Nicholas, Crown Prince of Montenegro
Crown Prince Nicholas of Montenegro is the Head of the House of Petrović-Njegoš, which reigned over Montenegro from 1696 to 1766 and again from 1782 to 1918. In 2011 Montenegro recognised an official role for the Royal House of Petrović-Njegoš in Montenegro: to promote Montenegrin identity and traditions through cultural and other non-political activities. Beside protocol functions, he shares some political powers like the President of Montenegro, such as giving amnesty to prisoners; the house of Petrović came from Herzegovina and settled in Njeguši around 1400. Niegosch was born around 1425 and became the Voivode of Njegoš. Crown Prince Nicholas descends from Danilo Petrović-Njegoš who obtained the hereditary Dignity of Vladika of Montenegro in 1711 when it became a theocracy. Danilo I Petrović-Njegoš was recognized as Sovereign Prince of Montenegro by Russia on 21 March 1852, established succession by male primogeniture, his successor, Prince Nikola I assumed the style of Royal Highness on 19 December 1900, the title of King 28 August 1910.
Nikola is related to the former royal House of Obrenović through Yephrem, younger full brother of Miloš Obrenović I, Prince of Serbia. During World War I the Petrović Njegoš family were forced to flee the country in 1915 after the Army of Montenegro was overwhelmed by the troops of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. At the end of the war, the Kingdom of Serbia annexed Montenegro while abolishing the Kingdom of Montenegro and deposing the Petrović Njegoš dynasty; the family made their home in France where Nikola I of Montenegro died in exile in 1921. The same year, King Nikola's maternal grandson, Alexandar Karađorđević became king of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes, of which Montenegro had become a part. Though the Kingdom of the Serbs and Slovenes was proclaimed on 13 November 1918, it was never recognized by Nikola I, who maintained a government-in-exile, headed by the ex-king's former aide-de-camp and ambassador to Washington, General Anto Gvozdenović, until the Conference of Ambassadors at Paris gave international recognition to the union 13 July 1922.
Nikola I's heir at death was his eldest son, Crown Prince Danilo, who "abdicated" after one week, the family's dynastic claim was taken up by his grandson, Prince of Montenegro, the titular King Mihajlo I, the father of Prince Nikola II and died in exile in 1986. Though Prince Nikola II is de jure King of Montenegro he uses the style of "His Royal Highness Crown Prince" or "His Royal Highness Prince Nikola II of Montenegro." Prince Nikola II was born in an internment camp in Occupied Czechoslovakia on July 7, 1944. He is the only son and heir of the late Prince Michael of Montenegro, Grand-Duke of Grahovo and Zeta, who lived in exile until his death in 1986, Geneviève Prigent, a French citizen. Prince Michael was regarded by Montenegro's monarchists as king from 7 March 1921, his parents married on 27 January 1941 and divorced in Paris, France, on 11 August 1949 5 weeks after his 5th birthday. Genevieve received custody of young Nikola and raised him as a single mother. Growing up in France, Prince Nikola saw his father, knew little about Montenegro and was raised and educated as a Frenchman.
Nikola was an active participant in the campaign for the restoration of Montenegro's independence, preceding the referendum on the separation of the former kingdom from the provisional State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Prince Nikola made public pronouncements of his willingness to return to the Montenegrin throne if that were the wish of the people. In July 2010 the government of Montenegro made a formal offer to provide Nikola with a €3,000 monthly stipend, granting his family with an annual €300,000 civil list, a formal residence in Cetinje and the return of the Petrović Njegoš historic family home in Njeguši; this offer was rejected because Nikola believed that the proposal did not deal adequately with the issue of property compensation, as more than thirty properties were alleged to have been confiscated from the dynasty after the monarchy was overthrown. Furthermore, he believed that the bill would prevent the dynasty from participating in political life and restrict the ability of members of the dynasty to speak about certain subjects.
He said that the civil list amount, announced in the press was not contained in the proposed version of the bill that he was shown. Owing to his stance on this bill, Nikola chose not to attend the celebrations of the centenary of the Kingdom of Montenegro that were held on 28 August 2010. Instead he celebrated in private. Legislation passed in 2011 revised the conditions offered to the prince, was accepted by Prince Nikola on behalf of his family, who said he was now "entirely satisfied". In addition to aspects of the previous offer, Nikola was given use of the first floor of the former royal palace and named as a special representative for the government of Montenegro; the Montenegrin state promised to pay €4.3 million in compensation for lost assets to a family fund, pay Crown Prince Nikola a monthly salary equal to that of the president. Nikola was educated in France. In 1964 he was admitted to the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris, between 1965 and 1967 he attended training courses in several architectural practices.
