Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1954 until his assassination in 1968. Born in Atlanta, King is best known for advancing civil rights through nonviolence and civil disobedience, tactics his Christian beliefs and the nonviolent activism of Mahatma Gandhi helped inspire. King led the 1955 Montgomery bus boycott and in 1957 became the first president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. With the SCLC, he led an unsuccessful 1962 struggle against segregation in Albany and helped organize the nonviolent 1963 protests in Birmingham, Alabama, he helped organize the 1963 March on Washington, where he delivered his famous "I Have a Dream" speech. On October 14, 1964, King won the Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality through nonviolent resistance. In 1965, he helped organize the Selma to Montgomery marches; the following year, he and the SCLC took the movement north to Chicago to work on segregated housing.
In his final years, he expanded his focus to include opposition towards the Vietnam War. He alienated many of his liberal allies with a 1967 speech titled "Beyond Vietnam". J. Edgar Hoover considered him a radical and made him an object of the FBI's COINTELPRO from 1963 on. FBI agents investigated him for possible communist ties, recorded his extramarital liaisons and reported on them to government officials, on one occasion mailed King a threatening anonymous letter, which he interpreted as an attempt to make him commit suicide. In 1968, King was planning a national occupation of Washington, D. C. to be called the Poor People's Campaign, when he was assassinated on April 4 in Memphis, Tennessee. His death was followed by riots in many U. S. cities. Allegations that James Earl Ray, the man convicted of killing King, had been framed or acted in concert with government agents persisted for decades after the shooting. Sentenced to 99 years in prison for King's murder a life sentence as Ray was 41 at the time of conviction, Ray served 29 years of his sentence and died from hepatitis in 1998 while in prison.
King was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of the Congressional Gold Medal. Martin Luther King Jr. Day was established as a holiday in numerous cities and states beginning in 1971. Hundreds of streets in the U. S. have been renamed in his honor, a county in Washington State was rededicated for him. The Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D. C. was dedicated in 2011. King was born on January 15, 1929, in Atlanta, Georgia, to the Reverend Martin Luther King Sr. and Alberta Williams King. King's given name at birth was Michael King, his father was born Michael King, after a period of gradual transition on the elder King's part, he changed both his and his son's names in 1934; the senior King was inspired during a trip to Germany for that year's meeting of the Baptist World Alliance. While visiting sites associated with reformation leader, Martin Luther, attendees witnessed the rise of Nazism; the BWA conference issued a resolution condemning anti-Semitism, the senior King gained deepened appreciation for the power of Luther's protest.
The elder King would state that "Michael" was a mistake by the attending physician to his son's birth, the younger King's birth certificate was altered to read "Martin Luther King Jr." in 1957. King's parents were both African-American, he had Irish ancestry through his paternal great-grandfather. King was a middle child, between older sister Christine King Farris and younger brother A. D. King. King sang with his church choir at the 1939 Atlanta premiere of the movie Gone with the Wind, he enjoyed singing and music, his mother was an accomplished organist and choir leader who took him to various churches to sing, he received attention for singing "I Want to Be More and More Like Jesus". King became a member of the junior choir in his church. King said that his father whipped him until he was 15. King saw his father's proud and fearless protests against segregation, such as King Sr. refusing to listen to a traffic policeman after being referred to as "boy," or stalking out of a store with his son when being told by a shoe clerk that they would have to "move to the rear" of the store to be served.
When King was a child, he befriended a white boy whose father owned a business near his family's home. When the boys were six, they started school: King had to attend a school for African Americans, the other boy went to one for whites. King lost his friend. King suffered from depression through much of his life. In his adolescent years, he felt resentment against whites due to the "racial humiliation" that he, his family, his neighbors had to endure in the segregated South. At the age of 12, shortly after his maternal grandmother died, King blamed himself and jumped out of a second-story window, but survived. King was skeptical of many of Christianity's claims. At the age of 13, he denied the bodily resurrection of Jesus during Sunday school. From this point, he stated, "doubts began to spring forth unrelentingly." However, he concluded that the Bible has "many profound truths which one cannot escape" and decided to enter the seminary. Growing up in Atlanta, King attended Booker T. Washington High School.
