Croatia the Republic of Croatia, is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east and Herzegovina, Montenegro to the southeast, sharing a maritime border with Italy, its capital, forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with twenty counties. Croatia has an area of 56,594 square kilometres and a population of 4.28 million, most of whom are Roman Catholics. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the Croats arrived in the area in the 6th century and organised the territory into two duchies by the 9th century. Croatia was first internationally recognized as an independent state on 7 June 879 during the reign of duke Branimir. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom, which retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries. During the succession crisis after the Trpimirović dynasty ended, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102.
In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of Austria to the Croatian throne. In October 1918, in the final days of World War I, the State of Slovenes and Serbs, independent from Austria-Hungary, was proclaimed in Zagreb, in December 1918 it was merged into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, most of the Croatian territory was incorporated into the Nazi-backed client-state which led to the development of a resistance movement and the creation of the Federal State of Croatia which after the war become a founding member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991, Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year; the Croatian War of Independence was fought for four years following the declaration. The sovereign state of Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system and a developed country with a high standard of living.
It is a member of the European Union, the United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. As an active participant in the UN peacekeeping forces, Croatia has contributed troops to the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan and took a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008–2009 term. Since 2000, the Croatian government has invested in infrastructure transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors. Croatia's economy is dominated by service and industrial sectors and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue, with Croatia ranked among the top 20 most popular tourist destinations in the world; the state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatia's most important trading partner. Croatia provides a social security, universal health care system, a tuition-free primary and secondary education, while supporting culture through numerous public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing.
The name of Croatia derives from Medieval Latin Croātia. Itself a derivation of North-West Slavic *Xrovat-, by liquid metathesis from Common Slavic period *Xorvat, from proposed Proto-Slavic *Xъrvátъ which comes from Old Persian *xaraxwat-; the word is attested by the Old Iranian toponym Harahvait-, the native name of Arachosia. The origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe; the oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, attested in the Baška tablet in style zvъnъmirъ kralъ xrъvatъskъ. The first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852; the original is lost, just a 1568 copy is preserved, leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim. The oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription found near Benkovac, where Duke Branimir is styled Dux Cruatorvm; the inscription is not believed to be dated but is to be from during the period of 879–892, during Branimir's rule.
The area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period. Fossils of Neanderthals dating to the middle Palaeolithic period have been unearthed in northern Croatia, with the most famous and the best presented site in Krapina. Remnants of several Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures were found in all regions of the country; the largest proportion of the sites is in the river valleys of northern Croatia, the most significant cultures whose presence was discovered include Baden, Starčevo, Vučedol cultures. The Iron Age left traces of the Celtic La Tène culture. Much the region was settled by Illyrians and Liburnians, while the first Greek colonies were established on the islands of Hvar, Korčula, Vis. In 9 AD the territory of today's Croatia became part of the Roman Empire. Emperor Diocletian had a large palace built in Split to which he retired after his abdication in AD 305. During the 5th century, the last de jure Western emperor last Western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos ruled his small realm from the palace after fleeing Italy to go into exile in 475.
The period ends with Avar and Croat invasions in the first half of the 7th century and destruction of all Roman towns. Roman survivors retreated to more favourable sites on the coast and mountains; the city of Dubrovnik was founded by such survivors from Epidaurum. The ethnogenesis of Croats is uncertain an
The Paklenica karst river canyon is a national park in Croatia. It is near Starigrad, northern Dalmatia, on the southern slopes of Velebit mountain, not far from Zadar, it contains two canyons and Velika Paklenica. Today there is no water flowing through Mala Paklenica. Near the entrance to the Velika Paklenica is an artificial tunnel complex built for Josip Broz Tito during the tension between Yugoslavia and the USSR in the late 1940s and early 1950s; the area of South Velebit has been inhabited since prehistoric times. It is believed that, during the last ice age, the area was inhabited by small groups of Paleolithic hunters/collectors, as elsewhere in the Mediterranean. Sea level must have been 120 metres lower than today, the Velebit Channel was a wide valley with a river flowing through it; the highest parts of the Velebit were covered with glaciers. When sea level began to rise in the late ice age, people moved to higher, hilly areas; the earliest records of humans in Velebit – Mesolithic flint tools found in Vaganačka Cave under Veliko Rujno – date back to this era.