Between 1967 and 1971 he worked on several architectural projects, including a winter sports resort in Avoriaz and with Shamaï Haber on several university science faculties. In 1971, he was awarded a diploma in Architecture and admitted to the Société Française d
Petrović-Njegoš were the family that ruled Montenegro from 1696 to 1916. Montenegro had enjoyed de facto independence from the Ottoman Empire since 1711, but it only received formal international recognition as an independent principality in 1878. Montenegro was ruled from its inception by vladikas, who had spiritual role. In 1697, the office was made hereditary in the Petrović-Njegoš family. However, since Orthodox bishops are required to be celibate, the crown passed from uncle to nephew. In 1852, Prince-Bishop Danilo II opted to marry and to secularize Montenegro, becoming Prince Danilo I, his successor, Nikola I, raised Montenegro to a kingdom in 1910. In 1916, King Nikola I was ousted by the occupation of his country by Austria-Hungary, he was formally deposed by the Podgorica Assembly in 1918, Montenegro was annexed by Serbia, which in turn merged into the emergent Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. A period of eighty years of control from Belgrade followed, during which time Nikola I died in exile in France in 1921, followed shortly afterwards by the surprise abdication of his son and heir, Danilo III, the same year.
The latter's nephew, Michael Petrović-Njegoš, inherited the titles of his predecessors whilst in exile in France, he survived arrest and internment by order of Adolf Hitler for refusing to head up a puppet Montenegrin state aligned to the Axis Powers. He served the SFR Yugoslavia as Head of Protocol, he was succeeded by his son Nicholas Petrović-Njegoš in 1986. Nicholas returned to Montenegro to support the Montenegrin independence movement that went on to achieve full sovereignty in the 2006 referendum. In 2011, Montenegro recognized an official role for the Royal House of Petrović-Njegoš in Montenegro: to promote Montenegrin identity and traditions through cultural and other non-political activities, interpreted as a "creeping restoration" of the monarchy; the present head of the house is Nicholas, Crown Prince of Montenegro, who would be titled Nicholas II were he recognised as king. "Bogut" or "Boguta" is believed to be the oldest known ancestor of the Petrović-Njegoš family. Bogut was alive at the time of the Battle of Velbazhd and the building of Visoki Dečani, into the 1340s.
According to tradition, recorded by some historians, the ancestors of the Petrović family settled in Muževice at the end of the 14th century, from the Bosnia region, from the area of Zenica or Travnik. It is possible that Bogut at that time had moved to Drobnjaci with his son, Đurađ. Đurađ or some of his sons were in the entourage of Marko Drago, an affluent Serbian nobleman who had served Serbian lord Vuk Branković, as such they are believed to have served the Branković family. Đurađ and his five sons "from Drobnjaci" are mentioned in a document dating March 1, 1399, in which they gave several items to the depository of Dapko Vasilijev, an affluent Kotoran nobleman. On the 12 July 2011 the Parliament of Montenegro adopted the Law on the Status of the Descendants of the Petrović Njegoš Dynasty; the law "regulates the important issues regarding the status of the descendants of the Petrović-Njegoš dynasty, for the historical and moral rehabilitation of the Petrović-Njegoš dynasty for whom their dethroning was contrary to the Constitution of the Kingdom of Montenegro, a violent act of annexation in the year 1918.".
The law recognises the descendants of King Nikola I in the male line and their wives as the descendants of the Petrović-Njegoš dynasty, appoints the eldest male heir, namely Prince Nikola II, as the representative of the dynasty. It affirms the House law of the dynasty by defining the succession to the headship of the dynasty as being passed down through the "male heir of the oldest male heir"; the law protects the use of the heraldic symbols of the dynasty by the representative of the dynasty, Prince Nikola II. Article 8 allows for members of the dynasty to obtain Montenegrin citizenship and to be dual-nationals of other nations without losing their Montenegrin citizenship; this is of particular relevance today as all of the members of the dynasty hold French citizenship. The law creates the non-political Petrović-Njegoš Foundation, an organisation chaired by Prince Nikola II, with its aim to "affirm the Montenegrin culture and participation in humanitarian and development activities in the interest of Montenegro and its traditions".
