Interstate 66 is an Interstate Highway in the eastern United States. As indicated by its route number, it runs in an east–west direction, its current western terminus is near Middletown, Virginia, at an interchange with Interstate 81. C. at an interchange with U. S. Route 29; because of its terminus in the Shenandoah Valley, the highway was once called the "Shenandoah Freeway." Much of the route parallels U. S. Route 29 or Virginia State Route 55. Interstate 66 has no physical or historical connection to the famous U. S. Route 66, in a different region of the United States; the E Street Expressway is a spur from Interstate 66 into the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D. C; because I-66 is the only Interstate Highway running west from Washington, D. C. into Northern Virginia, traffic on the road is extremely heavy. For decades, there has been talk of widening I-66 from 2 to 3 lanes each way inside the Capital Beltway through Arlington, although many Arlington residents are adamantly opposed to this plan.
In 2005, the Virginia Department of Transportation studied the prospect of implementing a one-lane-plus-shoulder extension on westbound I-66 within the Beltway. In the summer of 2010, construction began on a third lane and a 12-foot shoulder lane between the Fairfax Drive entrance ramp to I-66 west and the Sycamore Street ramp, a 1.9 mile distance. The entrance ramp acceleration lane and the exit ramp deceleration lanes were lengthened to form a continuous lane between both ramps; the 12-foot shoulder lane can be used in emergency situations. This project was completed in December 2011; the Orange Line and the Silver Line of the Washington Metro operate in the median of the highway in Fairfax and Arlington counties. Four stations are located along this segment of I-66. I-66 east has two exit ramps, one from each side of the highway, to the Inner Loop of I-495 heading northbound. One is a two lane right exit which merges down to one lane halfway along the ramp, while a second exit ramp is a left exit.
Both exit ramps for the Inner Loop merge prior to merging from the left with the Inner Loop. There is no access from the Outer Loop of I-495 to I-66 east. I-66 east has two exits, one from each side of the highway, to the Outer Loop of I-495. One is a right exit. I-66 is named the "Custis Memorial Parkway" east of the Capital Beltway in Virginia; the name commemorates the Custis family, several of whose members played prominent roles in Northern Virginia's history. Due to heavy commuter traffic, I-66 features a variety of high-occupancy vehicle restrictions. Between US 15 in Haymarket and the Capital Beltway, the left lane on eastbound I-66 is reserved for vehicles with two or more occupants from 5:30 to 9:30 a.m. on weekdays, the left lane on westbound I-66 is reserved for HOV-2 traffic from 3:00 to 7:00 p.m on weekdays. The eastbound shoulder lane between US 50 in Fairfax and the Beltway is open to all traffic from 5:30 to 11:00 a.m on weekdays. The westbound shoulder lane between the Capital Beltway and U.
S. Route 50, is open to all traffic from 2:00 to 8:00 p.m on weekdays. Between the Beltway and the Theodore Roosevelt Bridge, the entire eastbound roadway is reserved for HOV-2 and Washington Dulles International Airport traffic from 5:30 to 9:30 a.m. and the entire westbound roadway is reserved for HOV-2 and Dulles Airport traffic from 3:00 to 7:00 p.m. This is enforced by random police presence on the on- and off-ramps, because single-passenger vehicles are allowed to enter the highway inside the Beltway in the direction of rush-hour traffic when they intend to use the Dulles Access Road called Virginia State Route 267 at exit 67. Police monitor the three-mile stretch between the Dulles Access Road and the Beltway for violations on Virginia State Route 267 between the on and off ramp to Washington Dulles International Airport and I-66 having traffic slow down to visually inspect inside each vehicle. Both motorcycles and qualified "clean special fuel" vehicles are permitted to use HOV-2 facilities on I-66 during times when HOV regulations are in effect without the required number of occupants.
