Albert II, Prince of Monaco
Albert II is the reigning monarch of the Principality of Monaco and head of the princely house of Grimaldi. He is the son of the American actress Grace Kelly. Prince Albert's sisters are Caroline, Princess of Hanover, Princess Stéphanie. In July 2011, Prince Albert married Charlene Wittstock. Prince Albert II is one of the wealthiest royals in the world, with assets valued at more than $1 billion, which include land in Monaco and France. Although Prince Albert does not own the Prince's Palace of Monaco, he does own shares in the Société des bains de mer de Monaco, which operates Monaco's casino and other entertainment properties in the principality. Albert was born in the Prince's Palace of Monaco, he has ancestry from Italy, Britain, the United States, France, Mexico and Monaco. He was baptized on 20 April 1958, by Monsignor Jean Delay, archbishop of Marseille, in the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception of Monaco, before being presented at the balcony of the Palace to the people of Monaco.
His godmother was the Spanish queen Victoria Eugenia of Spain, his godfather was Prince Louis de Polignac. Albert graduated with distinction from the Lycée Albert Premier, in 1976, he was a camper and a counselor for six summers at Camp Tecumseh, on Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire, in the 1970s. He spent a year training in various princely duties and enrolled at Amherst College, in western Massachusetts, in 1977 as Albert Grimaldi, studying political science, economics and English literature, he speaks French, English and Italian. He spent the summer of 1979 touring Europe and the Middle East with the Amherst Glee Club, graduated in 1981 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science. Albert undertook an exchange program with the University of Bristol, at the Alfred Marshall School of Economics and Management in 1979. Prince Albert's mother was killed in a car accident in 1982 at age 52. In 2017, in In Depth interview with Graham Bensinger, the Prince stated that his mother's death was a'traumatic' event for him and the family.
He revealed that his father was never the'same man' after the loss. Albert was an enthusiastic sportsman, participating in cross country, javelin throwing, judo, tennis, sailing, skiing and fencing, he is a patron of AS Monaco. Albert competed in the bobsleigh at five consecutive Winter Olympics for Monaco, taking part in both the two-man and four-man events. In the two-man bobsleigh Albert finished 25th at the 1988 games in Calgary, 43rd at the 1992 games in Albertville, 31st at the 2002 games. In the four-man bobsleigh Albert finished 27th in 1992, 26th at the 1994 games in Lillehammer, 28th at both the 1998 games in Nagano and the 2002 games in Salt Lake City. Albert was Monaco's flag bearer at the 1988, 1994, 1998 Winter Olympics. Albert has been a member of the International Olympic Committee since 1985, his maternal grandfather, John B. Kelly Sr. and maternal uncle, John B. Kelly Jr. were both Olympic medalists in rowing. Albert has been the patron of the World Olympians Association since 2012.
In 2017 Albert gained OLY post-nominal status under his competition name of Albert Grimaldi rather than his royal title. Albert did not finish it, he became a judo black belt. On 31 March 2005, following consultation with the Crown Council of Monaco, the Palais Princier announced that Rainier's son, Hereditary Prince Albert, would take over the duties of his father as regent since Rainier was no longer able to exercise his royal functions. On 6 April 2005, Rainier III died and Albert succeeded him as Albert II; the first part of Prince Albert II's enthronement as ruler of the Principality was on 12 July 2005, after the end of the three-month mourning period for his father. A morning Mass at Saint Nicholas Cathedral presided over by the Archbishop of Monaco, the Most Reverend Bernard Barsi, formally marked the beginning of his reign. Afterward Albert II returned to the princely palace to host a garden party for 7,000 Monégasques born in the principality. In the courtyard, the Prince was presented with two keys of the city as a symbol of his investiture and he made a speech.