He became k
Georgia Davis Powers
Georgia Davis Powers was an American politician, who served for 21 years as a member of the state senate in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. In 1967, she was the first woman elected to the senate. Born in Springfield, Powers grew up in a family of nine children, she had eight brothers: Joseph Ben, John Albert, Lawrence Franklin, James Isaac and Carl. Her parents, Frances Walker and Ben Gore Montgomery moved the family to the state's largest metropolis, Louisville; as a young girl she attended Madison Junior High School. She graduated from Central High School in 1940, from 1940 to 1942 attended the Louisville Municipal College; as a young wife and mother of an adopted son, William and her husband Norman "Nicky" Davis joined the New Covenant Presbyterian Church in Louisville. A fellow church member, Verna Smith, encouraged Georgia to take her first steps into Democratic Party politics by joining the U. S. Senatorial campaign staff of Wilson Wyatt. Powers worked for the Allied Organization for Civil Rights in promoting statewide public accommodations and fair employment laws in the early 1960s.
Powers was initiated as an honorary member of Sigma Gamma Rho sorority in 1993. Elected to serve in the Kentucky Senate from January 1968 to January 1989, Powers sponsored bills prohibiting employment discrimination and age discrimination, in addition to introducing statewide fair housing legislation, she was a leader in the movement to change what many considered the racially insensitive wording of the Kentucky State Song, My Old Kentucky Home, in 1986. As an elected official, she was not able to get a room in a hotel in segregated Frankfort, she supported legislation to improve education for the physically and mentally disabled. Powers was a member of the Cities Committee and Constitutional Amendments Committee and the Rules Committee, she served as secretary of the Democratic caucus from 1968 to 1988. She chaired two legislative committees: Labor and Industry. In an oral history interview by Betsy Brinson in 2000, Governor Breathitt remembered: Georgia Davis Powers, was a great leader and a strong supporter of Dr. King and represented his views in Kentucky effectively.
She was a member of the Kentucky State Senate, a influential member from Louisville, I would consider her one of the real heroes of the Civil Rights Movement in this state. She was effective in politics through the art of persuasion, she did not antagonize people. She was strong in her positions, but she has a wonderful personality and people liked her, and she would get votes effectively for the causes she believed in. She just was a great lobbyist and persistent. Everybody was crazy about her. In her autobiography, I Shared the Dream: The Pride and Politics of the First Black Woman Senator from Kentucky, Powers wrote that she had a personal relationship with Martin Luther King Jr. as a friend, trusted confidante, lover. She wrote that she was at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis when King was assassinated in 1968, although some of King's other associates questioned her account. After she retired from her seat in the Kentucky Senate in 1988, she remained committed to the continuing fight for equal rights and human dignity.
In 1990, Powers created the Friends of Nursing Home Residents to organize faith-based volunteerism in the Louisville area to serve as visitors to the local nursing homes. She incorporated in 1994 an organization called QUEST to monitor the work of the Jefferson County school board to halt the return to segregated schools. Powers was included in a national photographic exhibit that opened on February 8, 1989, at the Corcoran Gallery in Washington, D. C.: Portraits of Black Women Who Changed America. In 1989 Powers received an honorary doctor of laws degree from the University of Kentucky and an honorary doctorate of humane letters from the University of Louisville. Powers died on January 30, 2016, at the home of one of her brothers in Louisville, after suffering from congestive heart failure for several years. In 2010 the Kentucky Legislature, under House Joint Resolution 67, renamed the portion of I-264 that runs through the West End of Louisville from I-64 near the Indiana border to the junction with US 31W the Georgia Davis Powers Expressway.
