List of rulers of Saxony

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Monarchy of Saxony
Provincial/State
Coat of arms of Wettin House Albert Line.png
FA3 of Saxony.png
Frederick Augustus III
Details
Style His Majesty
First monarch Hadugato
Last monarch Frederick Augustus III
Formation 531
Abolition 13 November 1918
Appointer Hereditary
Pretender(s) Disputed: Prince Rüdiger
or Prince Alexander

This article lists dukes, electors, and kings ruling over different territories named Saxony from the beginning of the Saxon Duchy in the 9th century to the end of the Saxon Kingdom in 1918.

The electors of Saxony from John the Steadfast (or, according to some accounts, Frederick the Wise) onwards have been Lutheran until Augustus II of Saxony converted to Roman Catholicism in order to be elected King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. His descendants (including all Kings of Saxony) have since been Roman Catholic.

Dukes of Saxony[edit]

The old Saxon coats of arms today lives on in the coats of arms of Lower Saxony and Westphalia.

The original Duchy of Saxony comprised lands of the Saxon people in the north-western part of present-day Germany, namely, the contemporary German state of Lower Saxony as well as Westphalia and Western Saxony-Anhalt, not corresponding to the modern German state of Saxony.

Early dukes[edit]

Younger Stem Duchy[edit]

Dukes of Saxony
Image Name Date Notes
Liudolfing/Ottonian Dynasty
Liudolf, Duke of Saxony.jpg Liudolf I 850 – 12 March 864 or 866
Bruno dux.jpg Bruno 12 March 864 or 866 – 2 February 880
Otto I, Duke of Saxony.jpg Otto I the Illustrious 2 February 880 – 30 November 912
Ptacnik.jpg Henry I the Fowler 30 November 912 – 2 July 936 Also German King 919–936
Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor.jpg Otto II the Great 2 July 936 – 7 May 973 Also German King 936–973, Emperor 962–973
Billung Dynasty
Billung u Hildegard.jpg Hermann 961 – 27 March 973 viceduke
Bernard I 27 March 973 – 9 February 1011
BernhardIISachsen (cropped).jpg Bernard II 9 February 1011 – 29 June 1059
Wartburg-Duke.Orthilius.von.Sachsen.JPG Ordulf 29 June 1059 – 28 March 1072
Magnus 28 March 1072 – 23 August 1106
Supplinburg Dynasty
Lotar III.JPG Lothair I 1106 – 4 December 1137 Also German King 1125–1137, Emperor 1133–1137
Otto the Rich 1112 Appointed by Emperor Henry V in opposition to Duke Lothar
Hoyer I, Count of Mansfeld 1115 Appointed by Emperor Henry V in opposition to Duke Lothar
Welf Dynasty
Henry the Proud.jpg Henry II the Proud 4 December 1137 – 20 October 1139 Also Duke of Bavaria as Henry X
Ascanian Dynasty
Albert I of Brandenburg.jpg Albert the Bear 20 October 1139 – 1142 Also Margrave of Brandenburg
Welf Dynasty
Lev Jindrich.jpg Henry III the Lion 1142–1180 Also Duke of Bavaria as Henry XII

With the removal of the Welfs in 1180, the Duchy of Saxony was sharply reduced in territory. Westphalia fell to the Archbishop of Cologne, while the Duchy of Brunswick remained with the Welfs, the Ascanian Dukes had their base further east, near the Elbe, in what is sometimes called the younger Duchy of Saxony, resulting in the name Saxony moving towards the east.

In the 10th century the Emperor Otto I had created the County Palatine of Saxony in the Saale-Unstrut area of southern Saxony. The honour was initially held by a Count of Hessengau, then from the early 11th century by the Counts of Goseck, later by the Counts of Sommerschenburg, and still later by the Landgraves of Thuringia. When the Wettin landgraves succeeded to the Electorate of Saxony, the two positions merged.

The Younger Saxony: The Duchy and the Electorate[edit]

Coat of arms of Saxony used since the accession of the House of Ascania to the dukedom in 1180, comprising the Ascanian arms with an added bendwise crancelin indicating the Saxon ducal rank

The new dukes replaced the Saxon horse emblem (Coat of arms of Lower Saxony.svg) and introduced their Ascanian family colours and emblem (Adalbert I Ballenstedt.png) added by a bendwise crancelin, symbolising the Saxon ducal crown, as new coat-of-arms of Saxony (Armoiries Saxe.svg). The later rulers of the House of Wettin adopted the Ascanian coat-of-arms.