From Montenegro's exchequer, the law allocates 4.3 million euros over a seven-year period to the Petrović-Njegoš Foundation. In addition, Prince Nikola II is entitled to a monthly income equivalent to the gross monthly earnings of the President of Montenegro; the Petrovic-Njegoš Foundation has its seat in Montenegro. "The Descendants of the dynasty are given the continuous use of the house of King Nikola I of Montenegro in Njeguši...its gardens...and meadow-land." "Descendants of the dynasty will have built for them a family home in Cetinje...and be given an apartment in Podgorica". To carry out their official functions Prince Nikola II has the right to use State objects and resources and "the exclusive right of use of the first storey" of the Petrović Palace in Podgorica, "and when protocol requires, use of the ground floor with priority over other users"; the law allows for Prince Nikola II to act as a representative of the Government of Montenegro and perform other protocolar and non-political functions.
The first such undertaking was made by the Prince in July 2011 when he represented the Prime Min
Secularism, as defined in the Merriam-Webster dictionary, is the "indifference to, or rejection or exclusion of, religion and religious considerations." As a philosophy, secularism seeks to interpret life on principles taken from the material world, without recourse to religion. In political terms, secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries. Under a brief definition, secularism means that governments should remain neutral on the matter of religion and should not enforce nor prohibit the free exercise of religion, leaving religious choice to the liberty of the people. One manifestation of secularism is asserting the right to be free from religious rule and teachings, or, in a state declared to be neutral on matters of belief, from the imposition by government of religion or religious practices upon its people. Another manifestation of secularism is the view that public activities and decisions political ones, should be uninfluenced by religious beliefs or practices.
Secularism draws its intellectual roots from Greek and Roman philosophers such as Zeno of Citium and Marcus Aurelius. It shifts the focus from religion to other ‘temporal’ and ‘this-worldly’ things with emphasis on nature, reason and development; the purposes and arguments in support of secularism vary widely. In European laicism, it has been argued that secularism is a movement toward modernization, away from traditional religious values; this type of secularism, on a social or philosophical level, has occurred while maintaining an official state church or other state support of religion. In the United States, some argue that state secularism has served to a greater extent to protect religion and the religious from governmental interference, while secularism on a social level is less prevalent. On the other hand, Meiji era Japan maintained that it was secular and allowed freedom of religion despite enforcing State Shinto and continuing to prohibit certain "superstitions; the term "secularism" was first used by the British writer George Jacob Holyoake in 1851.
Holyoake invented the term secularism to describe his views of promoting a social order separate from religion, without dismissing or criticizing religious belief. An agnostic himself, Holyoake argued that "Secularism is not an argument against Christianity, it is one independent of it, it does not question the pretensions of Christianity. Secularism does not say there is no light or guidance elsewhere, but maintains that there is light and guidance in secular truth, whose conditions and sanctions exist independently, act forever. Secular knowledge is manifestly that kind of knowledge, founded in this life, which relates to the conduct of this life, conduces to the welfare of this life, is capable of being tested by the experience of this life."Barry Kosmin of the Institute for the Study of Secularism in Society and Culture breaks modern secularism into two types: hard and soft secularism. According to Kosmin, "the hard secularist considers religious propositions to be epistemologically illegitimate, warranted by neither reason nor experience."
However, in the view of soft secularism, "the attainment of absolute truth was impossible and therefore skepticism and tolerance should be the principle and overriding values in the discussion of science and religion." The departure from reliance on religious faith to reason and science marks the beginning of the secularization of education and society in history. Among the earliest documentations of a secular form of thought is seen in the Charvaka system of philosophy, which held direct perception and conditional inference as proper sources of knowledge, sought to reject the prevailing religious practices of that time. According to Domenic Marbaniang, Secularism emerged in the West with the establishment of reason over religious faith as human reason was liberated from unquestioned subjection to the dominion of religion and superstition. Secularism first appeared in the West in the classical philosophy and politics of ancient Greece, disappeared for a time after the fall of Greece, but resurfaced after a millennium and half in the Renaissance and the Reformation.