The University of Kentucky endowed a chair in the name of Senator Powers as part of UK's Center for Research on Violence Against Women. Onyekwuluje, Anne B.. Historical Influence: reading Georgia Powers as a grassroots civil rights leader in the rough business of Kentucky politics. Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-5098-6. Powers, Georgia. I Shared the Dream: The pride and politics of the first Black woman senator from Kentucky. Far Hills, N. J: New Horizon Press. ISBN 0-88282-127-X. Barbara Summers, eds.. I Dream A World: Portraits of Black Women. New York, N. Y.: Stewart Tabori & Chang. Pp. 74–75. ISBN 1-55670-092-X. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter Groob, Kathy. "Breaking Barriers: Kentucky's First Female African American Senator, Georgia Davis Powers". 9 Ways Blog. Gloria Feldt. Retrieved April 25, 2011. "Georgia Davis Powers". Living the Story: The Civil Rights Movement in Kentucky. Kentucky Educational Television. Retrieved April 25, 2011. Clifft, Candyce. "Georgia Davis Powers". Louisville Life, Program #503.
Kentucky Educational Television. Retrieved April 25, 2011. Georgia Dav
A ring road is a road or a series of connected roads encircling a town, city, or country. The most common purpose of a ring road is to assist in reducing traffic volumes in the urban centre, such as by offering an alternate route around the city for drivers who do not need to stop in the city core; the name "ring road" is used for the majority of metropolitan circumferential routes in the European Union, such as the Berliner Ring, the Brussels Ring, the Amsterdam Ring, the Boulevard Périphérique around Paris and the Leeds Inner and Outer ring roads. Australia and India use the term ring road, as in Melbourne's Western Ring Road, Lahore's Lahore Ring Road and Hyderabad's Outer Ring Road. In Canada the term is the most used, with "orbital" used, but to a much lesser extent. In Europe, some ring roads those of motorway standard which are longer in length, are known as "orbital motorways". Examples include the London Rome Orbital. In the United States, many ring roads are called beltlines, beltways, or loops, such as the Capital Beltway around Washington, D.
C. Some ring roads, such as Washington's Capital Beltway, use "Inner Loop" and "Outer Loop" terminology for directions of travel, since cardinal directions cannot be signed uniformly around the entire loop; the term'ring road' is – and inaccurately – used interchangeably with the term'bypass'. Bypasses around many large and small towns were built in many areas when many old roads were upgraded to four-lane status in the 1930s to 1950s, such as those along the Old National Road in the United States, leaving the old road in place to serve the town or city, but allowing through travelers to continue on a wider and safer route. Construction of circumferential ring roads has occurred more beginning in the 1960s in many areas, when the U. S. Interstate Highway System and similar-quality roads elsewhere were designed. Ring roads have now been built around numerous cities and metropolitan areas, including cities with multiple ring roads, irregularly shaped ring roads, ring roads made up of various other long-distance roads.
London has three ringroads. Other British cities have two. Columbus, Ohio, in the United States has two, while Houston, Texas will have three official ring roads; some cities have far more – Beijing, for example, has six ring roads numbered in increasing order from the city center. Geographical constraints can prohibit the construction of a complete ring road. For example, the Baltimore Beltway in Maryland crosses Baltimore Harbor on a high arch bridge, much of the completed Stockholm Ring Road in Sweden runs through tunnels or over long bridges. However, some towns or cities on seacoasts or near rugged mountains cannot have a full ring road, such as Dublin's ring road. Adjacency of international boundaries may prohibit ring road completion in other cases. Construction of a true ring road around Detroit is blocked by its location on the border with Canada. Sometimes, the presence of significant natural or historical areas limits route options, as for the long-proposed Outer Beltway around Washington, D.
C. where options for a new western Potomac River crossing are limited by a nearly continuous corridor of visited scenic and historical landscapes in the Potomac River Gorge and adjacent areas. When referring to a road encircling a capital city, the term "beltway" can have a political connotation, as in the American term "Inside the Beltway", derived metonymically from the Capital Beltway encircling Washington, D. C. Most orbital motorways are purpose-built major highways around a town or city without either signals or road or railroad crossings. In the United States, beltways are parts of the Interstate Highway System. Similar roads in the United Kingdom are called "orbital motorways". Although the terms "ring road" and "orbital motorway" are sometimes used interchangeably, "ring road" indicates a circumferential route formed from one or more existing roads within a city or town, with the standard of road being anything from an ordinary city street up to motorway level. An excellent example of this is London's North Circular/South Circular ring road.