After the division, the counting of the dukes started anew. Though the first Ascanian duke is counted either as Bernard III (because of two predecessors of the same name before 1180) or as Bernard I, his successor, Albert I is counted as the first, although before 1180 he had one predecessor of the same name, Albert the Bear.

House of Ascania[edit]

Partitions of Saxony under Ascanian rule[edit]

Duchy of Saxony
(1180-1296)
Duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg
(1296-1356)
Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg
(1296-1303)
Duchy of Saxe-Mölln
(1303-1315)
Duchy of Saxe-Bergdorf-Lauenburg
(1303-1315)
Duchy of Saxe-Ratzeburg
(1303-1315)
Duchy of Saxe-Bergdorf-Mölln
(1315-1356)
Duchy of Saxe-Ratzeburg-Lauenburg
(1315-1356)
Electorate of Saxe-Wittenberg
(1356-1422)
Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg
(1401-1689)

Table of rulers[edit]

(Note: Both lines follow the numbering established in this table until 1296, when they were created. From 1296 on, each line follows independently the succession of Saxon dukes until 1296)

Ruler Born Reign Death Ruling part Consort Notes
Bernard III Bernhard von Sachsen.jpg c.1134 1180-1212 2 February 1212 Saxony Brigitte of Denmark
six children

Sophia of Thuringia
one child

Judith of Poland
c.1173
no children
Also Count of Ballenstedt and Prince of Anhalt. Numberings starting with Ascanian rule or continuing after prior dukes of the same name. Father of the following.
Albert I Albrecht-I-von-Sachsen.jpg c.1175 1212-1260 7 October 1260 Saxony Agnes of Austria
1222
five children

Agnes of Thuringia
1238
three children

Helene of Brunswick-Lüneburg
1247
five children
Father of the following two dukes
Albert II Albrecht II. von Sachsen.jpg 1250 1260-1296 25 August 1298 Saxony Agnes of Austria
1282
six children
Ruled jointly; Until 1282, the brothers John I and Albert II; From John I's abdication in 1282, Albert shared rule with his minor nephews, sons of John I: John II, Albert III and Eric I. In 1296 they divided the land. Albert II retained Saxe-Wittenberg, and became the head of the Elder Saxon Line; His nephews ruled together in Saxe-Lauenburg, becoming the founders of the Younger Saxon Line.
John I 1249 1260-1282 30 July 1285 Saxony Ingeborg Birgersdotter of Sweden
1270
eight children
John II 1275 1282-1296 22 April 1322 Saxony Elizabeth of Holstein-Rendsburg
1315
one child
Eric I POSSE.jpg 1280 1360 Saxony Elisabeth of Pomerania
1316 or 1318
four children
Albert III 1281 1308 Saxony Margaret of Brandenburg-Salzwedel
1302
two children
In 1296 Albert II and his nephews Albert III, Eric I, and John II ended their joint rule and divided Saxony into the Lauenburg line, where Albert III, Eric I, and John II continued to rule jointly until 1303, and the Wittenberg line, where Albert II continued as sole ruler until 1298. Since the Duke of Saxony was considered one of the prince-electors electing a new Holy Roman Emperor, conflict arose between the lines of Lauenburg and Wittenberg over the issue of who should cast Saxony's vote; in 1314 both lines found themselves on different sides in a double election. Eventually, the Dukes of Saxe-Wittenberg succeeded in 1356 after the promulgation of the Golden Bull. To distinguish him from other rulers bearing the title Duke of Saxony, he was commonly called Elector of Saxony.
Albert II Albrecht II. von Sachsen.jpg 1250 1296-1298 25 August 1298 Saxe-Wittenberg Agnes of Austria
1282
six children
Became sole ruler of Saxe-Wittenberg.
John II 1275 1296-1303 22 April 1322 Saxe-Lauenburg Elizabeth of Holstein-Rendsburg
1315
one child
Ruled together until 1303, when they divided once more the territory between them.
Eric I POSSE.jpg 1280 1360 Saxe-Lauenburg Elisabeth of Pomerania
1316 or 1318
four children
Albert III 1281 1308 Saxe-Lauenburg Margaret of Brandenburg-Salzwedel
1302
two children
Rudolph I Rudolf-I-von-Sachsen.jpg 1284 1298-1356 12 March 1356 Saxe-Wittenberg Jutta of Brandenburg
1298
eight children

