The Vedder River, called the Chilliwack River above Vedder Crossing, is a river in the Canadian province of British Columbia and the U. S. state of Washington. The name Chilliwack comes from the Halkomelem word Tcil'Qe'uk, meaning "valley of many streams". Originating as the Chilliwack River in Washington's North Cascades National Park, the river begins at Hannegan Pass and flows north across the Canada–United States border and into Chilliwack Lake; the river flows through Hells Gorge, a deep, dangerous-to-access gorge just below the river's headwaters, home of a waterfall that the river drops over. The river picks up the Little Chilliwack River before crossing the border. There is a large sandy beach located where the river enters the lake, a popular place for people to party at; the river exits the north end of the lake and flows west via the Chilliwack River Valley to emerge on the Fraser Lowland on the south side of the City of Chilliwack. At Vedder Crossing, the river is joined by the Sweltzer River before flowing under a bridge at which its name changes to the Vedder River, after, flows west and north to join the Sumas River just before that river's confluence with the Fraser River at the northeast end of Sumas Mountain.
The river crosses the Fraser floodplain from Vedder Crossing to its confluence with the Sumas via the Vedder Canal, which prevents the river's considerable spring freshet from flooding the surrounding farmlands and towns, and, part of the drainage system that turned Sumas Lake into Sumas Prairie. Downstream from the Vedder Crossing Bridge, the Vedder River marks the boundary between Yarrow to the south and Greendale to the north; the Chilliwack River flowed north from Vedder Crossing, over a broad alluvial fan to the Fraser River. In 1875 heavy rains caused a logjam that diverted the river into two small streams, called Vedder Creek and Luckakuk Creek; this caused hardship for the area's farmers. In 1882 a new logjam was deliberately created which caused the waters of several streams to shift course toward the west, flowing into the now-drained Sumas Lake. A freshet in 1894 caused the new course to become permanent. In the early 20th century the diverted river was channelized. Today the Chilliwack River changes into the Vedder River at Vedder Crossing, becomes the Vedder Canal farther downstream.
The Vedder Canal was created in the 1920s as part of the effort to drain Sumas Lake. The former course of the Chilliwack River below Vedder Crossing is now known as Chilliwack Creek, which flows north to the Fraser River; the Chilliwack River was used by the Northwest Boundary Survey of 1857-1862 as a means of accessing the 49th parallel north in order to survey and map the border between American and British-Canadian sovereignty. A number of the Chilliwack's tributaries cross the 49th parallel, including Liumchen Creek, Tamihi Creek, Damfino Creek, Slesse Creek, Nesakwatch Creek, from Chilliwack Lake, Klahailhu Creek and Depot Creek. Both American and British surveying parties established base camps on Chilliwack Lake from which they sent field parties through the Chilliwack drainage and east to the Skagit River drainage. In addition, the Whatcom Trail followed much of the Chilliwack River's course; the Vedder River Campground, operated by The Fraser Valley Regional District, is open from April 1 to October 31.
The Vedder-Chilliwack River is well known for its runs of chinook, chum and sockeye salmon in the fall, along with winter and spring steelhead fishing. The 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games' rowing events were held on the Vedder Canal. Canadians Bobby Williams in single sculls, Donald Guest & Lawrence Stephan in double sculls won bronze medals. Canada won the gold medal in eights rowing. Tributaries in the United States Indian Creek Bear Creek Little Chilliwack RiverTributaries in Canada Centre Creek Nesakwatch Creek Foley Creek Chipmunk Creek Slesse Creek Tamihi Creek Liumchen Creek Sweltzer River Vedder River, Yarrow, B. C. List of tributaries of the Fraser River List of British Columbia rivers List of rivers in Washington
The Ventura River, in western Ventura County in southern California, United States, flows 16.2 miles from its headwaters to the Pacific Ocean. The smallest of the three major rivers in Ventura County, it flows through the steeply sloped, narrow Ventura Valley, with its final 0.7 miles through the broader Ventura River estuary, which extends from where it crosses under a 101 Freeway bridge through to the Pacific Ocean. The Ventura River watershed encompasses 226 square miles consisting of steep mountains and foothills, with altitudes ranging from 6,010 feet to sea level. Valley floors are home to farms. Conditions in much of the watershed remain natural and undeveloped, with 57% of its land area in protected status. Most of the watershed's primary streams and drainages are unchannelized, though the natural hydrologic patterns have been modified by two dams and three levees. Developed land comprises only about 13% of the total land area in the watershed; the northern half of the watershed lies within Los Padres National Forest.