He writes: An increasing confidence in human capabilities and progress, that emerged during the Italian Renaissance, together with an increasing distrust in organized and state supported religion during the Reformation, was responsible for the ushering of modernity during the Enlightenment, which brought all facets of human life including religion under the purview of reason and thus became responsible for the freeing of education and state from the domination of religion. Harvey Cox explains that the Enlightenment hailed Nature as the "deep reality" that transcended the corrupted man-made institutions of men; the rights of man were not considered as God-given but as the de facto benefits of Nature as revealed by Reason. In political terms, secularism is a movement towards the separation of government; this can refer to reducing ties between a government and a sta
Petar II Petrović-Njegoš
Petar II Petrović-Njegoš referred to as Njegoš, was a Prince-Bishop of Montenegro and philosopher whose works are considered some of the most important in Serbian and Montenegrin literature. Njegoš was born in the village near Montenegro's then-capital Cetinje, he was educated at several Montenegrin monasteries, became the country's spiritual and political leader following the death of his uncle Petar I. After eliminating all initial domestic opposition to his rule, he concentrated on uniting Montenegro's tribes and establishing a centralized state, he introduced regular taxation, formed a personal guard and implemented a series of new laws to replace those composed by his predecessor many years earlier. His taxation policies proved unpopular with the Montenegrin tribes, were the cause of several revolts during his lifetime. Njegoš's reign was defined by constant political and military struggle with the Ottoman Empire, by his attempts to expand Montenegro's territory while gaining unconditional recognition from the Sublime Porte.
He was a proponent of uniting and liberating the Serb people, willing to concede his princely rights in exchange for a union with Serbia and his recognition as the religious leader of all Serbs. Although unification between the two states did not occur during his lifetime, Njegoš laid some of the foundations of Yugoslavism and introduced modern political concepts to Montenegro. Venerated as a poet and philosopher, Njegoš is well known for his epic poem Gorski vijenac, considered a masterpiece of Serbian and South Slavic literature, the national epic of Serbia and Yugoslavia. Njegoš has remained influential in Montenegro and Serbia, as well in neighbouring countries, his works have influenced a number of disparate groups, including Serbian and South Slav nationalists, as well as monarchists and communists. Petar II Petrović-Njegoš was born Radivoje "Rade" Petrović on 13 November 1813 in the mountain village of Njeguši, near Cetinje, his father, Tomislav "Tomo" Petrović, was a member of the Petrović clan of the Njeguši tribe of Katuni nahiya.
Njegoš's mother, Ivana Proroković, hailed from the hamlet of Mali Zalaz and was the daughter of Njeguši captain Lazo Proroković. There is no reliable information about her exact year of birth, but it is believed that she was about ten years younger than her husband. Tomo and Ivana had five children; the couple's daughters were named Stana. Njeguši is a remote village, situated near the Adriatic coast in western Montenegro; the eponymous tribe is one of the oldest in Montenegro, its history can be traced back to the 14th century. It came about as the result of intermarriages between Illyrian population and South Slavic settlers during the 10th century, according to author Milovan Djilas. Njeguši was dominated by the Petrovićes' ancestral home, the only two-storied house in the village and was made out of stone. Members of Njeguši's Petrović clan had been hereditary Serbian Orthodox Metropolitans of Cetinje since 1696; the ruling Prince-Bishop was allowed to nominate his own successor, subject to approval by the Montenegrin chieftains and the people of Montenegro.
Njegoš spent his early years in Njeguši shepherding his father's flock, playing the gusle and attending family and church celebrations where stories of battles and past suffering were told. His education was rudimentary. In October 1827, the young Njegoš was taken under the tutelage of the poet and playwright Sima Milutinović, who had come to Montenegro to serve as the official secretary of Njegoš's uncle, vladika Petar I. A Sarajevan Serb, Milutinović introduced Njegoš to poetry and inspired him to write down Serb folk tales, passed down orally through the centuries. An unconventional mentor, he taught Njegoš sports and sword-fighting. Nineteenth-century Montenegrin society was quite primitive by contemporary standards. Foreigners were viewed with suspicion and merchants were seen as "money grubbing" and "effete". Wars between the Montenegrins and neighbouring Muslim tribes were all too common, as was cattle rustling and headhunting. Men devoted much of their energy to incessant blood feuds, limiting the effectiveness of Montenegrin resistance to the Turks.
