the lower river no matter what direction they were paddling. Others called it the "River of a Hundred Bends". Twentieth century descendants of local Chippewa translated the name to mean "river up against a hill" or "lost river island" or "river with an island part way". In 1930 Jesuit scholar, Father William Gagnieut, concluded that the meaning of the name had been lost. Recorded variously as'Otikwaminang,"Outakwamenon,"Tequamenen','Tanguamanon,"Tanquamanon,"Toumequellen' and'Tahquamenaw', several suggestions on the meaning of its name have been made over the years: The origin of the present spelling can be traced to a Jesuit map of Lake Superior published in 1672 that named the small island lying 5 miles off the river mouth as "Outa koua minan'.
The early French travelers called the Great Lakes region natives "Outaouaks". "Shortcut." The name referring to Tahquamenon Bay, which the Ojibwe used as a shortcut while traveling. The bay has a small island in it that facilitated the "shortcut" from Whitefish Point across the open and at times dangerous bay; the name "shortcut" was given to the River that enters into the bay. However, although'taqua' does mean "short", the suffix for "road" or "trail" is -mon in Ojibwe, not'menon', although -ing would be a locative suffix, the locative form of -mon is -moong and not -moning. However, in the Algonquin language, the locative form of -mon would be -monaang resembling'menon'. Additionally, in the Potawatomi language, suffix for "road" or "trail" is -mii, like in the Algonquin language, the locative form of -mii would be -miinaang, most resembling'menon'. "Marsh of the blueberries," though'menon' does mean "blueberries" in the Ojibwa language,'tahqua' does not mean "marsh" "Short cornel" where'tahqua' does mean "short" and'manan' does mean "cornel", but cornels do not grow in swamplands "Ottawa's good land" due to an Ottawa village that used to be located near the mouth of the river "Dark-colored water".
Although the river's water is dark, the word for "dark-colored water" in Ojibwe is makadewaagamin. The current name for the Tahquamenon River in the Ojibwa language is Adikamegong-ziibi "River where the Whitefish are found." This name is the naming basis for the Whitefish Point and Whitefish Bay, both known earlier as "Tahquamenaw". The river is best known for the Tahquamenon Falls, a succession of two waterfalls in Tahquamenon Falls State Park totalling 73 feet in height; because the headwaters of the river are located in a boreal wetland, rich in cedar and hemlock trees, the river's waters carry a significant amount of tannin in solution, are brown or golden-brown in color. The Tahquamenon Falls are thus acclaimed as being the largest dyed or colored waterfall in the United States; the state park preserves some 24 miles of the river. In Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's once-famous poem, The Song of Hiawatha, the hero learned how to paddle a birchbark canoe in the Tahquamenon; the river is used for canoeing to this day.
The river's watershed and state park are extensively used for fishing and hiking. In winter, the watershed welcomes snowmobilers; the Toonerville Trolley Train and Riverboat Tour, a private firm, offers 21-mile boat tours of the upper Tahquamenon as part of an overall family experience that includes a narrow-gauge rail ride and visit to the Upper Tahquamenon Falls. The tour is based in Soo Junction, between Hulbert. Taylor, Sprague. Tahquamenon Country: A look at the past. Historical Society of Michigan, East Lansing, Michigan. ISBN 978-0-87013-833-1. Tahquamenon Falls State Park Toonerville Trolley Riverboat Tour Tahquamenon River Streamflow Data from the USGS
The Tanana River is a 584-mile tributary of the Yukon River in the U. S. state of Alaska. According to linguist and anthropologist William Bright, the name is from the Koyukon tene no, tenene "trail river"; the river's headwaters are located at the confluence of the Chisana and Nabesna rivers just north of Northway in eastern Alaska. The Tanana flows in a northwest direction from near the border with the Yukon Territory, laterally along the northern slope of the Alaska Range paralleled by the Alaska Highway. In central Alaska, it emerges into a lowland marsh region known as the Tanana Valley and passes south of the city of Fairbanks. In the marsh regions it is joined by several large tributaries, including the Nenana and the Kantishna, it passes the village of empties into the Yukon near the town of Tanana. Ice on the river accumulates each winter to an average maximum thickness of 43 inches at Nenana; the Nenana Ice Classic, begun in 1917, is an annual guessing game about the date of the ice break-up.
In October or November, after the freeze has begun, a tripod is planted in ice in the middle of the river. The tripod is connected to an on-shore clock that stops when the tripod begins to move during the spring thaw. Over the years, the break-up date has varied from April 20 to May 20. Betting on the exact time of the break-up takes the form of a lottery, called the Nenana Ice Classic. Human habitation of the Yukon basin, including the Tanana watershed, began more than 12,000 years ago. Several sites in the watershed have produced evidence of occupation by Paleo-Arctic people. Residents include people of the Tanana tribe, which has had a presence in the region for 1,200 years. In the summer of 1885, Lieutenant Henry Tureman Allen of the U. S. Army undertook the first recorded exploration of the Tanana River. In 1883, Lieutenant Frederick Schwatka and his party had entered the Yukon watershed by way of Canada and floated to the mouth of the Yukon. Allen's goal was to find an all-Alaska route to the Yukon River.
