The Wabash River is a 503-mile-long river in Ohio and Indiana, United States, that flows from the headwaters near the middle of Ohio's western border northwest southwest across northern Indiana turning south along the Illinois border where the southern portion forms the Indiana-Illinois border before flowing into the Ohio River. It is the largest northern tributary of the Ohio River. From the dam near Huntington, Indiana, to its terminus at the Ohio River, the Wabash flows for 411 miles, its watershed drains most of Indiana. The Tippecanoe River, White River, Embarras River and Little Wabash River are major tributaries; the river's name comes from an Illini Indian word meaning "water over white stones". The Wabash is the state river of Indiana, subject of the state song "On the Banks of the Wabash, Far Away" by Paul Dresser. Two counties, eight townships in Illinois and Ohio; the name "Wabash" is an English spelling of the French name for the river, "Ouabache". French traders named the river after the Miami-Illinois word for the river, waapaahšiiki, meaning "it shines white", "pure white", or "water over white stones".
The Miami name reflected the clarity of the river in Huntington County, Indiana where the river bottom is limestone. As the Laurentide ice sheet began to retreat from present day Northern Indiana and Northwest Ohio between 14,000 and 15,000 years ago, it receded into three distinct lobes; the eastern or Erie Lobe sat behind the Fort Wayne Moraine. Meltwater from the glacier fed into two ice-marginal streams, which became the St. Joseph and St. Marys Rivers, their combined discharge was the primary source of water for the proglacial Wabash River system. As the Erie Lobe of the glacier continued to retreat its meltwater was temporarily trapped between the ice front to the east and the Fort Wayne Moraine to the west, formed proglacial Lake Maumee, the ancestor of modern Lake Erie. Around 11,000 years ago the waters of Lake Maumee became deep enough that it breached a "sag" or weak spot in the Fort Wayne Moraine; this caused a catastrophic draining of the lake which in turn scoured a 1 to 2 mi wide valley known as the Wabash-Erie Channel or "sluiceway".
The Little River flows through this channel and U. S. 24 traverses it between Fort Huntington. The valley is the largest topographical feature in Indiana; when the ice melted from the region, new outlets for Lake Maumee's water opened up at elevations lower than the Wabash-Erie Channel. While the St. Joseph and St. Marys Rivers continued to flow through the channel, Lake Maumee no longer did. Now a low-lying marshy bit of terrain lay in between, it is not known for certain when, but at some point in the distant past the St. Joseph and St. Marys Rivers jumped their banks and flooded the marshy ground of the Fort Wayne Outlet; the discharge of this unusual flood was enough to cut across the outlet and come into contact with the headwaters of the Maumee River. Once this happened, the flood waters rushed to the east into the Maumee River, their erosive force was enough that the new channel cut across the Fort Wayne Outlet into the Maumee River since it was at a lower elevation than that of the sluiceway.
This meant that when the flood waters receded, the sluiceway was permanently abandoned by the two rivers. As a result of capturing them both, the Maumee was converted from a minor creek to a large river. Once again, river waters flowed through the Fort Wayne Outlet, but now they flowed eastward, toward Lake Erie, instead of westward. Following this event, the branch of the Wabash River that originates along the Wabash Moraine near Bluffton became the system's main course and source. For part of its course the Wabash follows the path of the pre-glacial Teays River; the river has shifted course several times along the Indiana and Illinois border, creating cutoffs where parts of the river are in either Indiana or Illinois. However, both states regard the middle of the river as the state border; the Wabash was first mapped by French explorers to the Mississippi in the latter half of the 17th century, including the sections now known as the Ohio River. Although the Wabash is today considered a tributary of the Ohio, the Ohio was considered a tributary of the Wabash until the mid-18th century.