The watershed's southern half has agriculture as the dominant land use, with irrigated citrus and avocados as the primary crops while a significant area of land is used for cattle grazing. The populated area includes a number of unincorporated communities; the smaller of the two cities, lies within the watershed, 13-mile inland at an elevation of 746 feet. Only 13% of the larger city of Ventura lies within the watershed, adjacent to the coast on the lower stretch of the Ventura River; the population of the watershed is small and the rate of growth low. The population is 44,140, which represents just 5.4% of Ventura County's population. The population is 58% white, 37% Hispanic or Latino, 2% Asian, 3% other races. Income varies and several areas qualify as disadvantaged or disadvantaged communities; the river flows 16.2 miles from its headwaters through to the Pacific Ocean. The smallest of the three major rivers in Ventura County, the Ventura River's source stream is Matilija Creek, from its confluence with North Fork Matilija Creek.
Matilija Creek is Ventura River's highest volume tributary, followed by San Antonio Creek, which joins the Ventura River from the east halfway to the ocean. Much of the Ventura River's route is contained by the steeply sloped sides of the narrow Ventura Valley, with its final 0.7 miles through the broader Ventura River estuary, which extends from where it crosses under a 101 Freeway bridge through to the Pacific Ocean. Rainfall varies geographically and from year to year. Median annual precipitation is 14.12 inches or 359 millimetres in the lower watershed, 19.20 inches or 488 millimetres in the middle watershed, 28.74 inches or 730 millimetres in the upper watershed. However in the subhumid upper basin, rainfall is infrequent – falling on as few days in a year as in hot, arid Phoenix, Arizona – but when rain does fall it can be heavy with totals of 20 inches or 510 millimetres in a week not uncommon in the middle and upper basins. Cycles of drought and flood are the norm: as an illustration, in the main settlement of Ojai since 1906, 67 percent of the years have had less than the mean rainfall.
Many parts of the Ventura River stream network are dry during much of the year. Surface water disappears underground in some stream reaches. Rainfall in the Matilija Wilderness, the river's headwaters, is the highest in Ventura County, with average annual rainfall, over twice that of rainfall at the coast; the steep terrain of the Ventura River watershed, coupled with intense downpours that can occur in its upper portions, result in flash flood conditions where floodwaters rise and fall in a matter of hours. Major or moderate floods have occurred once every five years on average since 1933; the most damaging flood recorded in the Ventura River watershed occurred in 1969. The watershed above Ojai received 43 inches of rain in nine days in January; the floodwaters and associated debris flooded homes in Live Oak Acres. Much agricultural land citrus groves, was damaged or destroyed. All over Ventura County, transportation facilities, including roads and railroad tracks, were damaged; the wastewater treatment plant below Foster Park was damaged and dumped raw sewage into the Ventura River.
In addition, sewer trunk lines were broken along the Ventura San Antonio Creek. Untreated sewage polluted the beach; the capacity of the Matilija reservoir was reduced by siltation from the flood. Limited land development and large areas of protected habitat in the watershed help support surface water, clean compared with more developed areas in the region. However, all of the watershed major waterbodies are on the Clean Water Act Section 303 list of impaired waterbodies. Surface waters are impaired for a number of factors, including trash, water diversion/pumping, eutrophic conditions, low dissolved oxygen, fish barriers, bacteria and total dissolved solids; the estuary has been on the Clean Water Act 303 list for trash impairment for 10+ years. In 2008 the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board adopted the Ventura River Estuary Trash Total Maximum Daily Load to address the impairment and establish time schedule orders to improve
Vermillion River (South Dakota)
The Vermillion River is a tributary of the Missouri River, 96 miles long, in eastern South Dakota in the United States. The origin of the river name is Waséoyuze Lakota for "place where Vermilion is obtained", it is formed by the confluence of West Fork Vermillion River. The East Fork 103 miles long, rises in Lake Whitewood in Kingsbury County on the Coteau des Prairies; the West Fork 108 miles long, rises in Miner County. Both forks flow south parallel, joining east of Parker; the combined river flows south and joins the Missouri east of the James River Highlands and 5 miles south of Vermillion. Its tributaries include Baptist Creek; the Vermillion River drains about 2,180 square miles of the southwestern edge of the Coteau des Prairies. Once per 3.5 years, the Vermillion runs dry. The Vermillion is a north-south river situated between the Big Sioux James River. List of rivers of South Dakota List of tributaries of the Missouri River James River Big Sioux River Siouxland
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Verdigris River is a tributary of the Arkansas River in southeastern Kansas and northeastern Oklahoma in the United States. It is about 310 miles long. Via the Arkansas, it is part of the Mississippi River watershed; the Verdigris is formed near Madison, Kansas, by the convergence of two short headwaters streams, its North and South forks, flows southward throughout its course. South of Coffeyville, the river enters Oklahoma, it joins the Arkansas River near Muskogee, about a mile upstream of the mouth of the Neosho River. The area of convergence of the three rivers Arkansas and Neosho is called "Three Forks"; the river is mentioned in accounts by Thomas Nuttall. Fur traders had numerous posts along its route where they met with Native Americans to exchange goods for furs; the river is mentioned in the novel Little House on the Prairie by Laura Ingalls Wilder, of her memories when her family moved to Kansas from Wisconsin. The name is derived from the Spanish words verde, meaning "green," and gris, meaning "grey."