Eight thousand years ago, the first cattle breeders and farmers arrived in the area, bringing wheat, domestic goats and sheep, as well as the knowledge of their breeding. Hunter-gathering lost its importance, livestock-rearing began on Velebit. Plenty of material evidence, such as bones of domestic animals and equipment used by prehistoric shepherds and decorated clay tableware, was found in the caves that served as shelter for people and cattle. During the last two thousand years BC, during the Bronze Age, the first fortifications and stone buildings were erected by Liburian peoples, they could serve as shelter to the population from the surrounding villages in case of danger, some of them may have been permanent settlements where the local rulers had their seats. In addition, they oversaw important cattle and trade routes leading to Velebit and further to Lika via Paklenica or Rujan; some of them served to oversee navigation. They are now destroyed, but ring-shaped mounds up to several meters in height can still be seen in some places.
In the immediate vicinity of the fortifications, casket heaps – deposits of large round stone under which former rulers were buried in casket made of stone tablets – have been found. Most of them have been dug out and the graves robbed, but they are still visible, as in the area of the village of Ljubotić above Tribanj-Kruščica. Over the last two thousand years BC, the east coast of the Adriatic was conquered by the Roman legions. After the Roman province of Dalmatia was founded in the early 1st century AD, permanent Roman reign was established. Starigrad was established at the time, it soon developed into an important trading center. In the 4th century AD, Emperor Tiberius had it fortified with towers; the town cemetery was situated by the road. Plenty of archaeological findings were collected from 400 explored graves – jewelry and metalware, weapons and tools; the most interesting finding is the ancient glass collection – as many as 146 vessels of different forms – kept in the Zadar Museum of Archeology.
Life in Argyruntum came to a standstill in the early 4th century AD. The era of peace was interrupted by attacks of barbaric nations that led to the decline of the Roman state. In an attempt to bring the Adriatic coast back to Empire, East Roman Emperor Justinian built a system of fortifications to secure navigation and protect the local population; the ruins of forts and towers above Modrič and near Sveta Trojica not far from Tribanj are parts of this defensive system that postponed the final decline of the ancient world in the Adriatic. The arrival of Croats in this area began in the early Middle Ages; the earliest preserved traces of their presence are the chapels of St. George in Rovanjska and the chapel of St. Peter in Starigrad, built in the 9th or 10th century AD. Two forts – Večka Kula and Paklarić – were erected in the late Middle Ages; the most attractive and most valuable parts of South Velebit are the impressive canyons of Velika Paklenica and Mala Paklenica. Velika Paklenica canyon is 14 km long and 500–800 m wide.
In its narrowest part around the Bunkers, the canyon is only 50 m wide. Vertical cliffs rise above both sides of the canyon up to a height of over 700 m; the most attractive part is the area around the steep drop of the stream downstream from Anića luka, where steep cliffs rise directly above the stream, forming the narrowest part of the canyon between Anića luka and the parking lot. Mala Paklenica Canyon is of lesser dimension, the torrent running through it is much less powerful, it is 400 -- 500 wide. In its narrowest part, it is only 10 m wide, while the surrounding cliffs rise up to a height of 650 m; the central part of the Park is distinctive for the relief complex of Borovnik and Crni vrh, with the valley of Mala Močila and Velika Močila nearby. In terms of relief, Velika Močila is a interesting bowl-shaped valley at an altitude 850 m asl, surrounded by Crni vrh, Škiljina kosa and Zeleni brig, while Borovnik, named after the black pine forest, stretches along the south edge; the east part of the Park is differentiated geomorphologically and wild.