This is because the French traders traveled north and south from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico via the Wabash. The United States has fought five colonial and frontier-era battles on or near the river: the Battle of Vincennes, St. Clair's Defeat, the Attack on Fort Recovery, the Battle of Tippecanoe, the Siege of Fort Harrison. Different conflicts have been referred to as the "Battle of the Wabash". A 329-acre remnant of the old-growth forests that once bordered the Wabash can be found at Beall Woods State Park, near Mount Carmel, Illinois. In the mid-19th century, the Wabash and Erie Canal, one of the longest canals in the world, was built along much the river. Portions are still accessible in modern times; the Wabash River between Terre Haute and the Ohio River was navigable by large ships during much of the 19th century, was a regular stop for steamships. By the late 19th century, erosion due to farming and runoff made the Wabash impassable to such ships. Dredging could have resolved the proble
The Wallowa River is a tributary of the Grande Ronde River 55 miles long, in northeastern Oregon in the United States. It drains a valley on the Columbia Plateau in the northeast corner of the state north of Wallowa Mountains; the river begins at the confluence of its east and west forks, which rise in southern Wallowa County, in the Eagle Cap Wilderness of the Wallowa–Whitman National Forest. It flows northwest through the Wallowa Valley, past the communities of Joseph and Wallowa, it receives the Minam River from the left at the hamlet of Minam. Continuing north another 10 miles, it joins the Grande Ronde along the Wallowa–Union county line about 10 miles north-northeast of Elgin and about 81 miles from the larger river's confluence with the Snake River; the Wallowa Valley was home to Chief Joseph's band of the Nez Perce Tribe. Chief Joseph asked the first white settlers to leave when they arrived in 1871; the U. S. government expelled the tribe and seized their property and livestock in 1877, when non-Indian farmers and ranchers wanted to settle the fertile Wallowa valley.
The tribe was barred from returning to their homeland by the government after repeated petitions. The tribal members were shipped in unheated box cars to Indian Territory to be placed in a prisoner of war camp never to see their home again; the Wallowa River supports populations of steelhead, spring Chinook salmon, mountain whitefish among other species. Sockeye salmon were extirpated from the Wallowa River when a small dam was constructed at the outlet of Wallowa Lake in the headwaters of the river; the dam was constructed to raise the level of the lake to store water for irrigation. List of longest streams of Oregon List of rivers of Oregon Grande Ronde Model Watershed National Wild and Scenic Rivers System Media related to Wallowa River at Wikimedia Commons
The Wailuā River is a major river on the island of Kauaʻi in the U. S. state of Hawaii. At 20 miles long, it is longest river, as well as Hawaii's 3rd longest river, it is formed by the confluence of its North and South forks just west of Wailua and enters the Pacific Ocean at 22°2′42″N 159°20′11″W. It is the only navigable river in the Hawaiian Islands, it is a center of activity for locals and visitors in the form of boat tours to Fern Grotto and water skiing. The North Fork begins at the Mount Waiʻaleʻale at coordinates 22°3′35″N 159°29′33″W and flows 12.2 miles east to its junction with the South Fork. The South Fork forms at the junction of several streams southwest of Hanamaulu and flows 8.1 miles east, over Wailua Falls, to its junction with the North Fork. Other points of interest along the river system include a bird refuge, Kamokila Hawaiian Village, Secret Falls and a pool which included a rope swing. Wailua, Hawaii Wailua Falls Wailua River State Park List of rivers of Hawaii U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Wailua River Pukui and Elbert.
"lookup of Wilua". on Place Names of Hawai'i. Ulukau, the Hawaiian Electronic Library, University of Hawaii. Retrieved 2009-11-30
The Watauga River is a large stream of western North Carolina and East Tennessee. It is 78.5 miles long with its headwaters on the slopes of Grandfather Mountain and Peak Mountain in Watauga County, North Carolina. The Watauga River rises from a spring near the base of Peak Mountain at Linville Gap in Avery County, North Carolina; the spring emanates from the western side of the Tennessee Valley Divide, which is, at this location, congruent with the Eastern Continental Divide. On the other side of the divides at Linville Gap are the headwaters of the Linville River in the Upper Catawba Watershed. Waters of the Linville River reach the Atlantic Ocean, whereas waters of the Watauga River reach the Gulf of Mexico; the river flows across Watauga County, North Carolina crossing the Tennessee state line at Johnson County into Carter County and ends at its confluence with the Holston River's South Fork on the Washington/Sullivan County border. After crossing into Johnson County, the Watauga River is first impounded by the Tennessee Valley Authority Watauga Dam, creating the 6,430-acre Watauga Lake.
This impoundment receives two important tributaries: the Elk River, Roan Creek. Watauga Lake is bridged by Tennessee State Route 67 over Butler Memorial Bridge just as the watercourse enters Carter County, Tennessee; the Appalachian Trail crosses the river on Watauga Dam. Nearly 3 miles below Watauga Dam, on the Horseshoe section of the Watauga River, is the TVA Wilbur Dam, which forms a much smaller but deep reservoir known as Wilbur Lake. TVA releases 130 cubic feet per second of discharged water back into the Watauga River during the summer months. Below Wilbur Dam the river flows north and west into Carter County where it forms the northern limits of Elizabethton, where the Watauga receives the Doe River. Farther downstream on the Watauga River at the boundary between Carter County and Washington County is the old TVA Watauga Steam Plant. A portion of the boundary line between Washington County and Sullivan County is formed by the Watauga River. Boone Dam is located below the slack water confluence of both South Fork Holston River and the downstream end of the Watauga River.