Kunigunde of Poland
28 August 1328
one child

Agnes of Lindow-Ruppin
1333
three children
In January 1356 the Golden Bull confirmed Rudolf I as the legitimate Saxon Prince-Elector, thus the rulers of Saxe-Wittenberg are conceived as Electors of Saxony.
John II 1275 1303-1315 22 April 1322 Saxe-Mölln Elizabeth of Holstein-Rendsburg
1315
one child
In 1315 realigned the territory.
Eric I POSSE.jpg 1280 1303-1315 1360 Saxe-Bergedorf Elisabeth of Pomerania
1316 or 1318
four children
In 1315 realigned the territory.
Albert III 1281 1303-1308 1308 Saxe-Ratzeburg Margaret of Brandenburg-Salzwedel
1302
two children
Left his lands to his widow.
Margaret of Brandenburg-Salzwedel 1270 1308-1315 1 May 1315 Saxe-Ratzeburg Przemysł II, King of Poland
1302
two children

Albert III
1302
two children
After her death, her brothers-in-law realigned the territory.
In 1315, after the death of Margaret of Brandenburg, the remaining brothers Eric and John redesigned the political division in Saxe-Lauenburg; Eric retained all of Margaret's part, but had to give part of his original domains to his brother. John ruled in Saxe-Bergedorf-Mölln; Eric in Saxe-Ratzeburg-Lauenburg.
John II 1275 1315-1322 22 April 1322 Saxe-Bergedorf-Mölln Elizabeth of Holstein-Rendsburg
1315
one child
Eric I POSSE.jpg 1280 1315-1338 1360 Saxe-Ratzeburg-Lauenburg Elisabeth of Pomerania
1316 or 1318
four children
Abdicated in 1338 to his own son. Died in 1361.
Elizabeth of Holstein-Rendsburg (regent) Seal Elisabeth (Holstein-Rendsburg) 01.jpg c.1300 1322-1330 before 1340 Saxe-Bergedorf-Mölln John II
1315
one child

Eric, Junior King of Denmark
1330
no children
Regent on behalf of her son, Albert.
Albert IV 1315 1330-1343 1343 Saxe-Bergedorf-Mölln Beata of Schwerin
1334
three child

Sophia of Mecklenburg-Werle-Güstrow
1341
no children
Eric II 1318/20 1338-1368 1368 Saxe-Ratzeburg-Lauenburg Agnes of Holstein-Plön
between 1342 and 1349
four children
John III c.1330 1343-1356 1356 Saxe-Bergedorf-Mölln Unmarried Left no descendants. He was succeeded by his brother, Albert.
Albert V c.1330 1343-1370 1370 Saxe-Bergedorf-Mölln Catherine of Mecklenburg-Werle-Güstrow
25 January 1366
no children
Left no descendants. He was succeeded by his brother, Eric.
The Golden Bull of 1356 confirmed the right to participate in the election of a Holy Roman Emperor to the Duke of Saxony in the Saxe-Wittenberg line.
Rudolph I
(Rudolf I)
Rudolf-I-von-Sachsen.jpg 1284 10 January 1356 - 12 March 1356 12 March 1356 Saxe-Wittenberg and Electorate of Saxony Jutta of Brandenburg
1298
eight children

Kunigunde of Poland
28 August 1328
one child

Agnes of Lindow-Ruppin
1333
three children
In January 1356 was recognized as the First Prince-Elector of Saxony.
Rudolph II the Blind
(Rudolf II. der Blinde)
Herzog Rudolf II von Sachsen-Wittenberg.jpg 1307 12 March 1356 - 6 December 1370 6 December 1370 Saxe-Wittenberg and Electorate of Saxony Elisabeth of Hesse
Before 8 May 1336
one child
Left no descendants.
Eric III 1354 1368-1401 21 June 1411/12 Saxe-Ratzeburg-Lauenburg Sophia of Brunswick-Lüneburg
8 April 1373
ten children
In 1401 reunited Saxe-Lauenburg.
Wenceslaus I WenzelISachsenWittenberg.jpg 1337 6 December 1370 - 15 May 1388 15 May 1388 Saxe-Wittenberg and Electorate of Saxony Cecilia da Carrara
23 January 1376
six children
Brother of his predecessor.
Eric IV EricusDuxRatzeburg.JPG c.1330 1370-1401 1401 Saxe-Bergedorf-Mölln Unmarried Determined to enter to clergy, has to resign to succeed his brothers. He also left no descendants, which allowed the Saxe-Ratzeburg-Lauenburg line to reunite Saxe-Lauenburg.
Rudolph III Rudolf III Kurfürst von Sachsen (AT KHM GG4790).jpg 1378 15 May 1388 - 11 June 1419 11 June 1419 Saxe-Wittenberg and Electorate of Saxony Anna of Meissen
1387/89
three children