Most physical labour was done by women. Before the 19th century, western Montenegro was nothing more than a cluster of feuding tribes presided over by the Metropolitans of Cetinje. Montenegrin territory consisted of four smal
Kotor is a coastal town in Montenegro. It is located in a secluded part of the Gulf of Kotor; the city is the administrative center of Kotor Municipality. The old Mediterranean port of Kotor is surrounded by fortifications built during the Venetian period, it is located on the Bay of one of the most indented parts of the Adriatic Sea. Some have called it the southern-most fjord in Europe. Together with the nearly overhanging limestone cliffs of Orjen and Lovćen, Kotor and its surrounding area form an impressive landscape. Since the early 2000s Kotor has seen an increase in many of them coming by cruise ship. Visitors are attracted by the old town of Kotor. Kotor is part of the World Heritage Site dubbed the Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor; the fortified city of Kotor was included in UNESCO's World Heritage Site list as part of Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries: Stato da Terra – western Stato da Mar in 2017. The exact time of foundation of the first settlement is not known.
According to some sources, the oldest settled area dates two millennia back, its current name stems from the word Dekatera. The town, first mentioned in 168 BC, was settled during Ancient Roman times, when it was known as Acruvium, Ascrivium, or Ascruvium and was part of the Roman province of Dalmatia; the town has been fortified since the early Middle Ages, when Emperor Justinian built a fortress above Ascrivium in 535, after expelling the Ostrogoths. Ascrivium was plundered by the Saracens in 840, it was further fortified towards the peak of Saint Ivan by Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos in the 10th century. It was one of the more influential Dalmatian city-states of romanized Illyrians throughout the early Middle Ages, until the 11th century the Dalmatian language was still spoken in Kotor; the city was part of Byzantine Dalmatia in that period, the modern name of Kotor originated in the Byzantine name for the town: Dekatera or Dekaderon. In 1002, the city suffered damage under the occupation of the First Bulgarian Empire, in the following year it was ceded to Duklja by the Bulgarian Tsar Samuil.
Duklja, or Dioclea, was a vassal duchy of Byzantium at the time. The local population resisted the pact and, taking advantage of its alliance with Dubrovnik, maintained its high autonomy. During this time, the small romanized Illyrian population of Kotor was assimilated by a significant Slav population coming from neighboring areas. Duklja, the biggest Serb duchy at the time became more powerful under Vojislavljević dynasty and independent from Byzantium in 1042; the city remained autonomous up until Duklja was once again subdued by Byzantium in 1143. The city was conquered in 1185 by Stefan Nemanja, the ruler of the Grand Principality of Serbia and founder of the Nemanjić dynasty. At that time Kotor was an episcopal see subordinated to the archbishopric of Bari, in 13th century and Franciscan monasteries were established to check the spread of Bogomilism. Under the rule of the Nemanjić Kotor became a autonomous city, enjoying many privileges and maintaining its republican institutions; this is backed by a statute from 1301, which demonstrates that Kotor had the status of a city under Serbian rule.
In the 14th century the commerce of Cattaro, as named in Latin scripts, rivaled that of Republic of Ragusa, caused the Republic of Venice to be envious. Kotor remained the most important trading port of subsequent Serb states – Kingdom of Serbia and Serbian Empire, up to its downfall in 1371. After the fracturing of the Serbian Empire, the city was taken by the Kingdom of Hungary, only to change hands between them and the Republic of Venice in the period between 1371–1384. After that, Kotor was held by the Kingdom of Bosnia under Tvrtko I Kotromanić between 1384–1391; the king of Bosnia, who claimed the Serbian throne, minted his coins in Kotor. After the death of Tvrtko in 1391, Kotor became independent, until the administration, wary of the looming Ottoman danger, asked the Republic of Venice for protection; the city acknowledged the suzerainty of the Republic of Venice in 1420. The city was part of the Venetian Albania province of the Venetian Republic from 1420 to 1797, it was besieged by the Ottomans in 1538 and 1657.
Four centuries of Venetian domination have given the city the typical Venetian architecture, that contributes to make Kotor a UNESCO world heritage site. In the 14th- and 15th centuries, there was an influx of settlers from the oblasts of Trebinje and the Hum lands to Kotor; the Italian name of the city is Càttaro. Under Venetian rule, Kotor was besieged by the Ottoman Empire in 1538 and 1657, endured the plague in 1572, was nearly destroyed by earthquakes in 1563 and 1667, it was ruled by Ottomans at brief periods. After the Treaty of Campo Formio in 1797, it passed to the Habsburg Monarchy. However, in 1805, it was assigned to the French Empire's client state, the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy by the Treaty of Pressburg, although in fact held by a Russian squadron under Dmitry Senyavin. After the Russians retreated, Kotor was united in 1806 with this Kingdom of Italy and in 1810 with the French Empire's Illyrian Provinces. Kotor was captured by the British in an attack on the Bay led by Commodore John Harper in the brig sloop HMS Saracen.