In some cases, a circumferential route is formed by the combination of a major through highway and a similar-quality loop route that extends out from the parent road reconnecting with the same highway. Such loops not only function as a bypass for through traffic, but to serve outlying suburbs. In the United States, an Interstate highway loop is designated by a three-digit number beginning with an digit before the two-digit number of its parent interstate. Interstate spurs, on the other hand have three-digit numbers beginning with an odd digit. Circumferential highways are prominent features near many large cities in the United States. In many cases, such as Interstate 285 in Atlanta, circumferential highways se
Louisville is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Kentucky and the 29th most-populous city in the United States. It is one of two cities in Kentucky designated as first-class, the other being Lexington, the state's second-largest city. Louisville is the historical seat and, since 2003, the nominal seat of Jefferson County, located in the northern region of the state, on the border with Indiana. Louisville, named for King Louis XVI of France, was founded in 1778 by George Rogers Clark, making it one of the oldest cities west of the Appalachian Mountains. Sited beside the Falls of the Ohio, the only major obstruction to river traffic between the upper Ohio River and the Gulf of Mexico, the settlement first grew as a portage site, it was the founding city of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, which grew into a 6,000-mile system across 13 states. Today, the city is known as the home of legendary boxer Muhammad Ali, the Kentucky Derby, Kentucky Fried Chicken, the University of Louisville and its Louisville Cardinals athletic teams, Louisville Slugger baseball bats, three of Kentucky's six Fortune 500 companies, being Humana, Kindred Healthcare and Yum!
Brands. Its main airport is the site of United Parcel Service's worldwide air hub. Since 2003, Louisville's borders have been the same as those of Jefferson County, after a city-county merger; the official name of this consolidated city-county government is the Louisville/Jefferson County Metro Government, abbreviated to Louisville Metro. Despite the merger and renaming, the term "Jefferson County" continues to be used in some contexts in reference to Louisville Metro including the incorporated cities outside the "balance" which make up Louisville proper; the city's total consolidated population as of the 2017 census estimate was 771,158. However, the balance total of 621,349 excludes other incorporated places and semiautonomous towns within the county and is the population listed in most sources and national rankings; the Louisville-Jefferson County, KY-IN Metropolitan Statistical Area, sometimes referred to as Kentuckiana, includes Louisville-Jefferson County and 12 surrounding counties, seven in Kentucky and five in Southern Indiana.
As of 2017, the MSA had a population of 1,293,953. The history of Louisville spans hundreds of years, has been influenced by the area's geography and location; the rapids at the Falls of the Ohio created a barrier to river travel, as a result, settlements grew up at this stopping point. The first European settlement in the vicinity of modern-day Louisville was on Corn Island in 1778 by Col. George Rogers Clark, credited as the founder of Louisville. Several landmarks in the community are named after him. Two years in 1780, the Virginia General Assembly approved the town charter of Louisville; the city was named in honor of King Louis XVI of France, whose soldiers were aiding Americans in the Revolutionary War. Early residents lived in forts to protect themselves from Indian raids, but moved out by the late 1780s. In 1803, explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark organized their expedition across America in the town of Clarksville, Indiana at the present-day Falls of the Ohio opposite Louisville, Kentucky.