Barbara of Legnica
March 1396
two children
Left no male descendants. he was succeeded by his brother, Albert.
In 1401 Saxe-Ratzeburg-Lauenburg inherited Saxe-Bergedorf-Mölln from the Ascanian Elder Lauenburg line there extinct upon Eric IV's death. The reunited duchy continued under the old name of Saxe-Lauenburg.
Eric III 1354 1401-1411/12 21 June 1411/12 Saxe-Lauenburg Sophia of Brunswick-Lüneburg
8 April 1373
ten children
In 1401 reunited Saxe-Lauenburg.
Eric V after 1373 1411/12-1436 1436 Saxe-Lauenburg Elisabeth of Holstein-Rendsburg
1404
no children

Elisabeth of Weinsberg
before 1422
one child
Ruled jointly. The numberings here lead to some confusion, as not all genealogists of the House of Ascania count John IV in the list of Dukes of Saxe-Lauenburg, numbering John V (John IV's nephew) as John IV.
John IV after 1373 1411/12-1414 1414 Saxe-Lauenburg Unmarried
Albert IV Albrecht III., Elector, son of Wenzeslaus, died 1422 (AT KHM GG4791).jpg 1375/80 11 June 1419 - (before 12 November) 1422 before 12 November 1422 Saxe-Wittenberg and Electorate of Saxony Euphemia of Oleśnica
14 January 1420
no children
Left no male descendants, which led the Ascanian Saxe-Wittenberg line to extinction.
The Ascanian Dynasty continued in Saxe-Lauenburg until 1689, but after the Lauenburgish line had finally lost the Saxon Electorate to the Wittenberg line in 1356 and failed to obtain the succession in the Electorate after 1422, recognition of the Dukes of Saxe-Lauenburg as Dukes of Saxony waned. To follow the remnant House of Ascania in Saxe-Lauenburg, follow this table, for the following Electors of Saxony, see below the House of Wettin.
Bernard IV 1385/93 1436-1463 16 July 1463 Saxe-Lauenburg Adelaide of Pomerania-Stolp
1428
two children
John V 18 July 1439 1463-1507 15 August 1507 Saxe-Lauenburg Dorothea of Brandenburg
12 February 1464
twelve children
Sometimes numbered John IV. He is somestime confused with his uncle, John IV (Eric V and Bernard IV's brother) and a son of his own (John IV, Bishop of Hildesheim).
Magnus I MagnusISaLauenb.JPG 1 January 1470 1507-1543 1 August 1543 Saxe-Lauenburg Catherine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
20 November 1509
Wolfenbüttel
six children
Francis I 1510 1543-1571 19 March 1581 Saxe-Lauenburg Sibylle of Saxony
8 February 1540
Dresden
nine children
In 1571 – highly indebted – Francis I resigned in favour of his eldest son Magnus II, who had promised to redeem the pawned ducal demesnes with funds he gained as Swedish military commander and by his marriage to a Swedish princess.
Magnus II 1543 1571-1573 14 March 1603 Saxe-Lauenburg Sophia of Sweden
4 July 1568
Stockholm
one child
Eldest son of Francis I. He didn't pay the debts he promised to pay, and led to war with his father and brothers. Two years later they deposed Magnus II and Francis I re-ascended. Magnus' violent and judicial attempts to regain the duchy failed; in 1588 he was imprisoned for the remainder of his life.
Francis I 1510 1573-1581 19 March 1581 Saxe-Lauenburg Sibylle of Saxony
8 February 1540
Dresden
nine children
Regained the title in 1573, after pushing back Magnus II.
Francis II Franz der 2. Herzog von Sachsen-Lauenburg.JPG 10 August 1547 1581-1619 2 July 1619 Saxe-Lauenburg Margaret of Pomerania-Wolgast
26 December 1574
Wolgast
four children

Maria of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
10 November 1582
Wolfenbüttel
fourteen children
Brother of Magnus II. Vice-regent from 1578, administrator from 1581. Joint rule with his brother Maurice between 1581 and 1612. Father of Augustus and Julius Henry.
Maurice 1551 1581-1612 2 November 1612 Saxe-Lauenburg Katharina von Spörck
1581
(annulled 1582)
no children
Ruled jointly with his brother Francis II.
Augustus 17 February 1577 1619-1656 18 January 1656 Saxe-Lauenburg Elisabeth Sofie of Holstein-Gottorp
5 March 1621
Husum
six children