According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, the name may be derived from a gray-green substance resembling a copper ore, which tinged the water. In the US treaty of 1834 with the Cherokee Indians, the river was named as a part of the boundary of their lands in the Indian Territory. In July 2007, Coffeyville Resources suffered flooding at its refinery at Coffeyville by the Verdigris River, causing a spill of about 1,700 barrels of crude oil; the company made efforts to ameliorate the damage. Several dams built by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers cause the Verdigris to form Toronto Lake near Toronto and Oologah Lake near Oologah, Oklahoma. More dams and reservoirs are downstream along the Arkansas River. From just north of Catoosa, Oklahoma to the river's confluence with the Arkansas, barge traffic is supported on the river via the McClellan-Kerr Navigation System; this consists of a series of locks and dams on the Verdigris rivers. In Kansas, the Verdigris collects the Fall River at the town of Neodesha and the Elk River at the town of Independence.
In Oklahoma it collects the Caney River in Rogers County. Altoona, Kansas Benedict, Kansas Catoosa, Oklahoma Coffeyville, Kansas Independence, Kansas Madison, Kansas Neodesha, Kansas Okay, Oklahoma Oologah, Oklahoma Talala, Oklahoma Toronto, Kansas Nowata, Oklahoma Virgil, Kansas Verdigris, Oklahoma List of Kansas rivers List of Oklahoma rivers Port of Catoosa Nowata U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Verdigris River
A river is a natural flowing watercourse freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, brook and rill. There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features, although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always: the language is vague. Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle. Potamology is the scientific study of rivers, while limnology is the study of inland waters in general. Most of the major cities of the world are situated on the banks of rivers, as they are, or were, used as a source of water, for obtaining food, for transport, as borders, as a defensive measure, as a source of hydropower to drive machinery, for bathing, as a means of disposing of waste.
A river begins at a source, follows a path called a course, ends at a mouth or mouths. The water in a river is confined to a channel, made up of a stream bed between banks. In larger rivers there is also a wider floodplain shaped by flood-waters over-topping the channel. Floodplains may be wide in relation to the size of the river channel; this distinction between river channel and floodplain can be blurred in urban areas where the floodplain of a river channel can become developed by housing and industry. Rivers can flow down mountains, through valleys or along plains, can create canyons or gorges; the term upriver refers to the direction towards the source of the river, i.e. against the direction of flow. The term downriver describes the direction towards the mouth of the river, in which the current flows; the term left bank refers to the left bank in the direction of right bank to the right. The river channel contains a single stream of water, but some rivers flow as several interconnecting streams of water, producing a braided river.
Extensive braided rivers are now found in only a few regions worldwide, such as the South Island of New Zealand. They occur on peneplains and some of the larger river deltas. Anastamosing rivers are quite rare, they have multiple sinuous channels carrying large volumes of sediment. There are rare cases of river bifurcation in which a river divides and the resultant flows ending in different seas. An example is the bifurcation of Nerodime River in Kosovo. A river flowing in its channel is a source of energy which acts on the river channel to change its shape and form. In 1757, the German hydrologist Albert Brahms empirically observed that the submerged weight of objects that may be carried away by a river is proportional to the sixth power of the river flow speed; this formulation is sometimes called Airy's law. Thus, if the speed of flow is doubled, the flow would dislodge objects with 64 times as much submerged weight. In mountainous torrential zones this can be seen as erosion channels through hard rocks and the creation of sands and gravels from the destruction of larger rocks.
A river valley, created from a U-shaped glaciated valley, can easily be identified by the V-shaped channel that it has carved. In the middle reaches where a river flows over flatter land, meanders may form through erosion of the river banks and deposition on the inside of bends. Sometimes the river will cut off a loop, shortening the channel and forming an oxbow lake or billabong. Rivers that carry large amounts of sediment may develop conspicuous deltas at their mouths. Rivers whose mouths are in saline tidal waters may form estuaries. Throughout the course of the river, the total volume of water transported downstream will be a combination of the free water flow together with a substantial volume flowing through sub-surface rocks and gravels that underlie the river and its floodplain. For many rivers in large valleys, this unseen component of flow may exceed the visible flow. Most but not all rivers flow on the surface. Subterranean rivers flow underground in caverns; such rivers are found in regions with limestone geologic formations.