Nicholas I of Montenegro
Nikola I Petrović-Njegoš was the ruler of Montenegro from 1860 to 1918, reigning as sovereign prince from 1860 to 1910 and as king from 1910 to 1918. Nikola was born in the village of Njeguši, the ancient home of the reigning House of Petrović, his father, Mirko Petrović-Njegoš, a celebrated Montenegrin warrior, was elder brother to Danilo I of Montenegro, who left no male offspring. After 1696, when the dignity of Vladika, or prince-bishop, became hereditary in the Petrović family, the sovereign power had descended from uncle to nephew, the Vladikas belonging to the order of the black clergy who are forbidden to marry. A change was introduced by Danilo I, who declined the episcopal office and declared the principality hereditary in the direct male line. Mirko Petrović-Njegoš having renounced his claim to the throne, his son was nominated heir-presumptive, the old system of succession was thus incidentally continued. Prince Nikola, trained from infancy in martial and athletic exercises, spent a portion of his early boyhood at Trieste in the household of the Kustic family, to which his aunt, the princess Darinka, wife of Danilo II, belonged.
The princess was an ardent francophile, at her suggestion the young heir-presumptive of the vladikas was sent to the Lycée Louis-le-Grand in Paris. Unlike his contemporary, King Milan of Serbia, Prince Nikola was little influenced in his tastes and habits by his Parisian education. Nikola was a member of the "United Serbian Youth" during its existence. After the organization was prohibited in the Principality of Serbia and Austro-Hungary, the "Association for Serb Liberation and Unification" was established by Nikola, Marko Popović, Simo Popović, Mašo Vrbica, Vasa Pelagić, more, in Cetinje. Nikola was still in Paris when, in consequence of the assassination of his uncle Danilo I, he succeeded as prince. In November 1860 he married Milena, daughter of the vojvoda Petar Vukotić. In the period of peace which followed Nikola carried out a series of military and educational reforms; the country was embroiled in a series of wars with the Ottoman Empire between 1862 and 1878. In 1867 he met the emperor Napoleon III at Paris, in 1868 he undertook a journey to Russia, where he received an affectionate welcome from the tsar, Alexander II.
He afterwards visited the courts of Vienna. His efforts to enlist the sympathies of the Russian imperial family produced important results for Montenegro. In 1871 Prince Dolgorukov arrived at Montenegro on a special mission from the tsar, distributed large sums of money among the people. In 1869 Prince Nikola, whose authority was now established, succeeded in preventing the impetuous highlanders from aiding the Krivosians in their revolt against the Austrian government. In 1876 Nikola declared war against Turkey; the war resulted in a considerable extension of the Montenegrin frontier and the acquisition of a seaboard on the Adriatic. He justified the war as a revenge for the Battle of Kosovo. In 1876 he sent a message to the Montenegrins in Herzegovina: Under Murad I the Serbian Tsardom was destroyed, under Murad V it has to rise again; this is my wish of all of us as well as the wish of almighty God. The independence of Montenegro was recognised at the Congress of Berlin in 1878 and in the succeeding decades Montenegro enjoyed considerable prosperity and stability.
Education and the army expanded greatly. In 1883 Prince Nikola visited the sultan, with whom he subsequently maintained the most cordial relations. In 1900 Nikola took the style of Royal Highness. According to Bolati, the Montenegrin court was not grieving that much over the murder of King Alexander Obrenović, as they saw him as an enemy of Montenegro and obstacle to the unification of Serb Lands. "Although it wasn't said it was thought that the Petrović dynasty would achieve. All procedures of King Nikola shows that he himself believed that", he gave Montenegro its first constitution in 1905 following pressure from a population eager for more freedom. He introduced west-European style press freedom and criminal law codes. In 1906, he introduced the perper. On 28 August 1910, during the celebration of his jubilee, he assumed the title of king, in accordance with a petition from the Skupština, he was at the same time gazetted field-marshal in the Russian army, an honor never conferred on any foreigner except the Duke of Wellington.