He and his men ascended the Copper River, crossed into Tanana River drainage, descended the Tanana to the Yukon and down it to the mouth. During the five-month trip, the Allen party mapped the courses of the Copper and Koyukuk rivers. In the early 21st century, the basin is wilderness unchanged by human activity. Fairbanks, a metropolitan area with about 100,000 residents in 2019, is a center of placer gold mining, which has continued in the basin since the mid-19th century. Limited farming occurs in the valley near Fairbanks. Since the early 1900s, Alaskans have been gambling on; each year, thousands pay $2.50 to guess the exact date and minute the Tanana River ice will go out in Nenana. The Nenana Ice Classic has awarded some large prizes. In 2010, after the ice went out on April 29, three lottery winners split a jackpot of $279,030. In 2012, the record prize was $350,000. Chisana River Nabesna River Kalutna River Tok River Robertson River Johnson River Little Gerstle River Healy River Volkmar River Gerstle River Clearwater Creek Goodpaster River Delta River Delta Creek Little Delta River Salcha River Little Salcha River Chena River North Fork South Fork Wood River Tatlanika River Nenana River Teklanika River Seventeen Mile Slough Tolovana River Kantishna River Zitziana River Cosna River Chitanana River List of rivers of Alaska List of longest rivers of the United States Notes References Benke, Arthur C. ed. and Cushing, Colbert E. ed..
Rivers of North America. Burlington, Massachusetts: Elsevier Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-088253-1
The Thornapple River is an 88.1-mile-long tributary of Michigan's longest river, the Grand River. The Thornapple rises in Eaton County and drains a rural farming area in Central Michigan, it joins the Grand in Michigan, 10 miles east of Grand Rapids. The Thornapple, a major Grand River tributary, is about 88 miles long, its headwaters are located about 7 miles east of Charlotte, Michigan in Eaton County's Eaton township. It flows west and north through Eaton and Barry counties, before entering the Grand in Kent County; the Grand flows into Lake Michigan at Grand Haven 70 miles down stream. The Thornapple is described as "An easygoing stream that meanders through low southwest Michigan woodlands." The Thornapple itself has a major tributary in the Coldwater River. The Thornapple is the only major left tributary of the Grand River; the major rivers and streams within the Grand River watershed were formed during the Pleistocene epoch and the subsequent advance/retreat glaciation cycle, terminating about 6–8000 years ago.
Prior to European settlement, the Thornapple drainage basin had mixed hardwood/conifer forest and barrens. and was home to the Ottawa and Potawatomi Native Americans. Who called it the Tomba-Signe During the early settlement of Michigan, Rix Robinson, the first permanent settler of Kent County, established a fur trading post in conjunction with John Jacob Astor's American Fur Company, at the mouth of the Thornapple in 1821 to trade with the Potawottomi and conduct other business. By 1837, with the fur trade in decline, Robinson facilitated a treaty between local tribes and the Federal government that opened much of the area, including the Thornapple basin, to white settlement; as with many rivers in 19th and early 20th century America, the Thornapple had significant logging and manufacturing activity along it. As an example: by 1862 Ada had a number of businesses which included: general stores, a flour mill, a saw mill, hotels, a blacksmith, a carriage maker, a boot and shoe store, two churches, a doctor, three Justices of the Peace, an attorney.
A basket factory was built next to the flour and saw mills on the Thornapple River. The river was subject to periodic flooding; the 1904-1905 flood was "the worst flooding in Ada history." A number of dams were constructed in the early 20th century for power generation. In 1957, as part of a M-21 Grand River bridge replacement project, the mouth of the Thornapple and lower channel were relocated about 500 feet upstream on the Grand, land, the site of Robinson's first home in Ada and trading post was inundated. Today the Thornapple is not a navigable waterway, there is no commercial water transport on it; the major use of the river is recreational. The Thornapple River sees significant use for rafting, kayaking and canoeing on a small but significant portion of its 88-mile extent; the Thornapple supports several canoe livery businesses. From the headwaters in Eaton County to Thornapple Lake, the river is creeklike, with narrow banks and tangled undergrowth restricting easy passage; the lower stretch of the river is a series of dam-created reservoirs that are developed.
However, from the lake to the first dam impoundment below Irving, is a 14-mile stretch of river, suitable for family outings and float trips. The river is very fishable. A large number of species inhabit the river, among them: sunfishes, brown bullhead, suckers, brook stickleback, northern pike, longnose gar and lampreys; the river is claimed to be "nationally known as a fine smallmouth bass stream", there are large numbers of small mouth bass in the free-flowing sections between Nashville and the junction with the Coldwater river. Fishing access is good, as most of the free-flowing Thornapple can be waded or floated during normal summer flows, many county road crossings afford good access. In addition to the many fish species that live in the Thornapple, the river is home to other wildlife including osprey, bald eagles and various species of ducks, some who winter in Michigan. People use the recreational facilities on the river to observe these species for pleasure and knowledge seeking. On the lower reaches of the river in the several impoundments behind the dams, there is significant recreational watercraft usage, both powered and sail, as well as personal water craft, although no provisions for specific clearances under bridges have been made, the dams do not have locks, so portaging or trailered transport is required to move craft from one reach to another.
Totaling over 857 square miles and covering portions of Barry, Eaton and Kent Counties in Central Michigan, the Thornapple River Watershed has 324 miles of streams and rivers that flow into the Lower Grand River Watershed. The land within the watershed is: 52.1% farmland 38.7% forest 1.5% wetland 1.6% water 6.1% developed 0.03% barren The Thornapple's tributaries are:Butternut Creek, Milbourn Allen and Crane Drain-Thornapple River, Thornapple Drain, Fish Creek-Little Thornapple River, Hayes Drain-Thornapple River and Boyer Drain-Thornapple River, Lacey Creek, Thompson Creek-Thornapple River, Shanty Creek, Quaker Brook, Scipio Creek-Thornapple River, Headwaters Mud Creek, Mud Creek, High Bank Creek, Cedar