Further to the east, this zone of wilderness transforms into an area of milder forms around Malo Libinje and Veliko Libinje, karstic plateaus with numerous pits, the bottoms of which were treated. The highest area of Paklenica National Park is the narrow ridge of Velebit, 1 to 3 km wide; the highest peak of Velebit – Vaganski vrh is a
A canyon or gorge is a deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosive activity of a river over geologic timescales. Rivers have a natural tendency to cut through underlying surfaces wearing away rock layers as sediments are removed downstream. A river bed will reach a baseline elevation, the same elevation as the body of water into which the river drains; the processes of weathering and erosion will form canyons when the river's headwaters and estuary are at different elevations through regions where softer rock layers are intermingled with harder layers more resistant to weathering. A canyon may refer to a rift between two mountain peaks, such as those in ranges including the Rocky Mountains, the Alps, the Himalayas or the Andes. A river or stream and erosion carve out such splits between mountains. Examples of mountain-type canyons are Provo Canyon in Utah or Yosemite Valley in California's Sierra Nevada. Canyons within mountains, or gorges that have an opening on only one side, are called box canyons.
Slot canyons are narrow canyons that have smooth walls. Steep-sided valleys in the seabed of the continental slope are referred to as submarine canyons. Unlike canyons on land, submarine canyons are thought to be formed by turbidity currents and landslides; the word canyon is Spanish in origin, with the same meaning. The word canyon is used in North America while the words gorge and ravine are used in Europe and Oceania, though gorge and ravine are used in some parts of North America. In the United States, place names use canyon in the southwest and gorge in the northeast, with the rest of the country graduating between these two according to geography. In Canada, a gorge is narrow while a ravine is more open and wooded; the military-derived word defile is used in the United Kingdom. Most canyons were formed by a process of long-time erosion from table-land level; the cliffs form because harder rock strata that are resistant to erosion and weathering remain exposed on the valley walls. Canyons are much more common in arid than in wet areas because physical weathering has a more localized effect in arid zones.
The wind and water from the river combine to erode and cut away less resistant materials such as shales. The freezing and expansion of water serves to help form canyons. Water seeps into cracks between the rocks and freezes, pushing the rocks apart and causing large chunks to break off the canyon walls, in a process known as frost wedging. Canyon walls are formed of resistant sandstones or granite. Sometimes large rivers run through canyons as the result of gradual geological uplift; these are called entrenched rivers, because they are unable to alter their course. In the United States, the Colorado River in the Southwest and the Snake River in the Northwest are two examples of tectonic uplift. Canyons form in areas of limestone rock; as limestone is soluble to a certain extent, cave systems form in the rock. When these collapse, a canyon is left, as in the Mendip Hills in Somerset and Yorkshire Dales in Yorkshire, England. A box canyon is a small canyon, shorter and narrower than a river canyon, with steep walls on three sides, allowing access and egress only through the mouth of the canyon.
Box canyons were used in the western United States as convenient corrals, with their entrances fenced. The definition of "largest canyon" is imprecise, because a canyon can be large by its depth, its length, or the total area of the canyon system; the inaccessibility of the major canyons in the Himalaya contributes to their not being regarded as candidates for the biggest canyon. The definition of "deepest canyon" is imprecise if one includes mountain canyons as well as canyons cut through flat plateaus; the Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon, along the Yarlung Tsangpo River in Tibet, is regarded by some as the deepest canyon in the world at 5,500 m. It is longer than the Grand Canyon in the United States. Others consider the Kali Gandaki Gorge in midwest Nepal to be the deepest canyon, with a 6400 m difference between the level of the river and the peaks surrounding it. Vying for deepest canyon in the Americas are the Cotahuasi Canyon and Colca Canyon, in southern Peru. Both have been measured at over 3500 m deep.