The "clean special fuel" designation is used by hybrid vehicles, but is available for vehicles using alternative fuels such as natural gas or electricity. To qualify for the HOV exemption, a vehicle owner must request the designation when registering the vehicle, pay the appropriate fees, display a "clean special fuel" license plate; the clean-fuel exemption is scheduled to expire on June 30, 2012, although the Virginia General Assembly has extended the exemption every year, one year at a time, since it was designated to expire in 2006. In 2011, the exemption was modified so it applies only to clean fuel vehicles registered before June 30, 2011. Clean-fuel vehicles registered after that date are not exempt from HOV regulations on I-66. In 2012, the exemption was modified to be "open-ended" rather than year-to-year; as of January 28, 2011, penalt
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Frederick County, Virginia
Frederick County is located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 78,305, its county seat is Winchester. The county was formed in 1743 by the splitting of Orange County, it is Virginia's northernmost county. Frederick County is included in the Winchester, VA-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Washington-Baltimore-Northern Virginia, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA Combined Statistical Area; the area that would become Frederick County, Virginia was inhabited and transited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years before European colonization. The "Indian Road" refers to a historic pathway made by local tribes. Colonization efforts began with the Virginia Company of London, but European settlement did not flourish until after the company lost its charter and Virginia became a royal colony in 1624. In order to stimulate migration to the colony, the headright system was used. Under this system, those who funded an emigrant's transportation costs were compensated with land.
During the early 17th century, King Charles II granted several acres of colonial Virginia lands to “seven loyal supporters,” including Lord Fairfax. This passed to Thomas Fairfax, 5th Lord Fairfax of Cameron, who married the daughter of Thomas Colepeper, who owned several acres of land. After their son, Lord Thomas Fairfax, inherited the combined grants, he controlled over 5,000,000 acres of land in Virginia, including much of the land that became Frederick County. Frederick County was created from Orange County in 1738, was organized in 1743; the Virginia Assembly named the new county for Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales, the eldest son of King George II of Great Britain. At that time, "Old Frederick County" encompassed all or part of four counties in present-day Virginia and five in present-day West Virginia: Hampshire, created 1754 Dunmore, created 1772 and renamed Shenandoah in 1778 Berkeley, created 1772 Hardy, created 1786 Jefferson, created 1801 Morgan, created 1820 Page, created 1831 Clarke, created 1836 Warren, created 1836 As Commander-in-Chief of the new Colonial Virginia regiment in 1754, Colonel George Washington's headquarters were located in Winchester before and during the French and Indian War.
He resigned from military service in 1758. Meanwhile, Washington represented Frederick County in his first elective office, having been elected to the House of Burgesses in 1758 and 1761. Daniel Morgan was another famous General during the American Revolutionary War, from. Winchester changed hands between the Confederate and Union Armies on average once every three weeks during the war. Many battles were fought in Frederick County; some of those battles include: First Battle of Kernstown, March 1862 First Battle of Winchester, May 1862 Second Battle of Winchester, June 1863 Second Battle of Kernstown, July 1864 Third Battle of Winchester, September 1864 Battle of Cedar Creek, October 1864The first constitution of West Virginia provided for Frederick County to be added to the new state if approved by a local election. Unlike those of neighboring Berkeley and Jefferson counties, Frederick County residents voted to remain in Virginia despite being occupied by the Union Army at the time. Four types of mineral water springs occur on the land that would be named Rock Enon Springs.
The area was once called Capper Springs, named for area settler John Capper. William Marker bought the 942 acres in 1856 and built a hotel, the first building of the Rock Enon Springs Resort, that survived the American Civil War. On March 24, 1899 the Shenandoah Valley National Bank purchased the property for $3,500. During the summer of 1914 botanists found polypodium vulgare, phegopteris hexagonoptera, adiantum pedatum, pteris aquilina, cheilanthes lanosa on the property; the idea that soaking in the spring water had medical value was a large part of the tourism. In 1944, when that healing idea was no longer accepted as true, the Glaize family sold the property to the Shenandoah Area Council who turned what was once a resort into Camp Rock Enon. In 1944 the 5 acres Miller Lake was created by adding a 200 feet earth dam across Laruel Run using equipment owned by the Federal Fish Hatchery in Leestown. In 1958 "walnut and persimmon trees" were planted on the property. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 416 square miles, of which 414 square miles is land and 2 square miles is water.
