The Unalakleet River in the U. S. state of Alaska flows southwest 90 miles from the Kaltag Mountains to near the town of Unalakleet, on Norton Sound of the Bering Sea. In 1980, the upper 80 miles of the river was protected as "wild" as part of the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System. Managed by the Bureau of Land Management, the wild segment of the river is fished for king and silver salmon, Arctic grayling, char. Other forms of recreation along the river include boating and camping in summer and snowmobiling, dog mushing, ice fishing and trapping in winter. For part of its length, the Iditarod Trail runs along the Unalakleet; the river's name is Inupiat for "place where the east wind blows." The river provided a good connection between native coastal settlements and those in the interior along the Yukon River. The route, including what is called the Kaltag Portage, was the shortest connection between the Yukon and Norton Sound. Eskimos have lived near the Unalakleet for many centuries. House pits in the region date to 200 B.
C. In the 1830s, after the Russian-American Company established trading posts at St. Michael and Unalakleet, Lieutenant Lavrenty Zagoskin of the Imperial Russian Navy filed the first non-native reports about the Unalakleet. In 1898, herders from Lapland settled along the river. Shortly thereafter, prospectors seeking gold on the nearby Seward Peninsula traveled over the Kaltag Portage and downriver to the coast. Subsequent changes included a telegraph line and associated cabins along the river and establishment of a mail route. List of National Wild and Scenic Rivers List of rivers of Alaska Unalakleet Wild and Scenic River - BLM page
Upper Ammonoosuc River
The Upper Ammonoosuc River is a tributary of the Connecticut River that flows through Coös County in northern part of the northeastern U. S. state of New Hampshire. Despite its name, the river is not an upstream portion of the Ammonoosuc River, but instead a separate tributary of the Connecticut River flowing from 20 to 60 miles to the north of the Ammonoosuc; the Upper Ammonoosuc rises in Pond of Safety in the town of Randolph, runs first north through rural portions of Berlin, Milan and a corner of Dummer west through Stark and Northumberland where it drains into the Connecticut near the village of Groveton. The end points of that 42.4-mile course are 25 air miles apart. From Milan to Groveton it is closely paralleled by New Hampshire Route 110. Fort Wentworth was built in 1755 at the junction of the Connecticut Rivers; the fort was used sporadically during both the French and Indian War and the American Revolutionary War. The watershed area includes the northern Crescent Range, eastern Pliny Range and the eastern and northern Pilot Range, all in the White Mountains.
Major tributaries of the Upper Ammonoosuc include: Nash Stream, rising in the township of Odell, Phillips Brook, rising in Erving's Location, the North Branch of the Upper Ammonoosuc, flowing parallel to and east of the main stem in the town of Milan, to join it at West Milan, the West Branch of the Upper Ammonoosuc rising on the eastern slope of Mount Cabot in Kilkenny, draining Unknown Pond and York Pond, joining the main stem below the Godfrey Dam. List of New Hampshire rivers
The Umatilla River is an 89-mile tributary of the Columbia River in the U. S. state of Oregon. Draining a basin of 2,450 square miles, it enters the Columbia near the city of Umatilla in the northeastern part of the state. In downstream order, beginning at the headwaters, major tributaries of the Umatilla River are the North Fork Umatilla River and the South Fork Umatilla River Meacham, McKay and Butter creeks; the name Umatilla is derived from the Native American name for the river, first recorded as Youmalolam in the journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition and spelled in many other ways in early books about Oregon. The Umatilla River's headwaters lie in the Blue Mountains at the confluence of its north and south forks in the Umatilla National Forest of northeastern Oregon. Flowing west, the river receives Lick Creek and Bear Creek, both from the right before reaching the unincorporated community of Bingham Springs. Further downstream it receives Rock Creek from the right Bobsled and Ryan creeks from the left before entering the Umatilla Indian Reservation and reaching the unincorporated community of Gibbon.