The Grand Canyon of northern Arizona in the United States, with an average depth of 1,600 m and a volume of 4.17 trillion cubic metres, is one of the world's largest canyons. It was among the 28 finalists of the New7Wonders of Nature worldwide poll; the largest canyon in Africa is the Fish River Canyon in Namibia. In August 2013, the discovery of Greenland's Grand Canyon was reported, based on the analysis of data from Operation IceBridge, it is located under an ice sheet. At 750 kilometres long, it is believed to be the longest canyon in the world; the Capertee Valley in Australia is reported as being the second largest canyon in the world. Some canyons have notable cultural significance. Evidence of early humanoids has been discovered in Africa's Olduvai Gorge. In the southwestern United States, canyons are important archeologically because of the many cliff-dwellings built in such areas by the ancient Pueblo people who were their first inhabitants; the following list contains only the most notable canyons of the world, arranged by continent and country.
Fish River Canyon Blyde Riv
Serra dos Órgãos National Park
Serra dos Órgãos National Park is a national park in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It protects the water sources in the range, it was the third national park to be created in Brazil. The Serra dos Órgãos National Park is located about a one-hour drive from the city of Rio de Janeiro; the BR-116 highway leads through the park. The origin of the unusual name is credited to early Portuguese settlers who thought the ensemble of the hill tops resembled the pipes of organs in European cathedrals; the park is part of the larger Serra do Mar chain of mountains, the most accepted theory about its origin is that it rose about 60 million years ago during earthquakes that caused the Andes to rise. That means it is located in a geologically unstable location, although no incident has been recorded in the area; the Park's area is 10,527 hectares. It has ten peaks higher than six other peaks over 1,500 metres high; the lowest point in the park is located in the flat municipality of Magé, at 145 metres. The highest peak is Pedra.
The most famous formation in the park is the Dedo de Deus peak, which resembles a left hand with its index finger stretched, pointing towards the sky. It can be seen in the background of the flag of Rio de Janeiro state; the Serra dos Órgãos National Park was created on 30 November 1939 as the third national park in Brazil. The purpose of the park was to protect the headwaters of the rivers that flow into the Fluminense basin, to protect the spectacular mountains; the park was created by the government of Getúlio Vargas by decree law 1822 of 30 November 1939 with an area of about 9,000 hectares. It covered parts of the municipalities of Magé, Teresópolis. Various buildings and other infrastructure were built in the 1940s such as the natural swimming pool, administrative buildings, garage, staff quarters and four shelters on the Trilha do Sino; the park had about 250 employees, including waiters in the mountain shelters. In the 1960s, with the national capital transferred from Rio de Janeiro to Brasilia, the park lost funding and the facilities were allowed to deteriorate.
The shelters and some of the staff homes were lost. Efforts were made to restore the park from 1980, including publication of the management plan and purchase of land to regularize the park's tenure. Decree 90023 of 2 August 1984 delimited the area of the park as 10,527 hectares. In the 1990s the municipality of Guapimirim was split off from Magé, contains part of the park. From the 1990s the old buildings have been restored and new ones built; the park was included in the Central Rio de Janeiro Atlantic Forest Mosaic, created in 2006. The climate is tropical superhumid, with 80% to 90% relative humidity caused by moist air from the Atlantic most of the year. Average temperatures range from 13 to 23 °C, but may reach 38 °C and may fall below freezing in the highest parts. Average rainfall is 1,700 to 3,600 millimetres, with more rain in the summer and a dry season in the winter from June to August; the south east side facing the ocean receives more rain than the north west side. The park is in the Atlantic Forest biome, due to the high rainfall has rich vegetation, much of it unique to this biome.