The city's early growth was influenced by the fact that river boats had to be unloaded and moved downriver before reaching the falls. By 1828, the population had grown to 7,000 and Louisville became an incorporated city. Early Louisville was slaves worked in a variety of associated trades; the city was a point of escape for slaves to the north, as Indiana was a free state. During this point in the 1850s, the city was growing and vibrant, but that came with negativity, it was the center of planning, supplies and transportation for numerous campaigns in the Western Theater. By the year 1855, ethnic tension was arising. Nobody knew. On August 6, 1855 "Bloody Monday" happened. By 1861, the civil war broke out. During the Civil War, Louisville was a major stronghold of Union forces, which kept Kentucky in the Union. By the end of the war, Louisville had not been attacked, although skirmishes and battles, including the battles of Perryville and Corydon, took place nearby. After Reconstruction, returning Confederate veterans took political control of the city, leading to the jibe that Louisville joined the Confederacy after the war was over.
The first Kentucky Derby was held on May 1875, at the Louisville Jockey Club track. The Derby was shepherded by Meriwether Lewis Clark, Jr. the grandson of William Clark of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, grandnephew of the city's founder George Rogers Clark. Horse racing had a strong tradition in Kentucky, whose Inner Bluegrass Region had been a center of breeding high-quality livestock throughout the 19th century. Ten thousand spectators watched the first Derby. On March 27, 1890, the city was devastated and its downtown nearly destroyed when an F4 tornado tore through as part of the middle Mississippi Valley tornado outbreak. An estimated 74 to 120 people were killed and 200 were injured; the damage cost the city $2.5 million. In 1914, the City of Louisville passed a racially-based zoning residential zoning code, following Baltimore, a handful of cities in the Carolinas; the NAACP challenged the ordinance in two cases. Two weeks after the ordinance enacted, an African-American named Arthur Harris moved into a house on a block designated for whites.
He was found guilty. The second case was planned to create a test case. William Warley, the president of the local chapter
Louisville International Airport
Louisville International Airport is a public and military use public airport in Louisville in Jefferson County, Kentucky. The airport has three runways, its IATA airport code, SDF, is based on Standiford Field. It has no regularly-scheduled international passenger flights, but it is a port of entry, as it handles numerous international cargo flights. Over 3.8 million passengers and over 5.7 billion pounds of cargo passed through the airport in 2018. It is the third-busiest in the United States in terms of cargo traffic, seventh-busiest for such in the world; the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015 categorized it as a "primary commercial service" airport since it has over 10,000 passenger boardings per year. As per Federal Aviation Administration records, the airport had 1,684,738 enplanements in 2017, an increase of 3.26% from 1,631,494 in 2016. The airport is home to Worldport, the worldwide hub of UPS; the Kentucky Air National Guard's 123d Airlift Wing operates C-130 transport aircraft from the co-located Louisville Air National Guard Base.
On January 16, 2019 the Regional Airport Authority voted to change the name of the airport to Louisville Muhammad Ali International Airport in honor of the Louisville native. It will take a few months to finalize the change, since the FAA has to approve the change before it becomes official. Standiford Field was built by the Army Corps of Engineers in 1941 on a parcel of land south of Louisville, found not to have flooded during the Ohio River flood of 1937, it was named for Dr. Elisha David Standiford, a local businessman and politician, active in transportation issues and owned part of the land; the field remained under Army control until 1947, when it was turned over to the Louisville Air Board for commercial operations. Until around 1947 Bowman Field was Louisville's main airport. For many years passenger traffic went through the small brick Lee Terminal at Standiford Field. Today's more modern and much larger facilities were built in the 1980s. Most of the Lee Terminal was torn down; the April 1957 Official Airline Guide shows 45 weekday departures on Eastern Airlines, 19 American, 9 TWA, 4 Piedmont and 2 Ozark.
Scheduled jet flights began in January–February 1962. Parallel runways, needed for expanded UPS operations, were part of an airport expansion begun in the 1980s; when Louisville International Airport was built by the U. S. Army Corp of Engineers in 1941, it was called Standiford Field; the airfield opened to the public in 1947 and all commercial service from Bowman Field moved to Standiford Field. American, TWA were the first airlines and had 1,300 passengers a week; the airlines used World War II barracks on the east side of the field until May 25, 1950, when a proper terminal opened. Lee Terminal could handle 150,000 passengers annually and included 6 new gates, which increased terminal space to 114,420 square feet; the three runways were all 5000 ft. In 1970 the terminal again expanded; the 1980s brought plans for the Louisville Airport Improvement plan. Construction of a new landside terminal designed by Bickel-Gibson Associated Architects Inc. began, costing $35 million with capacity for nearly 2 million passengers in 1985.