The distance afloat between the TVA Watauga Reservoir and Boone Lake is 20.6 miles. The true origin of the name of the Watauga River is lost to antiquity. Most documents agree that the name is of Native American origin, though which nation, tribe or language it descends from, its meaning, are in question. A North Carolina State University web page says the word "Watauga" is a Native-American word meaning "the land beyond". Another source states Watauga is derived from a Cherokee word, more written Watagi. Other common spellings include Watoda and Whatoga, yet another source suggests the word "Watauga" comes from the Yuchi phrase meaning "bass many." However, local reference to the name is attributed as meaning "beautiful river" or "beautiful water". There were at least two Native American villages so named, including one at present-day Elizabethton, which became known as "Watauga Old Fields", first explored by Daniel Boone and James Robertson in 1759. Another village called Watauga was located on the Little Tennessee River near Franklin, North Carolina.
The original settlers of Nashville, set out from the Watauga River area, called the Watauga Association, during the American Revolution when they realized that the British Proclamation of 1763 forbidding settlement of its colonists west of the Blue Ridge Mountains was unenforceable. Wilbur Dam is the site of first hydroelectric dam constructed in Tennessee, going online with power production and distribution in 1912. Wilbur Dam was constructed by the former Tennessee Electric Power Company, a owned utility purchased by TVA in the late 1930s. Elizabethton acquired the moniker "City of Power" because of the early local access to hydro-generated electricity from Wilbur Dam. Whitewater rafting, canoeing, fly fishing, angling with fishing reels are all popular recreation activities pursued on the Watauga River. Rainbow trout, brown trout, striped bass are all caught in the Watauga River; the Watauga River downstream of the TVA dams draws commercial rafting outfitters from both northeast Tennessee and western North Carolina during the summer months and commercial fishing guides throughout the year.
The picturesque Class II+ Bee Cliff Rapids on the Watauga River are found downstream between Wilbur Dam and the Siam Bridge, southeast of Elizabethton, Tennessee. For commercial whitewater rafting and kayaking on the Watauga River, the most popular Carter County "put-in" is downstream of the TVA Wilbur Dam, the most popular "take-out" is 2 to 2½ hours downstream at the Blackbottom riverside portion of the city linear trail park in Elizabethton; the distance afloat for paddlers from the put-in at Wilbur Dam to the Blackbottom take-out is seven miles, with landmarks along the Watauga River providing a good estimate of time and distance traveled. The Watauga River has a section of Class IV-V whitewater popular with expert kayakers, upstream of Watauga Lake and across the state line in North Carolina; this section requires significant rainfall to bring it up to runnable levels. It features continuous steep boulder bed rapids dropping up to 150 feet per mile, several falls and ledges only runnable by expert paddlers.
The Tennessee Va
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Walker Creek (West Virginia)
Walker Creek is a tributary of the Little Kanawha River, 15.6 miles long, in western West Virginia in the United States. Via the Little Kanawha and Ohio rivers, it is part of the watershed of the Mississippi River, draining an area of 32 square miles on the unglaciated portion of the Allegheny Plateau. Walker Creek’s course and drainage area are in eastern Wood County, it rises 3 miles east of the community of Deerwalk and flows southeastward, through the community of Walker, to join the Little Kanawha River 1 mile southeast of the community of Kanawha, 11.3 miles upstream of the Little Kanawha River's mouth in Parkersburg. According to the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection 91% of the Walker Creek watershed is forested deciduous. 8% is used for pasture and agriculture. A portion of the creek’s course near its headwaters was impounded in 1979 for recreational purposes, forming the 41-acre Mountwood Park Lake. Portions of the creek’s lower course are paralleled by the North Bend Rail Trail, a former line of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad.