More than 2,800 species of plant have been recorded including 360 of orchids and over 100 bromeliads. Up to 500 metres the lower slopes are covered by typical lowland rainforest. From 500 to 1,500 metres the vegetation is montane forest, with significant variations depending on the conditions in each area. In many places the upper canopy is 25 to 30 metres with emergent trees reaching up to 40 metres. From 1,500 to 2,000 metres there is cloud forest trees of 5 to 10 metres with crooked trunks covered in epiphytic moss and plants such as bromeliads and orchids; the understory has shrubs and the outcrops are populated by ferns and mosses. There are various endemic species. Above 2,000 metres the vegetation is high montane, with small woody shrubs. 347 species have been found in this environment. The park is one of the few natural habitats of species of Schlumbergera, which were developed into the colourful "Thanksgiving Cactus" and "Christmas Cactus" grown as house plants. Media related to Serra dos Órgãos National Park at Wikimedia Commons
The Meteora is a rock formation in central Greece hosting one of the largest and most precipitously built complexes of Eastern Orthodox monasteries, second in importance only to Mount Athos. The six monasteries are built on immense natural pillars and hill-like rounded boulders that dominate the local area, it is located near the town of Kalambaka at the northwestern edge of the Plain of Thessaly near the Pineios river and Pindus Mountains. Meteora is included on the UNESCO World Heritage List under criteria I, II, IV, V and VII; the name means "lofty", "elevated", is etymologically related to meteor. Beside the Pindos Mountains, in the western region of Thessaly, these unique and enormous columns of rock rise precipitously from the ground, but their unusual form is not easy to explain geologically. They are not volcanic plugs of hard igneous rock typical elsewhere, but the rocks are composed of a mixture of sandstone and conglomerate; the conglomerate was formed of deposits of stone and mud from streams flowing into a delta at the edge of a lake, over millions of years.
About 60 million years ago during the Paleogene period a series of earth movements pushed the seabed upwards, creating a high plateau and causing many vertical fault lines in the thick layer of sandstone. The huge rock pillars were formed by weathering by water and extremes of temperature on the vertical faults, it is unusual that this conglomerate formation and type of weathering are confined to a localised area within the surrounding mountain formation. This type of rock formation and weathering process has happened in many other places locally and throughout the world, but what makes Meteora's appearance special is firstly the uniformity of the sedimentary rock constituents deposited over millions of years leaving few signs of vertical layering, secondly the localised abrupt vertical weathering; the cave of Theopetra is located 4 kilometres from Kalambaka. Its uniqueness from an archeological perspective is that a single site contains records of two significant cultural transitions: the replacement of Neanderthals by modern humans and the transition from hunting-gathering to farming after the end of the last Ice Age.
The cave consists of an immense 500 square metres rectangular chamber at the foot of a limestone hill, which rises to the northeast above the village of Theopetra, with an entrance 17 metres wide by 3 metres high. It lies at the foot of the Chasia mountain range, which forms the natural boundary between Thessaly and Macedonia prefectures, while the Lithaios River, a tributary of the Pineios River, flows in front of the cave; the small Lithaios River flowing on the doorsteps of the cave meant that cave dwellers had always easy access to fresh, clean water without the need to cover daily long distances to find it. Excavations and research and have discovered petrified diatoms, which have contributed to understanding the Palaeo-climate and climate changes. Radiocarbon dating evidences human presence dating back 50,000 years; the cave used to be open to the public, but is closed indefinitely, for safety inspections. Caves in the vicinity of Meteora were inhabited continuously between 5,000 years ago.
The oldest known example of a man-made structure, a stone wall that blocked two-thirds of the entrance to the Theopetra cave, was constructed 23,000 years ago as a barrier against cold winds – the Earth was experiencing an ice age at the time – and many Paleolithic and Neolithic artifacts have been found within the caves. Meteora are mentioned neither in the Greek mythology nor in the Ancient Greek literature; the first people to inhabit Meteora after the Neolithic Era were an ascetic group of hermit monks who, in the 9th century AD, moved up to the ancient pinnacles. They lived in fissures in the rock towers, some as high as 1800 ft above the plain; this great height, combined with the sheerness of the cliff walls, kept away all but the most determined visitors. The hermits led a life of solitude, meeting only on Sundays and special days to worship and pray in a chapel built at the foot of a rock known as Dhoupiani; as early as the 11th century, monks occupied the caverns of Meteora. However, monasteries were not built until the 14th century, when the monks sought somewhere to hide in the face of an increasing number of Turkish attacks on Greece.