This is the northernmost county in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Cedar Creek and Belle Grove National Historical Park George Washington National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 59,209 people, 22,097 households, 16,727 families residing in the county; the population density was 143 people per square mile. There were 23,319 housing units at an average density of 56/square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 94.99% White, 2.62% Black or African American, 0.16% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.56% from other races, 1.01% from two or more races. 1.70 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 22,097 households out of which 36.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.50% were married couples living together, 8.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.30% were non-families. 19.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household
Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ
Interstate 81 in Virginia
Interstate 81 is an 855-mile-long highway. In the U. S. state of Virginia, I-81 runs for 324.92 miles, making the portion in Virginia longer than any other state's portion. It is the longest Interstate highway within the borders of Virginia, it stretches from the Tennessee state line near Bristol to the West Virginia state line near Winchester. It enters Virginia from Bristol and Leaves Virginia into Berkeley County, West Virginia. Interstate 81 enters Bristol, Virginia from Tennessee and runs along the mountains of western Virginia. For most of its length, I-81 parallels U. S. Route 11. I-81 runs concurrently with Interstate 77 in Wytheville, Virginia for about 10 miles in a notable example of a wrong-way concurrency: both I-81 south and I-77 north share the same roadbed there. Further north, the highway runs concurrently with about 30 miles of Interstate 64; the state has proposed to widen its entire portion of I-81 to a minimum of three or four lanes in each direction to accommodate increased truck traffic and to toll non-passenger vehicles.
Some sections of the new widened highway may separate car and truck traffic. On January 8, 2019, Governor Ralph Northam and Republican lawmakers agreed to a plan to add tolls to I-81 in Virginia in order to fund improvements to I-81 and parallel routes that would reduce traffic jams. I-81 would have used all-electronic tolling, with toll gantries every 40 to 60 miles and a toll rate of 11 cents a mile for cars and 17 cents a mile for trucks. Tolls would have been discounted during the overnight hours; this plan faced opposition from trucking groups, fearing economic hardship. On January 31, 2019, lawmakers decided to seek other funding sources. George Washington and Jefferson National Forests Holston River James River New River Shenandoah National Park Shenandoah River US Route 11 in Virginia 2007 Rand McNally Atlas I-81.org I-81 Corridor in Virginia by VDOT
Virginia State Route 37
State Route 37 is a primary state highway in the U. S. state of Virginia. It forms a western bypass of Winchester. Although the road is a freeway, neither I-81 connection is freeway standard. S. Route 11 to connect with I-81 at exit 317. In addition to local access, the highway connects to U. S. Route 50 and U. S. Route 522, two major highways that lead west and northwest into West Virginia and north to Interstate 70 at Hancock, Maryland. An eastern bypass, known locally as "Route 37 East", has been proposed in statewide and local plans to complete the loop. Route 37 begins at an intersection with Hillandale Road, a local frontage road along the east side of I-81, Tasker Road, which leads southeast to US 522 near Armel, it crosses I-81 at exit 310, a diamond interchange with two traffic signals on SR 37, becomes a freeway, soon junctioning US 11 with a partial cloverleaf. The next interchange is a diamond at Cedar Creek Grade, SR 37 reaches its approximate midpoint at US 50, another diamond. A trumpet interchange completed in 2001 connects to the Winchester Medical Center, the final diamond is with US 522 at the northwestern corner.
SR 37 ends at a partial Y interchange with US 11, at which SR 37 traffic can only access US 11 north and only traffic from US 11 south can access SR 37, although a northbound exit to Cives Lane was added in about 2000 to allow SR 37 traffic to access US 11 south. About 1/2 mile of US 11 is a divided highway, connecting SR 37 with I-81 at exit 317. In early Fall 2014 VDOT will start work at Route 37's southern terminus' exit at I-81, they will extend Route 37 north to a new diamond interchange with Front Royal Pike. Route 37 will continue northward to Millwood Pike and have another diamond interchange; the next exit will be at Senseny Road with another diamond interchange. The next and final exit will be a half cloverleaf interchange with VA 7, but it is not final that it will be a half cloverleaf because of Valley Mill Road; the problem with this is that the intersection with Valley Mill Road is where the southbound exit for Route 37 is to come into Route 7. Route 37 was defined as the proposed Winchester By-Pass by 1963, was included in the statewide Arterial Network when it was created in 1964.
When I-81 opened past Winchester in November 1965, it included an interchange south of Winchester, taking traffic between I-81 and US 11 along a short connecting road. The north half of the bypass, from US 50 west of Winchester north and east to US 11 north of the city, opened in the late 1960s, the semicircle was completed in the late 1970s, with the linking of Route 37 to the existing I-81/US 11 connection. A new bridge carrying southbound SR 37 over I-81 was built, but otherwise the diamond interchange was not modified; the only change to the major bypass since it was constructed has been a new trumpet interchange serving the Winchester Medical Center. A single ramp from SR 37 north to Cives Lane, allowing traffic at the north end of the bypass to access US 11 south, was built in about 2000; the entire route is in Frederick County