Subglacial streams are the braided rivers that flow at the beds of glaciers and ice sheets, permitting meltwater to be discharged at the front of the glacier. Because of the gradient in pressure due to the overlying weight of the glacier, such streams can flow uphill. An intermittent river only flows and can be dry for several years at a time; these rivers are found in regions with limited or variable rainfall, or can occur because of geologic conditions such as a permeable river bed. Some ephemeral rivers flow during the summer months but not in the winter; such rivers are fed from chalk aquifers which recharge from winter rainfall. In England these rivers are called bournes and give their name to places such as Bournemouth and Eastbourne. In humid regions, the location where flow begins in the smallest tributary streams moves upstream in response to precipitation and downstream in its absence or when active summer vegetation diverts water for evapotrans
Vermilion River (Louisiana)
The Vermilion River is a 70.0-mile-long bayou in southern Louisiana in the United States. It is formed on the common boundary of Lafayette and St. Martin parishes by a confluence of small bayous flowing from St. Landry Parish, flows southward through Lafayette and Vermilion parishes, past the cities of Lafayette and Abbeville. At the port of Intracoastal City, the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway crosses the river before the latter flows into Vermilion Bay, an inlet of the Gulf of Mexico; the river originates at Bayou Fusilier, fed by Bayou Teche. The river is a "consequent stream" or a "tidal river", which means that the Vermilion was formed from the bottom up; the river was created by Vermilion Bay: tides and other natural actions in the bay eroded the marshes and other features of the landscape as the river crept northward. This process brought the channel that would one day become the Vermilion River as far north as Lafayette, Louisiana. Much a distributary of Bayou Teche made its way south and linked up with the consequent stream, forming a true north-south flowing river.
During times of heavy-rain events, parts of the Vermilion will experience negative discharge, reversing direction and flowing north. At the Surrey Street stream gauge in Lafayette, maximum historic positive discharge was 6,280 ft³/s on July 17, 1989. Maximum negative discharge, -11,300 ft³/s, occurred on August 13, 2016 during the 2016 Louisiana floods; the reverse-flow phenomenon occurs because the watershed areas in the city of Lafayette are developed. Rainfall runoff from this urban area enters the Vermilion River with larger volumes and at a faster rate than runoff upstream; this raises the water level in the Vermilion River along the southern areas of Lafayette. This rise in water levels sometimes exceeds the water level in reaches upstream of Lafayette, thus causing the reverse-flow effect; when water levels in the Vermilion River exceed certain stages, water begins to enter the Bayou Tortue Swamp Area. This swamp has a great capacity to hold water, which contributes to the reverse flow effect.
The water from the Vermilion River enters Bayou Tortue Swamp through two coulees. Coulee Crow and Bayou Tortue are located upstream of the Surrey Street bridge on the Vermilion River. In its early stage of development, the only point in the city where water transportation could be secured was at the site of the Pinhook Bridge. Property owners and businesses located there. In years, steamboats ran on the bayou. However, low water levels and submerged logs hampered their ability to travel; the importance of the Vermilion as a means of transportation and commerce declined with the introduction of the railroad and the paving in 1936 of all highways leading into Lafayette. The Army Corps of Engineers had a significant impact on Bayou Vermilion, their dredging, completed in 1944, gave the bayou a bottom width of 100 feet. Water from the Vermilion River is used for rice irrigation and for the dilution of municipal and industrial effluents. A pumping station operated by the Teche-Vermilion Freshwater District was built on the Atchafalaya River West Protection Levee near Krotz Springs with the capacity to pump up to 1,040 cubic feet of fresh water per second into Bayou Courtableu and into the Vermilion River.
The Teche-Vermilion Freshwater Project began in 1976 and was completed in 1982. In the 1970s, the Vermilion gained a reputation as the most polluted river in the United States. Since that time, improved sewage treatment, low flow streamflow augmentation, regular in-stream trash collection have changed the public perception to that of a celebrated recreational resource. A Bayou Vermilion Paddle Trail map has been developed to facilitate and enhance the public’s enjoyment of Bayou Vermilion. Lafayette Parish Stekey, Louisiana Pont Des Mouton, Louisiana Anse La Butte, Louisiana Long Bridge, Louisiana Lafayette, Louisiana Milton, Louisiana Vermilion Parish Abbeville, Louisiana Perry, Louisiana Rose Hill, Louisiana Banker, Louisiana List of Louisiana rivers Columbia Gazetteer of North America entry DeLorme. Louisiana Atlas & Gazetteer. Yarmouth, Maine: DeLorme. ISBN 0-89933-286-2. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Vermilion River, retrieved 6 February 2006