The evening ended with a spectacular fireworks display on the waterfront. The second part of his investiture was on 19 November 2005. Albert was enthroned at Saint Nicholas Cathedral, his family was there in attendance, including his elder sister Princess Caroline with her husband Ernst, Prince of Hanover and three of her four children, Andrea and Charlotte. Royalty from 16 delegations were present for the festivities throughout the country; the evening ended with an opera performance in Monte Carlo. Prince Albert continues the policy – initiated by previous rulers of Monaco – of strengthening environmental awareness. Just like his great-great-grandfather Albert I, he travelled to Spitsbergen in July 2005. During this trip, he visited the glaciers Monacobreen. Prince Albert II engaged in a Russian Arctic expedition, reaching the North Pole on Easter, 16 April 2006; as a result, he is the first incumbent head of state to have reached the North Pole. Prince Albert is the Vice-Chairman of the Princess Grace Foundation-USA, an American charity founded in 1982, after his mother's death, which supports emerging artists in theatre and film, as Princess Grace did in her lifetime.
In 2006, Prince Albert created the Prince Albert II of Monac
Charles I, Lord of Monaco
Charles I of Monaco was Lord of Monaco and the founder of the Grimaldi dynasty. The oldest son of Rainier I by his first wife, Salvatica del Carretto, Charles was forced to flee into exile following the Rock of Monaco falling into Genoese control on April 10, 1301, he was appointed Admiral of France. After thirty years of Genoese rule, Charles retook the Rock on September 12, 1331, ruled to his death, when the Rock was again conquered by the Genoese army, he was Baron of San Demetrio. In 1346 he took the Lordship of Menton and, in 1355, he conquered the Lordship of Roquebrune. On June 29, 1352, Charles designed a co-rulership of Monaco between his uncle Antonio, his own sons, Rainier II and Gabriele. Charles I married a daughter of Girardo Spinola, Lord of Dertonne, they had eight children: his successor. Rainier II Francesco Gabriele, married to a member of the Orsini family Charles, Co-Lord of Mentone. Luca had two sons and Filippo Lords of Mentone. Lancelot Ruffo Anastasia Françoise de Bernardy, Princes of Monaco: the remarkable history of the Grimaldi family, ed. Barker, 1961
Visa policy of Monaco
Monaco does not have a visa policy of its own and the Schengen Visa policy applies. Although Monaco is not part of the European Union, or the Schengen Agreement, its territory is part of the Schengen Area by virtue of its customs Union with France as a result of the "Convention on Good Neighbourly Relations of 18 May 1963 on the entry and establishment of foreigners in Monaco" between France and Monaco; the 1963 convention was adapted to allow Monaco to be administered within the Schengen Area as if it were part of France. The entry and stay of foreigners in Monaco is defined by the Ordinance n. 3.153 of 19 March 1964 concerning the conditions of entry and residence of foreigners in the Principality. Both French and Monégasque authorities carry out checks at Monaco's heliport. Visa policy for holders of diplomatic and service passports in the Schengen area is not unified; the visa policy of Monaco for holders of diplomatic and service passports is identical to the visa policy of France and differs from other Schengen countries.
In addition to nations whose all citizens are visa exempt, holders of diplomatic or service category passports of Algeria, Bahrain, Cabo Verde, Dominican Republic, Gabon, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, United States and only diplomatic passports of Armenia, Belize, China, India, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia, Senegal and Vietnam do not require a visa. Foreigners that desire to stay for a period longer than 3 months in Monaco require a resident permit; when visiting Monaco, there is passport control except. Visitors may get souvenir passport stamps at a state tourism office. Visa requirements for Monégasque citizens Visa policy of the Schengen Area List of diplomatic missions of Monaco Foreign relations of Monaco
Minister of State (Monaco)
The Minister of State is the head of government of Monaco, being appointed by and subordinate to the Prince or Princess of Monaco. During their term of office, the holder is responsible for directing the work of the Monegasque government and is in charge of foreign relations; as the monarch's representative, the Minister of State directs the executive services, commands the Police and the Military, presides over the Council of Government. The office was created in 1911 with the adoption of Monaco's constitution; until the revision of the constitution of 2002, the Minister had to be a French citizen, selected from several senior civil servants proposed by the French government. Since 2002, the Minister of State can be either French or Monegasque and is chosen and appointed by the monarch, after consultation with the French government. Politics of Monaco Monarchy of Monaco List of rulers of Monaco World Statesmen - Monaco
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
History of Monaco
The early history of Monaco is concerned with the protective and strategic value of the Rock of Monaco, the area's chief geological landmark, which served first as a shelter for ancient peoples and as a fortress. Part of Liguria's history since the fall of the Roman Empire, from the 14th to the early 15th century the area was contested for political reasons. Since that point, excepting a brief period of French occupation, it has remained under the control of the House of Grimaldi; the Rock of Monaco served as a shelter for the area's early humans from the end of the Paleolithic period 400,000 BC, evidence of, found in a cave in St. Judist's Gardens. According to the accounts of historian Diodorus Siculus and geographer Strabo, the area's first permanent settlers were the mountain-dwelling Ligures, who emigrated from their native city of Genoa, Italy. However, the ancient Ligurian language, Indo-European, is not directly connected to the Italian dialect spoken by the modern inhabitants of Liguria, nor to the modern Monegasque language.