Catherine of Oldenburg
4 June 1633
no children
Left no male descendants; he was succeeded by his half-brother Julius Henry.
Julius Henry JuliusHendrikSaksenLauenburg.jpg 9 April 1586 1656-1665 20 November 1665 Saxe-Lauenburg Anna of East Frisia
17 March 1617
Grabow
no children

Elisabeth Sophia of Brandenburg
4 June 1633
Toužim
one child

Anna Magdalena of Lobkowicz
18 August 1632
Vienna
six children
Francis Erdmann 25 February 1629 1665-1666 30 July 1666 Saxe-Lauenburg Sibylle Hedwig of Saxe-Lauenburg
1654
no children
Left no descendants; He was succeeded by his brother Julius Francis.
Julius Francis JuliusFransSaksenLauenburg.jpg 16 September 1641 1666-1689 30 September 1689 Saxe-Lauenburg Hedwig of the Palatinate-Sulzbach
9 April 1668
Sulzbach
two children

The male line of the Saxe-Lauenburgish Ascanians was extinguished in 1689, after Julius Francis' death; in spite of having left two daughters to inherit the rights to the duchy, the House of Welf usurped the duchy, preventing the succession of the legitimate heiress, Anna Maria Franziska of Saxe-Lauenburg, and resucceeded with its Brunswick and Lunenburg-Celle line. In fact, George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg was a great-great-grandson of Magnus I through his great-grandmother Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg. His descendants became Monarchs of Great Britain frm 1714 on; in 1814, after being deposed by various occupations in the Napoleonic Wars, George III's son, Regent George agreed to pass Saxe-Lauenburg to his Danish cousin in a general territorial realignment at the Congress of Vienna. This cousin was Frederick VI of Denmark, who changed he official colours of Saxe-Lauenburg to red and gold, the duchy changed hands again when, in 1865, Christian IX of Denmark was deposed in Second Schleswig War and resigned by Treaty of Vienna; Saxe-Lauenburg passed to William I of Prussia, to whom the Estates of Saxe-Lauenburg offered the ducal throne. The coat-of-arms of Saxe-Lauenburg was changed to the colours red and silver, with a border in the Prussian colours of black and white. Both duke and estates decided to merge Saxe-Lauenburg into Prussia, as district Duchy of Lauenburg, with effect from 1 July 1876.

House of Wettin[edit]

The Ascanian line of Saxe-Wittenberg became extinct with the death of Elector Albert III in 1422, whereafter Emperor Sigismund bestowed the country and electoral dignity upon Margrave Frederick IV of Meissen, who had been a loyal supporter in the Hussite Wars. Late Albert's Ascanian relative Duke Eric V of Saxe-Lauenburg protested in vain. Frederick, now one of the seven Prince-electors, was a member of the House of Wettin, which since 1089 had ruled over the adjacent Margraviate of Meissen up the Elbe river, established under Emperor Otto I in 965, and since 1242 also over the Landgraviate of Thuringia. Thus, in 1423, Saxe-Wittenberg, the Margraviate of Meissen and Thuringia were united under one ruler, and the unified territory . gradually received the name of (Upper) Saxony (or simply Saxony).

Partitions of Saxony under Wettin rule[edit]

Electorate of Saxony
(1422-1464)
Albertine territories Ernestine territories
Albertine Duchy of Saxony
(1464-1547)
Ernestine Electorate of Saxony
(1464-1547)
Duchy of Saxe-Coburg
(1542-1552)
 
Albertine Electorate of Saxony
(1547-1806)
Ernestine Duchy of Saxony
(1547-1554)
 
Saxe-Coburg-Eisenach
(1554-1566)
Saxe-Gotha
(1554-1565)
Saxe-Weimar
(1554-1566)
Ernestine Duchy of Saxony
(1566-1572)
Saxe-Coburg-Eisenach
(1572-1596)
Saxe-Weimar
(1572-1741)
Saxe-Coburg
(1596-1633)
Saxe-Eisenach
(1596-1633)
       Saxe-Altenburg
(1603-1672)
Saxe-Coburg-Eisenach
(1633-1638)
      
Saxe-Eisenach
(1640-1644)
       Saxe-Gotha
(1640-1672)
                   Saxe-Zeitz
(1656-1718)
Saxe-Merseburg
(1656-1738)
Saxe-Weissenfels
(1656-1746)
      