From Gibbon to the river mouth, tracks of the Union Pacific Railroad run parallel to the stream. Between Gibbon and Cayuse, three creeks—Squaw and Coonskin—enter the river from the left. Downstream of Cayuse, Moonshine and Mission creeks enter from the left; the river flows by Mission at about river mile 61 or river kilometer 98, leaves the Indian reservation, reaches the city of Pendleton at about RM 56, passing under Oregon Route 11. Wildhorse Creek enters from the right Patawa Creek from the left; the river receives McKay Creek from the left. Shortly thereafter, Birch Creek enters from the left about 50 miles from the mouth. Coombs Creek enters from the left about 3 miles below that, the river, turning north, flows by Echo and under I-84 again; the Umatilla reaches Stanfield about 23 miles from the mouth passes under Oregon Route 207 and receives Butter Creek from the left. Reaching Hermiston at about RM 9, the river flows by a United States Geological Survey stream gauge about 2 miles from the mouth passes under Interstate 82 and Oregon Route 730 before entering the Columbia River at Umatilla.
The Umatilla River joins the Columbia at what is called Lake Umatilla, a reservoir formed by the John Day Dam on the Columbia. The confluence is 289 miles from the Columbia's mouth on the Pacific Ocean at Astoria. McNary Dam, another dam on the Columbia, is upstream at about RM 292; the Umatilla River supports populations of spring Chinook, fall Chinook, Coho salmon as well as small trout in its upper reaches. Public access to salmon and steelhead fishing is good downstream of the Oregon Route 11 bridge. Upstream of the bridge, the river runs through the Umatilla Indian Reservation, where fishing is limited to those with a tribal permit. List of rivers of Oregon List of longest streams of Oregon McArthur, Lewis A. and McArthur, Lewis L.. Oregon Geographic Names, 7th ed. Portland: Oregon Historical Society Press. ISBN 0-87595-277-1. Shewey, John. Complete Angler's Guide to Oregon. Belgrade, Montana: Wilderness Adventures Press. ISBN 978-1-932098-31-0. Umatilla Watershed, "EPA Surf Your Watershed" Historic photos from the U.
S. Forest Service
The Umpachene River is an 8.3-mile-long tributary of the Housatonic River in New Marlborough, Massachusetts. Issuing from small ponds and wetlands on the east side of town, it meanders westward through wooded areas before emptying into the Konkapot River near the village of Southfield; the name of the river was derived from a Native American sachem of the Mohicans, Aaron Umpachene, who lived in Massachusetts in the vicinity of Great Barrington and Sheffield. Accounts told of him making his summer camps in the meadows alongside the river. During the early 19th century, settlers in the area harnessed the waters of the Umpachene River to operate waterwheel mills. One author noted in 1829. Rugged terrain of the Berkshire Plateau characterizes the environs of the Umpachene River, where hills and sheer gorges support a diverse array of plant life throughout woodlands and adjacent wetland areas. Sand and gravel deposits can be found along the river's course, detritus left behind 13,000 years ago as glaciers retreated northward.
Although most land in the surrounding region is not well-suited to farming, narrow expanses of prime agricultural soil can be found in areas adjacent to the Umpachene River. A small, six-acre town park is maintained at the site of a 40-foot waterfall along the Umpachene known as Umpachene Falls. Among the recreational opportunities offered there are hiking trails, picnic tables, swimming areas and fishing holes
Upper Iowa River
The Upper Iowa River is a 156-mile-long tributary of the Mississippi River in the upper Midwest of the United States. Its headwaters are in Mower County near the border with Iowa, it flows through the Iowa counties of Howard and Allamakee, into the Upper Mississippi River. Along its course, it passes through the Iowa cities of Chester, Lime Springs, Kendallville and Decorah, its watershed comprises nearly 641,000 acres. The Upper Iowa and its tributaries are part of the Driftless Area of Iowa, a region, ice-free during the last ice age. Unlike areas to the south and west, the area was not planed down by glaciation or covered in glacial drift, with the result that there are steep, high-walled canyons that little resembles what one sees in Iowa rivers in the western and southern regions of the state; the lack of any serious development makes this the only river in Iowa eligible for designation as a National Wild and Scenic River. It has not yet attained this status because much of the land and the riverbottom itself are owned.