During the 6th-century BC. Phocaeans from Massalia founded the colony of Monoikos; the name of the colony derives from the local veneration of the Greek demigod Hercules later adopted by the Romans, said to have constructed the ancient path that passed through the region from Spain to Italy. The Roman emperor Julian wrote of Hercules's construction of Monaco's port and a coastal road; the road was dotted with altars to Hercules, a temple dedicated to him was established on the Rock of Monaco. The name Port Hercules was subsequently used for the ancient port. Monoeci meaning "Single One" or Monoikos meaning "Single House" could be a reference to Hercules or his temple, or the isolated community inhabiting the area around the rock. According to the "travels of Hercules" theme documented by Diodorus Siculus and Strabo, both Greeks and native Ligurian people asserted that Hercules passed through the area. After the Gallic Wars, which served as a stopping-point for Julius Caesar on his way to campaign in Greece, fell under Roman control as part of the Maritime Alps province.
The Roman poet Virgil called it "that castled cliff, Monoecus by the sea". The commentator Servius's use of the passage asserts, under the entry portus, that the epithet was derived: dictus autem Monoecus vel quod pulsis omnibus illic solus habitavit, vel quod in eius templo numquam aliquis deorum simul colitur."either because Hercules drove off everyone else and lived there alone, or because in his temple no other of the gods is worshipped at the same time." No temple to Hercules has been found at Monaco, although the rocky ground and dense conurbation make future excavations unlikely. The port is mentioned in Pliny the Elder's Natural History and in Tacitus's Histories, when Fabius Valens was forced to put into the port. Monaco remained under Roman control until the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in 476; the city was under the domain of Odoacer until his fall at the hands of the Ostrogoths in the late 5th century. Monaco was recaptured by the Romans during the reign of Justinian in the mid-6th century and was held until its capture by the Lombards in the 7th century.
Monaco passed hands between the Lombards and Franks. Though these raids left the area entirely depopulated, the Saracens were expelled in 975, by the 11th century the area was again populated by Ligurians. In 1191, Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI granted suzerainty over the area to the city of Genoa, the native home of the Ligurians. On 10 June 1215, a detachment of Genoese Ghibellines led by Fulco del Cassello began the construction of a fortress atop the Rock of Monaco; this date is cited as the beginning of Monaco's modern history. As the Ghibellines intended their fortress to be a strategic military stronghold and center of control for the area, they set about creating a settlement around the base of the Rock to support the garrison; the Grimaldis, descended from Otto Canella and taking their name from his son Grimaldo, were an ancient and prominent Guelphic Genoese family. Members of this family, in the course of the civil strife in Genoa between the Guelphs and Ghibellines, took refuge in Monaco, accompanied by various other Guelphic families, most notably the Fieschis.