When the Balkan Wars broke out in 1912 King Nikola was one of the most enthusiastic of the allies. He wanted to drive the Ottomans out of Europe, he defied the Powers and captured Scutari despite the fact that they blockaded the whole coast of Montenegro. Again in the
Theocracy is a form of government in which a religious institution is the source from which all authority derives. The Oxford English Dictionary has this definition: 1. A system of government in which priests rule in the name of a god. 1.1. The commonwealth of Israel from the time of Moses until the election of Saul as King. An ecclesiocracy is a situation where the religious leaders assume a leading role in the state, but do not claim that they are instruments of divine revelation: for example, the prince-bishops of the European Middle Ages, where the bishop was the temporal ruler; such a state may use the administrative hierarchy of the religion for its own administration, or it may have two "arms"—administrators and clergy—but with the state administrative hierarchy subordinate to the religious hierarchy. Theocracy differs from theonomy, the latter of, government based on divine law; the papacy in the Papal States occupied a middle ground between theocracy and ecclesiocracy, since the Pope did not claim he was a prophet who received revelation from God and translated it into civil law.
Religiously endorsed monarchies fall between theocracy and ecclesiocracy, according to the relative strengths of the religious and political organs. Most forms of theocracy are oligarchic in nature, involving rule of the many by the few, some of whom so anointed under claim of divine commission; the word theocracy originates from the Greek θεοκρατία meaning "the rule of God". This in turn derives from θεός, meaning "god", κρατέω, meaning "to rule", thus the meaning of the word in Greek was "rule by god" or human incarnation of god. The term was coined by Flavius Josephus in the first century A. D. to describe the characteristic government of the Jews. Josephus argued that while mankind had developed many forms of rule, most could be subsumed under the following three types: monarchy and democracy; the government of the Jews, was unique. Josephus offered the term "theocracy" to describe this polity, ordained by Moses, in which God is sovereign and his word is law. Josephus' definition was accepted until the Enlightenment era, when the term started to collect more universalistic and negative connotations in Hegel's hands.
The first recorded English use was in 1622, with the meaning "sacerdotal government under divine inspiration". In some religions, the ruler a king, was regarded as the chosen favorite of God who could not be questioned, sometimes being the descendant of, or a god in their own right. Today, there is a form of government where clerics have the power and the supreme leader could not be questioned in action. From the perspective of the theocratic government, "God himself is recognized as the head" of the state, hence the term theocracy, from the Koine Greek θεοκρατία "rule of God", a term used by Josephus for the kingdoms of Israel and Judah. Taken theocracy means rule by God or gods and refers to an internal "rule of the heart" in its biblical application; the common, generic use of the term, as defined above in terms of rule by a church or analogous religious leadership, would be more described as an ecclesiocracy. In a pure theocracy, the civil leader is believed to have a personal connection with the civilization's religion or belief.
For example, Moses led the Israelites, Muhammad led the early Muslims. There is a fine line between the tendency of appointing religious characters to run the state and having a religious-based government. According to the Holy Books, Prophet Joseph was offered an essential governmental role just because he was trustworthy and knowledgeable; as a result of the Prophet Joseph's knowledge and due to his ethical and genuine efforts during a critical economic situation, the whole nation was rescued from a seven-year drought. When religions have a "holy book", it is used as a direct message from God. Law proclaimed by the ruler is considered a divine revelation, hence the law of God; as to the Prophet Muhammad ruling, "The first thirteen of the Prophet's twenty-three year career went on apolitical and non-violent. This attitude changed only after he had to flee from Mecca to Medina; this hijra, or migration, would be a turning point in the Prophet's mission and would mark the beginning of the Muslim calendar.
Yet the Prophet did not establish a theocracy in Medina. Instead of a polity defined by Islam, he founded a territorial polity based on religious pluralism; this is evident in a document called the ’Charter of Medina’, which the Prophet signed with the leaders of the other community in the city."According to the Quran, Prophets were not after power or material resources. For example in surah 26 verses, the Koran quotes from Prophets, Hud, Salih and Shu'aib that: "I do not ask you for it any payment. While, in theocracy many aspects of the holy book are overshadowed by material powers. Due to be considered divine, the regime entitles itself to interpret verses to its own benefit and abuse them out of the context for its political aims. An ecclesiocracy, on the other hand, is a situation where the religious leaders assume a leading role in the state, but do not claim that they are instruments of divine revelation. For example, the prince-bishops of the European Middle Ages, where the bishop was the temporal ruler.
Such a state may use the administrative hierarchy of the religion for its own administration, or it may have two "arms"—administrators and clergy—but