Saxe-Eisenach
(1662-1741)
Saxe-Marksuhl
(1662-1671)
  Saxe-Jena
(1662-1690)
  Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
(1672-1826)
Saxe-Merseburg-Lauchstädt
(1684-1690)
  Saxe-Weissenfels-Querfurt
(1680-1739)
Saxe-Weissenfels-Barby
(1680-1739)
       Saxe-Hildburghausen
(1675-1826)
Saxe-Eisenberg
(1675-1707)
Saxe-Meiningen
(1675-1918)
Saxe-Saalfeld
(1675-1699)
Saxe-Coburg
(1675-1699)
Saxe-Römhild
(1675-1710)
       Saxe-Zeitz-Pegau-Neustadt
(1699-1713)
Saxe-Merseburg-Zörbig
(1691-1715)
       Saxe-Merseburg-Spremberg
(1694-1731)
  Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
(1699-1826)
Saxe-Weissenfels-Dahme
(1711-1715)
      
              
      
       Saxe-Weissenfels
(1739-1746)
Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
(1741-1815)
      
Kingdom of Saxony
(1806-1918)
       Prussian Province of Saxony
(1815-1918)
Grand-Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
(1815-1918)
Saxe-Altenburg
(1826-1918)
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
(1826-1918)

Table of rulers[edit]

(Note: Here the numbering of the princes is the same for all principalities, as all were titled Dukes of Saxony, despite of the different parts of land and its particular numbering of the rulers. The princes are numbered following Ascanian Saxe-Wittenberg line (their predecessors) and by the year of their succession.)

Ruler Born Reign Death Ruling part Consort Notes
Frederick I the Warlike
(Friedrich der Streitbare)
Friedrich I. von Sachsen, 1370-1428 (AT KHM GG4792).jpg 11 April 1370 6 January 1423 - 4 January 1428 4 January 1428 Duchy of Saxony and Electorate of Saxony Catherine of Brunswick-Lüneburg
7 February 1402
seven children
After the Wittenberg line of the Ascanians became extinct, the Electorate was given to Frederick, Margrave of Meissen and Landgrave of Thuringia, of the House of Wettin.
Frederick II the Gentle
(Friedrich der Sanftmütige)
Friedrich II. der Sanftmütige, Kurfürst von Sachsen (AT KHM GG4793).jpg 22 April 1412 4 January 1428 - 7 September 1464 7 September 1464 Duchy of Saxony and Electorate of Saxony Margaret of Austria
3 June 1431
Leipzig
eight children
Son of Frederick I. Ruled jointly in Saxony with his brothers, but was the sole holder of the Electorate. Father of Ernest and Albert, founders of the Ernestine and Albertine Saxon lines.
Ernest I
(Ernst)
Ernst Kurfürst von Sachsen, 1441-1486 (AT KHM GG4795).jpg 24 March 1441 7 September 1464 - 26 August 1486 26 August 1486 Ernestine
Electorate of Saxony
Elisabeth of Bavaria-Munich
25 November 1460
Leipzig
seven children
Son of Frederick II. He was the founder and progenitor of the Ernestine line of Saxon princes.
Albert V the Bold Herzog-Albrecht-der-Beherzt.jpg 27 January 1443 1464–1500 12 September 1500 Albertine
Duchy of Saxony
Sidonie of Poděbrady
11 November 1464
Cheb
nine children
Son of Frederick II. He was the founder and progenitor of the Albertine line of Saxon princes.
Frederick III the Wise
(Friedrich der Weise)
Lucas Cranach d. Ä. 097.jpg 17 January 1463 26 August 1486 - 5 May 1525 5 May 1525 Ernestine
Electorate of Saxony
Unmarried Son of Ernest. Protector of Martin Luther, but a lifelong Catholic. Left no male descendants. Ruled jointly with his brother John, who succeeded him.
George I the Bearded Lucas Cranach d.Ä. - Bildnis des Herzogs Georg von Sachsen (Gemäldegalerie, Berlin).jpg 27 August 1471 1500-1539 17 April 1539 Albertine
Duchy of Saxony
Barbara of Poland
21 November 1496
Dresden
ten children
Proponent of Catholic Reform and a staunch opponent of Martin Luther. Left no surviving male descendants, he was succeeded by his brother Henry.
John III the Steadfast
(Johann der Beständige)
Lucas Cranach d.Ä. - Kurfürst Johann der Beständige von Sachsen.jpg 30 June 1468 5 May 1525 - 16 August 1532 16 August 1532 Ernestine
Electorate of Saxony
Sophie of Mecklenburg
1 March 1500
Torgau
one child