Francesco Grimaldi seized the Rock of Monaco in 1297, starting the Grimaldi dynasty, under the sovereignty of the Republic of Genoa. The Grimaldis acquired Roquebrune in 1355, enlarging their possessions. In 1338 Monegasque ships under the command of Carlo Grimaldi participated, along with those of France and Genoa, in the English Channel naval campaign. Plunder from the sack of Southampton was brought back to Monaco, contributing to the principality's prosperity. Honoré II, Prince of Monaco secured recognition of his independent sovereignty from Spain in 1633, from Louis XIII of France by the Treaty of Péronne. Since the area has remained under the control of the Grimaldi family to the present day, except when under French control during the French revolution from 1793 to May 17, 1814, as part of the département of Alpes-Maritimes; the principality was re-established in 1814, only to be designated a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Monaco remained in this position until 1860, when by the Treaty of Turin, Sardinia ceded to France the surround
Roquebrune-Cap-Martin is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in southeastern France between Monaco and Menton. The name was changed from Roquebrune to differentiate the town from Roquebrune-sur-Argens in the neighboring Var department. In pre-Roman times the area was settled by the Ligurians. Traces of their language can be still found in the local dialect; the commune was founded in 971 by Conrad I, count of Ventimiglia, in order to protect his western border. In 1355, Roccabruna fell under the control of the Grimaldi family of Monaco for five centuries, during which time the castle was strengthened. In 1793, Roquebrune became French for the first time, changing the name from the original Roccabruna, but it was returned to Monaco in 1814. In 1804 Napoleon built a road along the coastline; this road connected the village to the rest of the Côte d'Azur, led to its merger with the smaller town of Cap-Martin. In 1848, there was a revolution related to the Italian Risorgimento, with the result that Roccabruna and Menton became free cities under the protection of the Savoy Prince.
They hoped to be part of the Kingdom of Sardinia, but this did not occur, the towns after two years of independence were put under Savoyan administration. They remained in a state of political limbo from 1849 until they were ceded to France by a plebiscite in 1861. Giuseppe Garibaldi, who promoted the union of the County of Nice to Italy, complained that the plebiscite was not done with "universal vote" and Roccabruna was requested by Italian irredentists; as a consequence of these irredentism ideals, during World War II all the coastal area between Italy and Monte Carlo was occupied and administered by the Kingdom of Italy until September 1943. The area became fashionable in the 1920s and 1930s leading to the construction of several notable buildings including Coco Chanel's La Pausa on Cap Martin, Eileen Gray and Jean Badovici's E-1027; the Irish poet and Nobel Laureate William Butler Yeats died in the Hôtel Idéal Séjour in the neighboring town of Menton on January 28, 1939. In a letter to his wife, Yeats expressed his wish to be buried in a cemetery in Roquebrune for one year and to be exhumed and reburied in Drumcliff, County Sligo, Ireland.
However, his exhumation was delayed until September 1948 at which point they could no longer locate his remains. The French diplomat sent to oversee the reburial, Bernard Cailloux, said that it was “impossible to return the full and authentic remains of Mr Yeats” and proposed asking Dr Rebouillat, the local sworn pathologist, “to reconstitute a skeleton presenting all the characteristics of the deceased”; the remains of several other individuals, including an Englishman named Alfred Hollis, were assembled in a coffin and sent to Ireland for reburial. The entire affair was handled with secrecy on both the part of the French delegation responsible for the burial, the poet's family, so as not to illicit outrage from the Irish public; the incident was not publicly disclosed until the private archives of French diplomat Jacques Camílle Paris were turner over to the Irish Embassy in Paris in June 2015. The literary couple Romain Gary and Lesley Blanch lived in Roquebrune in 1950–57. Roquebrune-Cap-Martin has several villages and towns: St. Roman a suburb of Monaco, the residential areas of Cabbé, Bon Voyage and Serret, Roquebrune with its perched village and château, the posh Cap Martin peninsula and the modern seaside resort of Carnolès, with its long pebble beach bordering Menton.
The whole area has a major tourism industry during the high season from April to October. The local dialect is linguistically part of the mentonasque of the Païs Mentounasc, a cultural area between the Ligurian dialects and the Occitan language. Since 1861 the use of the French language has increased enormously in the city, now only a minority of the 11,692 inhabitants still speaks the original dialect of Roccabruna. Despite its name, the Monte Carlo Country Club is located in the municipality, it is the venue for the tennis Monte-Carlo Masters. Roquebrune-Cap-Martin is twinned with: Profondeville, Belgium Vejle, Denmark People awarded the honorary citizenship of Roquebrune-Cap-Martin are: List of historical unrecognized states Former countries in Europe after 1815 Grotte du Vallonnet Han van Meegeren the well-known art-forger lived in Roquebrune and painted here his famous Vermeer fake Supper at Emmaus INSEE Roquebrune-Cap-Martin official website