Most of the improvements began construction in the 1990s and the airport was renewed. During the 1990s Southwest Airlines passenger boardings increased 97.3 percent. In 1995 the airport's name was changed from Standiford Field to Louisville International Airport. Around that time SDF got two new parallel runways: runway 17L/35R, 8,578 feet long and runway 17R/35L, 11,887 feet; the Kentucky Air National Guard moved its base to SDF with 8 military aircraft. A new FBO was run by Atlantic Aviation and managed by Michael Perry. In 2005 a $26 million terminal renovation designed by Gensler Inc. was completed. Yearly passenger enplanements are about 1.7 million and are forecast to increase in the next 5 years. Louisville International is served by several airlines including Allegiant, Delta, United, FedEx, UPS. On January 16, 2019, the Louisville Regional Airport Authority voted to rename the airport Louisville Muhammad Ali International Airport, after boxing legend Muhammad Ali, a Louisville native. Louisville airport added more than ten nonstop destinations.
Louisville now has 33 nonstop services. In the future, the focus will be on growing more nonstop destinations and investing in something called SDF Next; that project will invest more than $100 million in terminal construction and enhancements. It will include upgrades to the elevators and security checkpoints, it will make big changes to parking and rental car services. And Mann said it will add Federal Inspection Services in the next four years to allow international flights Mexico. Louisville International-Standiford Field covers 1,200 acres at an elevation of 501 feet, it has three concrete runways: 17R/35L is 11,887 by 150 feet. Runway 17R and 17L will be lengthened to 13,000 feet and 10,500 feet within the next 2–3 years as an extra margin of safety for the new generation of cargo and passenger super-jets. In the year ending May 31, 2018, the airport had 167,470 aircra
Interstate 65 in Kentucky
Interstate 65 enters the US state of Kentucky 5 miles south of Franklin. It passes by the major cities of Bowling Green and Louisville before exiting the state. Along its 137.32-mile length in the Bluegrass State, I-65 passes Mammoth Cave National Park, Bernheim Forest, the National Corvette Museum and the Fort Knox Military Reservation before entering the state's largest metropolitan area, Louisville. It has interchanges with three of the state's parkways; the first of these is with the Louie B. Nunn Cumberland Parkway north of Bowling Greenbetween Smiths Grove and Park City. At Elizabethtown, it has two more parkway interchanges with the Wendell H. Ford Western Kentucky Parkway and the Martha Layne Collins Bluegrass Parkway. I-65 has interchanges with I-165, I-265, I-264, a complex junction with I-64 and I-71 along the south bank of the Ohio River in central Louisville. From there, northbound motorists on I-65 cross into Indiana on the Abraham Lincoln Bridge, while southbound I-65 traffic enters Kentucky from Jeffersonville, Indiana via the John F. Kennedy Memorial Bridge.
The route is one of the heaviest traveled corridors in the United States, with average daily traffic volumes of 50,000 to 70,000 vehicles. Most of the route has been widened to six lanes throughout the state; the widest stretch of I-65 in its entirety is in Louisville, at Kentucky Route 1065 where the mainline is 14 lanes wide. The highway crosses between the Central and Eastern time zones on the border of Hart and LaRue counties and re-enters the Central Time Zone on the border of Jasper and White counties in the state of Indiana. For most of 2016, the Ohio River Bridges Project routed all I-65 traffic onto the Abraham Lincoln Bridge while rebuilding the deck of the 1963 John F. Kennedy Memorial Bridge to accommodate six lanes of all-southbound traffic; the project is completing the rebuild of the Kennedy Interchange just south of both bridges in downtown Louisville. On December 30, 2016, both I-65 bridges began using electronic toll collection to charge motorists for their use of this toll-free Interstate crossing.