Margaret of Anhalt-Köthen
13 November 1513
Torgau
four children
Co-regent of his brother of Frederick III (26 August 1486 - 5 May 1525), with his own residence at Weimar since 1513. Established Lutheranism in his territories in 1527.
John Frederick I the Magnanimous
(Johann Friedrich I der Großmütige)
Lucas Cranach d. Ä. 044.jpg 30 June 1503 16 August 1532 - 19 May 1547 3 March 1554 Ernestine
Electorate of Saxony
Sibylle of Cleves
9 February 1527
Torgau
four children
Lost his Electoral dignity and territory to his cousin Maurice after being defeated the Emperor in the Schmalkaldic War. He was left with some territories as the Duchy of Saxony, after his death the Duchy of Saxony was divided between his three sons.
19 May 1547 - 1554 Albertine
Duchy of Saxony
Henry IV the Pious Lucas Cranach d. Ä. 042.jpg 16 March 1473 1539-1541 18 August 1541 Albertine
Duchy of Saxony
Catherine of Mecklenburg
69 January 1541
Marburg
nine children
Succeeded his brother of George I. He established Lutheranism in Albertine Saxony.
Maurice I
(Moritz)
Moritz Sachsen.JPG 21 March 1521 1541-1547 9 July 1553 Albertine
Duchy of Saxony
Agnes of Hesse
9 January 1541
Marburg
two children
Second cousin of John Frederick, grandson of Albert. Though a Lutheran, allied with Emperor Charles V against the Schmalkaldic League. Gained the Electorate for the Albertine line in 1547 after Charles V's victory at the Battle of Mühlberg. Left no male descendants, he was succeeded by his brother Augustus.
4 June 1547 - 9 July 1553 Albertine
Electorate of Saxony
John Ernest I Johann-Ernst-von-Sachsen-Coburg.tif 10 May 1521 16 August 1532 - 8 February 1553 8 February 1553 Ernestine
Saxe-Coburg
Catherine of Brunswick-Grubenhagen
12 February 1542
Torgau
no children
Until 1542, John Ernest was co-regent of his brother, Elector John Frederick I. When John Frederick decided to rule alone, he created the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg for his brother, after his death without descendants, the land reverted to John Frederick.
Following their displacement by the Albertines, the Ernestine branch of the Wettins continued to rule in southern Thuringia as "Dukes of Saxony", but their lands eventually split up into many different tiny Ernestine duchies.
Augustus I
(August)
Lucas Cranach d. J. 004.jpg 31 July 1526 9 July 1553 - 11 February 1586 11 February 1586 Albertine
Electorate of Saxony
Anna of Denmark
7 October 1548
Torgau
fifteen children

Agnes Hedwig of Anhalt
3 January 1586
Dessau
no children
Brother of Maurice. Recognized as Elector by the ousted John Frederick I in 1554.
John Frederick II Weimar Herderkirche - Cranach-Altar Rechter Flügel 3.jpg 8 January 1529 1554-1565 19 May 1595 Ernestine
Saxe-Coburg-Eisenach
Agnes of Hesse
26 May 1555
Weimar
no children

Elisabeth of the Palatinate-Simmern-Sponheim
12 June 1558
Weimar
four children
Received Saxe-Weimar. In 1565 united his domains with those of his younger brother in Gotha; in 1566 abdicated in favor of his brother John William, who reunited the duchy.
1565-1566 Ernestine
Saxe-Coburg-Eisenach and Saxe-Gotha
John Frederick III the Younger Weimar Herderkirche - Cranach-Altar Rechter Flügel 4.jpg 16 January 1538 1554-1565 21 October 1565 Ernestine
Saxe-Gotha
Unmarried Received Saxe-Gotha. However he left its administration to his elder brothers, after his death, his domains were annexed by his elder brother.
John William I Jean-Guillaume-de-Saxe-Weimar.jpg 11 March 1530 1554-1566 2 March 1573 Ernestine
Saxe-Weimar
Dorothea Susanne of the Palatinate-Simmern
15 June 1560
Heidelberg
five children
Received Saxe-Weimar. In 1565 united his domains with those of his younger brother in Gotha. Reunited Saxony in 1566, after the abdication of his older brother; in 1572, the Division of Erfurt divided Saxony once again, between John William and his nephews, sons of John Frederick II. He received once more Saxe-Weimar.
1566-1572 Ernestine
Duchy of Saxony
1572-1573 Ernestine
Saxe-Weimar
John Casimir Johan Casimir von Sachsen-Coburg.jpg 12 June 1564 1572-1596 16 July 1633 Ernestine
Saxe-Coburg-Eisenach
Anna of Saxony
16 January 1586
Dresden
no children