It is an excellent river for taking paddlers through the scenic bluff country. Many put their canoes in at Kendallville or down river from there, but some more intrepid paddlers prefer to start at Lime Springs by the Lidtke Mill or at Florenceville. A number of wildlife refuges and preserves dot the river's basin. Bird sightings on the river include bald eagles, great blue herons, turkey vultures, barn swallows. In April 2007, the Iowa Natural Heritage Foundation announced the purchase of 1,224 acres of additional land; the Upper Iowa was sometimes called the "Iowa River", creating confusion with the larger Iowa River to the south. The Upper Iowa was called the "Oneota River", the large number of Late Prehistoric sites along its bluffs caused the early archaeologist Charles R. Keyes to name the Oneota Culture for the river. Decorah crater, a 470-million-year-old meteor crater below the Upper Iowa River. List of Iowa rivers List of Minnesota rivers Statistics on watershed Water level Watershed map Iowa Natural Heritage Foundation Upper Iowa River Watershed Project Lime Springs to French Creek Bridge *pdf format Kayaking site Acquisition of 1224 acres
The Umpqua River on the Pacific coast of Oregon in the United States is 111 miles long. One of the principal rivers of the Oregon Coast and known for bass and shad, the river drains an expansive network of valleys in the mountains west of the Cascade Range and south of the Willamette Valley, from which it is separated by the Calapooya Mountains. From its source northeast of Roseburg, the Umpqua flows northwest through the Oregon Coast Range and empties into the Pacific at Winchester Bay; the river and its tributaries flow within Douglas County, which encompasses most of the watershed of the river from the Cascades to the coast. The "Hundred Valleys of the Umpqua" form the heart of the timber industry of southern Oregon centered on Roseburg; the Native Americans in the Umpqua's watershed consist of several tribes, such as the Umpqua, the Kalapuya. These tribes witnessed much of the Great Flood of 1862, during which the Umpqua and other rivers rose to levels so high that the oldest Indians had never seen a greater flood.
The North Umpqua and South Umpqua rivers rise in the Southern Oregon Cascades, flow west for over 100 miles to join 6 miles northwest of Roseburg. In modern terminology, the "Umpqua Valley" is sometimes taken to refer to the populated lower reaches of the South Umpqua south of Roseburg, along the route of Interstate 5; the North Umpqua rises from snowmelt and is considered one of the premier summer steelhead streams in the West. From Roseburg, the Umpqua flows northwest through broad farming valleys in the Oregon Coast Range in a serpentine course past the settlement of Umpqua and the city Elkton. At Elkton, it turns to flow west through a narrower canyon past Scottsburg, located at the head of tide, it enters Winchester Bay on the Pacific near Reedsport. It receives the Smith River from the north near its estuary on Winchester Bay; the Umpqua River Light protects ships nearing the mouth of the river. The Umpqua is one of four major rivers in Oregon that start in or east of the Cascade Range and reach the Pacific Ocean.
The others are Klamath River and Columbia River. Named tributaries from source to mouth are the North Umpqua and South Umpqua rivers followed by Hidden Valley, Mill and Rock creeks. Next come Bottle, Wolf, Leonard and Lost creeks followed by Galagher Canyon. Yellow Creek is next Deep Gulch and McGee, Martin, Williams, Mehl and Heddin creeks. Further downstream is Elk Creek Grubbe, Beener, Sawyer, Stony Brook, Little Stony Brook creeks. Come Scott, Lutsinger, Burchard, Golden and Little Mill Creek. Mill Creek is next, followed by Luder, Franklin, Indian Charlie and Dean creeks. Entering the lower reaches are the Smith River and Scholfield and Winchester creeks. In the early 19th century the river valley was inhabited by the Coquille tribe of Native Americans; the tribe ceded most of its land to the U. S. government in the 1854 Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya, agreeing to move to a reservation in Lincoln County as part of the Confederated Tribes of Siletz. The river itself is named for a band of the Coquille.
The Umpqua River valley was inhabited by several different bands of Indians: the Athabaskan-speaking Upper Umpqua, Takelman speaking Cow Creek Band of Umpqua, the Yoncalla in the north, the Quich from Scottsburg/Wells Creek to the coast. The Quich spoke a language distantly related to the Coos Bay languages. In the Great Flood of 1862, the Umpqua River had the largest flood known to all of the area's Indians at the time, water was 10 to 15 feet higher than the 1853 flood, it rose from November 3 to December 3, subsided for two days rose again until December 9. At Fort Umpqua, communication up river was cut off above Scottsburg, the river was full of floating houses, barns and produce. At Port Orford, the Coquille River swept away settlers' property. Great damage occurred on the Rogue River and on other small streams; the Umpqua River boasts some of the world's best fly-fishing, salmon fishing, sturgeon fishing. Umpqua river fishing is famous for its small-mouth bass, striped bass, shad population.