From July 25, 1954 until June 30, 1975, the portion of I-65 from I-264 in Louisville to the WK Parkway in Elizabethtown was a toll road bearing the Kentucky Turnpike name. It was signed with a distinctive sign featuring the state bird of Kentucky. Unlike most states, Kentucky law requires that tolls be removed when the original construction bonds are paid off; the road was thus the first of the state's extensive system of toll roads to be made free. Unlike the other roads, which maintain their separate names when becoming toll-free, the Kentucky Turnpike signs were removed, it is today impossible to find any traces of its former toll status. The table below shows the original locations of the toll plazas, toll charges for consumer-sized, or class 1 vehicles. In addition to toll plazas, the Kentucky Turnpike provided two service areas just south of Lebanon Junction and just north of Shepherdsville, they each provided a gas station and at least one fast food restaurant. They both closed when the turnpike was absorbed into the Interstate 65 corridor in June 1975, thus making the service area on the Wendell H. Ford Western Kentucky Parkway the last remaining service areas on the toll road system, still remained open after the WK Parkway became toll-free in 1987, 27 years after the Kentucky Turnpike did so.
On November 15, 2006, the stretch of I-65 from Bowling Green to Louisville was renamed the Abraham Lincoln Memorial Highway. On February 12, 2007, a bill passed the Kentucky Senate to rename I-65 in Jefferson County the "Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Expressway". Signage was posted July 25, 2007. On July 15, 2007, Kentucky raised its speed limits on Interstate and State Parkway Highways to 70 miles per hour; until that date, Kentucky was the only state along I-65's path. In 2008, Governor Steve Beshear ordered the entire route to be widened to a minimum of six lanes through the entire state; as of 2017, the majority of this project is complete. In July 2017, the KYTC opened a new interchange of I-65 at mile marker 30 to provide access to the Kentucky Transpark near Bowling Green; the $66.8 million project, which began in 2016, would improve traffic conditions along I-65 and U. S. 31W in northeastern Warren County. The first phase of the project include the new interchange, Exit 30, plus a four-lane connector road going from the interstate to U.
S. 68 just east of Bowling Green. The second phase is building a two-lane connector road running from U. S. 68 to U. S. 31W between Bowling Green and Oakland, thus relieving congestion problems on both U. S. routes. This was the first new exit on I-65 since 2002, when the interchange with KY 234 was built to connect downtown Bowling Green from the freeway. I-165: A spur running from I-65 in Bowling Green to Owensboro; the William H. Natcher Parkway. I-265: Forms three-quarters of a beltway around Metro Louisville; the signage runs from I-65 to I-71 on the northeast side of the Metro. It is known as the Gene Snyder Freeway. Construction of the Lewis and Clark Bridge over the Ohio River to connect the Kentucky segment of I-265 with the Indiana segment was completed and opened to traffic on December 18, 2016. Ohio River Bridges Project Roads in Louisville, Kentucky Media related to Interstate 65 in Kentucky at Wikimedia Commons
Interstate 71 is a north-south Interstate Highway in the Great Lakes/Midwestern and Southeastern region of the United States. Its southern terminus is at an interchange with I-64 and I-65 in Kentucky, its northern terminus is at an interchange with I-90 in Ohio. I-71 runs concurrently with I-75 from a point about 20 miles south of Cincinnati, into downtown Cincinnati. Three-quarters of the route lies east of I-75, thereby putting it out of its proper place in the Interstate grid. While I-71 is designated a north–south highway, it is a major east–west route for cross-country traffic, it links I-80 and I-90 to I-70, links to I-40. The highway goes through the states of Kentucky and Ohio and the metropolitan areas of Louisville, Cincinnati and Cleveland. In Kentucky, I-71 begins east of Downtown Louisville at the Kennedy Interchange, where it meets I-64 and I-65; this interchange is sometimes called the "Spaghetti Junction". From Louisville, it follows the Ohio River in a diagonal path toward Northern Kentucky.