According to the Geographic Names Information System, Walker Creek has been known by the name "Walker’s Creek." List of rivers of West Virginia
The Walker River is a river in west-central Nevada in the United States 62 miles long. Fed principally by snowmelt from the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, it drains an arid portion of the Great Basin southeast of Reno and flows into the endorheic basin of Walker Lake; the river is an important source of water for irrigation in its course through Nevada. The river was named for explorer Joseph Reddeford Walker; the Walker River is formed in southern Lyon County, 9 miles south of Yerington, by the confluence of the East Walker and West Walker rivers. The West Walker River originates at Tower Lake in Mono County, California, 9,623 ft above sea level in the Stanislaus National Forest, it flows north through a rugged canyon which provides the route for U. S. Route 395, it emerges into Antelope Valley, where some water is diverted to the Topaz Lake reservoir, enters Nevada in Douglas County and turns northeast. It flows through Hoye Canyon into Lyon County across the Smith Valley, past Smith, through Wilson Canyon into the Mason Valley where it joins the East Walker.
The East Walker River begins in Mono County, California in the Bridgeport Valley, fed by several Sierra streams originating in the Hoover Wilderness including Buckeye, Robinson and Virginia Creeks. After forming the Bridgeport Reservoir at the town of Bridgeport, the East Walker flows northeast into Nevada in Lyon County, receives Rough Creek and flows north, along the eastern edge of the Toiyabe National Forest before its confluence with the West Walker. Below the forks, the Walker River flows north through the Mason Valley, past Yerington, into central Lyon County, it turns to the southeast around the north end of the Wassuk Range, flowing through the Walker River Indian Reservation where it is dammed to create Weber Reservoir. It flows past Schurz; the river seasonally continues south to empty into Walker Lake 20 miles north-northwest of Hawthorne. The Walker River discharged about 461 cubic feet per second of water into Walker Lake, although this varies between wet and dry years. Large irrigation diversions have reduced the average flow into Walker Lake to about 104 cubic feet per second.
As a result, the level of Walker lake has dropped by 160 feet between 1882 and 2010, with about 20 feet of that occurring between 1996 and 2010. The lake has lost more than half its original surface area, 80 percent of its water volume; the Walker River's endorheic drainage basin covers an area of 3,082 square miles, 80 percent of the total Walker Lake watershed of 3,917 square miles. The U. S. Geological Survey divides the basin into 4 sub-basins: West Walker of 992 sq mi East Walker of 1,080 sq mi Walker River of 1,010 sq mi Walker Lake of 835 sq mi The Walker River headwaters originate along a large section of the Sierra Crest at elevations of 12,000 feet or more; the southern boundary of the Walker River drainage basin forms the northern border of Yosemite National Park. The Sweetwater Mountains lie in between the West Walker and East Walker Rivers, the Pine Nut Mountains lie northwest of the West Walker; the lower Desert Mountains form the northern edge of the Walker River watershed. The Wassuk Range lies in between Walker Lake in the east.
The river irrigates a total of 132,063 acres, of which about 38 percent is in California and 62 percent in Nevada. Of the irrigated areas, 23 percent are in the Bridgeport Valley, 15 percent are in the Antelope Valley, 15 percent in the Smith Valley, 44 percent in the Mason Valley, 2 percent on the Walker River Indian Reservation. Average annual consumptive use between 1939 and 1993 was 258,000 acre feet, leaving only 76,000 acre feet to flow to Walker Lake in wet years such as 1997–98. Sedimentary evidence suggests that the Walker River has changed course in the past, flowing northwest through the Adrian Valley from a point near present-day Wabuska into the Carson River. There were some anecdotal observations of this phenomenon during the early 20th century. During these course changes the Walker River ceased causing it to dry up. Sediment deposits around Walker Lake indicate that this has happened at least twice in the previous 13,000 years although this may have been due to severe drought.
The first humans to inhabit the Walker River basin may have arrived as early as 11,000 years ago. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, the Walker River was part of the territory of the Northern Paiute people; the first European to see the Walker River was Hudson's Bay Company fur trapper Peter Skene Ogden, who had discovered the Humboldt River in 1828 and returned in 1829 to trap beaver south of the Humboldt Sink, although records are scant. In 1833, Joseph R. Walker led a party sent by Captain Benjamin Bonneville, to find a route from the Great Salt Lake to California via the Humboldt River, the Humboldt Sink, the Carson Sink, up into the Sierra Nevada by either the Carson River or the Walker River to near the headwaters of the Merced River and thence down to the San Joaquin River. John Charles Fremont named Walker Lake after the trapper and the United States Geographic Board named the river after Walker in its Fifth Report. Due to a heavy snowpack in the w