At this time, access to the top was via removable windlass. Nowadays, getting up is a lot simpler due to steps being carved into the rock during the 1920s. Of the 24 monasteries, only 6 are still functioning, with each housing fewer than 10 individuals; the exact date of the establishment of the monasteries is unknown. By the late 11th and early 12th centuries, a rudimentary monastic state had formed called the Skete of Stagoi and was centered around the still-standing church of Theotokos. By the end of the 12th century, an ascetic community had flocked to Meteora. In 1344, Athanasios Koinovitis from Mount Athos brought a group of followers to Meteora. From 1356 to 1372, he founded the great Meteoron monastery on the Broad Rock, perfect for the monks; the only means of reaching it was by climbing a long ladder, drawn up whenever the monks felt threatened. At the end of the 14th century, the Byzantine Empire's reign over northern Greece was being threatened by Turkish raiders who wanted control over the fertile plain of Thessaly.
The hermit monks, seeking a retreat from the expanding Turkish occupation, found the inaccessible rock pillars of Meteora to be an ideal refuge
Nevada is a state in the Western United States. It is bordered by Oregon to the northwest, Idaho to the northeast, California to the west, Arizona to the southeast and Utah to the east. Nevada is the 7th most extensive, the 32nd most populous, but the 9th least densely populated of the U. S. states. Nearly three-quarters of Nevada's people live in Clark County, which contains the Las Vegas–Paradise metropolitan area where three of the state's four largest incorporated cities are located. Nevada's capital, however, is Carson City. Nevada is known as the "Silver State" because of the importance of silver to its history and economy, it is known as the "Battle Born State", because it achieved statehood during the Civil War. Nevada is desert and semi-arid, much of it within the Great Basin. Areas south of the Great Basin are within the Mojave Desert, while Lake Tahoe and the Sierra Nevada lie on the western edge. About 86% of the state's land is managed by various jurisdictions of the U. S. federal government, both civilian and military.
Before European contact, Native Americans of the Paiute and Washoe tribes inhabited the land, now Nevada. The first Europeans to explore the region were Spanish, they called the region Nevada because of the snow. The area formed part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, became part of Mexico when it gained independence in 1821; the United States annexed the area in 1848 after its victory in the Mexican–American War, it was incorporated as part of Utah Territory in 1850. The discovery of silver at the Comstock Lode in 1859 led to a population boom that became an impetus to the creation of Nevada Territory out of western Utah Territory in 1861. Nevada became the 36th state on October 31, 1864, as the second of two states added to the Union during the Civil War. Nevada has a reputation for its libertarian laws. In 1940, with a population of just over 110,000 people, Nevada was by far the least-populated state, with less than half the population of the next least-populated state. However, legalized gambling and lenient marriage and divorce laws transformed Nevada into a major tourist destination in the 20th century.
Nevada is the only U. S. state where prostitution is legal, though it is illegal in Clark County, Washoe County and Carson City. The tourism industry remains Nevada's largest employer, with mining continuing as a substantial sector of the economy: Nevada is the fourth-largest producer of gold in the world; the name "Nevada" comes from meaning "snow-covered", after the Sierra Nevada. Most Nevadans pronounce the second syllable of their state name using the TRAP vowel. Many from outside the Western United States pronounce it with the PALM vowel. Although the latter pronunciation is closer to the Spanish pronunciation, it is not the pronunciation preferred by most Nevadans. State Assemblyman Harry Mortenson proposed a bill to recognize the alternate pronunciation of Nevada, though the bill was not supported by most legislators and never received a vote; the Nevadan pronunciation is the de facto official one, since it is the one used by the state legislature. At one time, the state's official tourism organization, TravelNevada, stylized the name of the state as "Nevăda", with a breve mark over the a indicating the locally preferred pronunciation, available as a license plate design.