Between Louisville and Cincinnati, I-71 is a four-lane highway, except for the approach to Kentucky Speedway in Sparta in which it runs three lanes each way for about 2 miles. Near the town of Carrollton, there are signs marking the location of a tragic accident that occurred on May 14, 1988, when a drunk driver crossed the median and struck a church bus full of children and teenagers, causing the bus' fuel tank to ignite into flames and killing 27 people on board, it is one of the worst bus accidents in state and national history. After having run 77 miles from Louisville, I-71 merges with Interstate 75 near Walton after which it intersects Interstate 275, the Cincinnati beltway. After passing through Covington, the freeway crosses the Ohio River via the lower level of the Brent Spence Bridge and continues into Cincinnati. In Cincinnati, I-71 splits from I-75 and heads due east onto Fort Washington Way, where it continues through downtown Cincinnati concurrently with US-50 for less than a mile.
Just east of downtown, US-50 continues east. I-71 heads in a general northeast direction through urban Cincinnati and into its surrounding suburbs. After another interchange with the Interstate 275 beltway, the freeway leaves the metropolitan area and heads towards Columbus, it continues northeast until it reaches South Lebanon, where it begins cutting east across the flat plains of southwest Ohio. The freeway crosses the Little Miami River on the Jeremiah Morrow Bridge, a continuous truss bridge and the tallest bridge in Ohio at 239 feet above the river. I-71 heads towards Columbus intersects with the bypass I-270 before heading north into urban Columbus, where it junctions I-70. About a mile north of the I-70 junction, it intersects with I-670. After another interchange with the I-270 bypass, the highway exits out of Columbus and continues north until near Delaware, where it again turns northeast. Beginning its path to Cleveland, I-71 enters the rolling farm country on the edges of the Allegheny Plateau.
It continues in this fashion to Lodi/Westfield Center and its junction with I-76, which provides access to Akron. Heading north to Medina, it meets the terminus of I-271; the highway continues north into urban Cuyahoga County and Cleveland's suburbs, intersecting the Ohio Turnpike/I-80. Passing Cleveland Hopkins International Airport, I-71 meets I-480 and enters Cleveland's west side, continuing on to downtown, it junctions with terminates at Interstate 90 on the Innerbelt. The first section of I-71 in Louisville opened in December 1966 between its terminus at Spaghetti Junction and Zorn Avenue, its first exit, its junction with I-264 opened in July 1968, the complete Kentucky portion of the interstate was opened to the public in July 1969. At that point, it replaced U. S. Route 42 as the primary link between Louisville. Much of Interstate 71 in Ohio was intended to be State Route 1. State Route 1 was planned in the 1950s as a second Ohio Turnpike extending southwest to northeast across the state.
It was planned to run from Cincinnati to Conneaut and connect with an extension built across the panhandle of Pennsylvania to the New York State Thruway. As the highway was being planned, the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956 was enacted, the project was converted from a toll road to a freeway, it was designated as State Route 1, since the Interstate Highway numbering system had not yet been implemented. Portions of the freeway began to be completed and opened in 1959 with the new Interstate Highway funding, they were marked as State Route 1 as well as with their new Interstate Highway number. Since large gaps existed along the corridor where no freeway had yet been completed, existing two-lane or four-lane highways were designated as State Route 1 in order to complete the route; the State Route 1 signage was removed in 1966 as the Interstate Highway numbers adequately marked the route by and the state highway numbering was superfluous. In Columbus, the portion of Interstate 71 that bounds Worthington's eastern edge was called the North Freeway.
Costing US$13.8 million, it was constructed south from Route 161, arriving at 11th Avenue by August 1961. It took another year to construct the portion between 11th Avenue and 5th Avenue due to the need to construct a massive underpass under the Pennsylvania Railroad's Grogan Yard. Today, only two tracks cross the viaduct, the rest of the structure supports a large, weedy field. By August 1962, the freeway