There are several campgrounds and RV parks on the Umpqua River, some of which offer riverfront RV camping, boat ramps, fish cleaning stations, hot showers for guests to use. List of rivers of Oregon List of longest streams of Oregon Umpqua Basin Umpqua River in the Oregon Encyclopedia Oregon Coastal Atlas: Umpqua River Estuary The Umpqua Basin Explorer from Oregon State University Floods of November 1996 through January 1997 in the Umpqua River Basin, OregonUnited States Geological Survey
A river is a natural flowing watercourse freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, brook and rill. There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features, although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always: the language is vague. Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle. Potamology is the scientific study of rivers, while limnology is the study of inland waters in general. Most of the major cities of the world are situated on the banks of rivers, as they are, or were, used as a source of water, for obtaining food, for transport, as borders, as a defensive measure, as a source of hydropower to drive machinery, for bathing, as a means of disposing of waste.
A river begins at a source, follows a path called a course, ends at a mouth or mouths. The water in a river is confined to a channel, made up of a stream bed between banks. In larger rivers there is also a wider floodplain shaped by flood-waters over-topping the channel. Floodplains may be wide in relation to the size of the river channel; this distinction between river channel and floodplain can be blurred in urban areas where the floodplain of a river channel can become developed by housing and industry. Rivers can flow down mountains, through valleys or along plains, can create canyons or gorges; the term upriver refers to the direction towards the source of the river, i.e. against the direction of flow. The term downriver describes the direction towards the mouth of the river, in which the current flows; the term left bank refers to the left bank in the direction of right bank to the right. The river channel contains a single stream of water, but some rivers flow as several interconnecting streams of water, producing a braided river.
Extensive braided rivers are now found in only a few regions worldwide, such as the South Island of New Zealand. They occur on peneplains and some of the larger river deltas. Anastamosing rivers are quite rare, they have multiple sinuous channels carrying large volumes of sediment. There are rare cases of river bifurcation in which a river divides and the resultant flows ending in different seas. An example is the bifurcation of Nerodime River in Kosovo. A river flowing in its channel is a source of energy which acts on the river channel to change its shape and form. In 1757, the German hydrologist Albert Brahms empirically observed that the submerged weight of objects that may be carried away by a river is proportional to the sixth power of the river flow speed; this formulation is sometimes called Airy's law. Thus, if the speed of flow is doubled, the flow would dislodge objects with 64 times as much submerged weight. In mountainous torrential zones this can be seen as erosion channels through hard rocks and the creation of sands and gravels from the destruction of larger rocks.
A river valley, created from a U-shaped glaciated valley, can easily be identified by the V-shaped channel that it has carved. In the middle reaches where a river flows over flatter land, meanders may form through erosion of the river banks and deposition on the inside of bends. Sometimes the river will cut off a loop, shortening the channel and forming an oxbow lake or billabong. Rivers that carry large amounts of sediment may develop conspicuous deltas at their mouths. Rivers whose mouths are in saline tidal waters may form estuaries. Throughout the course of the river, the total volume of water transported downstream will be a combination of the free water flow together with a substantial volume flowing through sub-surface rocks and gravels that underlie the river and its floodplain. For many rivers in large valleys, this unseen component of flow may exceed the visible flow. Most but not all rivers flow on the surface. Subterranean rivers flow underground in caverns; such rivers are found in regions with limestone geologic formations.
Subglacial streams are the braided rivers that flow at the beds of glaciers and ice sheets, permitting meltwater to be discharged at the front of the glacier. Because of the gradient in pressure due to the overlying weight of the glacier, such streams can flow uphill. An intermittent river only flows and can be dry for several years at a time; these rivers are found in regions with limited or variable rainfall, or can occur because of geologic conditions such as a permeable river bed. Some ephemeral rivers flow during the summer months but not in the winter; such rivers are fed from chalk aquifers which recharge from winter rainfall. In England these rivers are called bournes and give their name to places such as Bournemouth and Eastbourne. In humid regions, the location where flow begins in the smallest tributary streams moves upstream in response to precipitation and downstream in its absence or when active summer vegetation diverts water for evapotrans