Nevada is entirely within the Basin and Range Province, is broken up by many north-south mountain ranges. Most of these ranges have endorheic valleys between them, which belies the image portrayed by the term Great Basin. Much of the northern part of the state is within the Great Basin, a mild desert that experiences hot temperatures in the summer and cold temperatures in the winter. Moisture from the Arizona Monsoon will cause summer thunderstorms; the state's highest recorded temperature was 125 °F in Laughlin on June 29, 1994. The coldest recorded temperature was −52 °F set in San Jacinto in 1972, in the northeastern portion of the state; the Humboldt River crosses the state from east to west across the northern part of the state, draining into the Humboldt Sink near Lovelock. Several rivers drain from the Sierra Nevada eastward, including the Walker and Carson rivers. All of these rivers are endorheic basins, ending in Walker Lake, Pyramid Lake, the Carson Sink, respectively. However, not all of Nevada is within the Great Basin.
Tributaries of the Snake River drain the far north, while the Colorado River, which forms much of the boundary with Arizona, drains much of southern Nevada. The mountain ranges, some of which have peaks above 13,000 feet, harbor lush forests high above desert plains, creating sky islands for endemic species; the valleys are no lower in elevation than 3,000 feet, while some in central Nevada are above 6,000 feet. The southern third of the state, where the Las Vegas area is situated, is within the Mojave Desert; the area is closer to the Arizona Monsoon in the summer. The terrain is lower below 4,000 feet, creating conditions for hot summer days and cool to chilly winter nights. Nevada and California have by far the longest diagonal line as a state boundary at just over 400 miles; this line begins in Lake Tahoe nearly
A pyramidal peak, sometimes called a glacial horn in extreme cases, is an angular pointed mountain peak which results from the cirque erosion due to multiple glaciers diverging from a central point. Pyramidal peaks are examples of nunataks. Glaciers forming in drainages on the sides of a mountain, develop bowl-shaped basins called cirques. Cirque glaciers have rotational sliding that abrades the floor of the basin more than walls and that causes the bowl shape to form; as cirques are formed by glaciation in an alpine environment, the headwall and ridges between parallel glaciers called arêtes become more steep and defined. This occurs due to mass wasting beneath the ice surface, it is held that a common cause for headwall steepening and extension headward is the crevasses known as bergschrund that occur between the moving ice and the headwall. Plucking and shattering can be seen here by those exploring the crevasses. A cirque is exposed; when three or more of these cirques converge on a central point, they create a pyramid-shaped peak with steep walls.
These horns are a common shape for mountain tops in glaciated areas. The number of faces of a horn depends on the number of cirques involved in the formation of the peak: three to four is most common. Horns with more than four faces include the Mönch. A peak with four symmetrical faces is called a Matterhorn; the peak of a glacial horn will outlast the arêtes on its flanks. As the rock around it erodes, the horn gains in prominence. A glacial horn will have near vertical faces on all sides. In the Alps, "horn" is the name of exposed peaks with slope inclinations of 45-60°. Artesonraju in Áncash, Peru Cradle Mountain in Tasmania, Australia Crowsnest Mountain in Alberta, Canada Fitz Roy in Patagonia, South America Grand Teton in Grand Teton National Park, United States K2 in China and Pakistan Kamenitsa, Pirin Mountain, Bulgaria Ketil in Greenland Kinnerly Peak in Glacier National Park, United States The Kitzsteinhorn in Salzburg, Austria The Matterhorn in Italy and Switzerland Momin Dvor, Pirin Mountain, Bulgaria Mount Aspiring/Tititea in Otago, New Zealand Mount Assiniboine in British Columbia, Canada Mount Thielsen in Oregon, United States Mount Wilbur in Glacier National Park, United States Nevado Las Agujas in Los Ríos, Chile Pilot Peak in Wyoming, United States Puy Mary in Cantal, France The Pyramid in Antarctica Pyramiden in Greenland Reynolds Mountain in Glacier National Park, United States Shivling in Uttarakhand, India Stob Dearg in Glen Coe, Scotland Store Skagastølstind in Sogn og Fjordane, Norway Vihren, Pirin Mountain, Bulgaria Glacial landforms Easterbrook, Don J..
Surface Landforms. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Pp. 334–336. ISBN 978-0138609580. Lemke, Karen A.. "Illustrated Glossary of Alpine Glacial Landforms". Archived from the original on August 13, 2012. Retrieved October 12, 2012