Margaret of Brunswick-Lüneburg
16 September 1599
Coburg
no children
Sons of John Frederick II, ruled jointly. In 1596 divided the land. John Casimir received Saxe-Coburg and John Ernest received Saxe-Eisenach; in 1633 John Casimir died without descendants and John Ernest reunited again Saxe-Coburg-Eisenach. However, as he also didn't have heirs, the duchies were divided between its neighbours Saxe-Altenburg and Saxe-Weimar.
1596-1633 Ernestine
Saxe-Coburg
John Ernest II Johann Ernst (Sachsen-Eisenach).jpg 9 July 1566 1572-1596 23 October 1638 Ernestine
Saxe-Coburg-Eisenach
Elisabeth of Mansfeld-Hinterort
23 November 1591
Wiener Neustadt
one child

Christine of Hesse-Kassel
14 May 1598
Rotenburg an der Fulda
no children
1596-1633 Ernestine
Saxe-Eisenach
1633-1638 Ernestine
Saxe-Coburg-Eisenach
Saxe-Coburg-Eisenach divided between its neighbours Saxe-Altenburg and Saxe-Weimar
Augustus I, Elector of Saxony
(regent)
Lucas Cranach d. J. 004.jpg 31 July 1526 1573-1586 11 February 1586 Ernestine
Saxe-Weimar
Anna of Denmark
7 October 1548
Torgau
fifteen children

Agnes Hedwig of Anhalt
3 January 1586
Dessau
no children
Named regent for Frederick William.
Frederick William I Frederick William I, Duke of Saxe-Weimar.jpg 25 April 1562 1586-1602 7 July 1602 Ernestine
Saxe-Weimar
Sophie of Württemberg
5 May 1583
Weimar
six children

Anna Maria of the Palatinate-Neuburg
9 September 1591
Neuburg an der Donau
six children
After his death, his brother took the land and in the next year divided it with his nephews (sons of Frederick William).
Christian I
(Christian I)
Christian I of Saxony.jpg 21 March 1521 11 February 1586 - 25 September 1591 25 September 1591 Albertine
Electorate of Saxony
Sophie of Brandenburg
25 April 1582
Dresden
seven children
Sophie of Brandenburg (regent) SophieBrandSachsen.jpg 6 June 1568 25 September 1591 - c.1601 7 December 1622 Albertine
Electorate of Saxony
Christian I
25 April 1582
Dresden
seven children
Regent on behalf of her son Christian II.
Christian II
(Christian II)
Kurfürst Christian II. von Sachsen (Porträt).jpg 23 September 1583 c.1601 - 23 June 1611 23 June 1611 Albertine
Electorate of Saxony
Hedwig of Denmark
12 September 1602
Dresden
no children
John IV Johann of Saxe-Weimar-Jena.jpg 22 May 1570 1602-1605 18 July 1605 Ernestine
Saxe-Weimar
Dorothea Maria of Anhalt
7 January 1593
Altenburg
twelve children
Divided Saxe-Weimar with his nephews in 1603, retaining a smaller Saxe-Weimar (sometimes called Saxe-Weimar-Jena).
John Philip Johann PhilippSaAlt.jpg 25 January 1597 1603-1639 1 April 1639 Ernestine
Saxe (-Weimar) -Altenburg
Elisabeth of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
25 October 1618
Altenburg
one child
Received and ruled jointly the newly-created Saxe-Altenburg, after the partition of 1603. None of them had male descendants.
Frederick IV Arolsen Klebeband 01 171 2.jpg 12 February 1599 1603-1625 24 October 1625 Ernestine
Saxe (-Weimar) -Altenburg
Unmarried
John William II 13 April 1600 1603-1632 2 December 1632 Ernestine
Saxe(-Weimar)-Altenburg
Unmarried
John Ernest III Johann Ernst I. von Sachsen-Weimar cropped.jpg 21 February 1594 1605-1626 6 December 1626 Ernestine
Saxe-Weimar
Unmarried Sons of John IV, ruled jointly. In 1640 divided the land. William kept Saxe-Weimar; in 1644 William reunited his own domains with Albert's. After William's death his domains were divided by his four sons.
William I the Great Arolsen Klebeband 01 171 3.jpg 11 April 1598 1626-1644 17 May 1662 Ernestine
Saxe-Weimar
Eleonore Dorothea of Anhalt-Dessau
23 May 1625
Weimar
nine children
1644-1662 Ernestine
Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach
Albert VI Albrecht von Sachsen-Eisenach.jpg 27 July 1599 1605-1640 20 December 1644 Ernestine
Saxe-Weimar
Dorothea of Saxe-Altenburg
24 June 1633
Weimar
no children
1640-1644 Ernestine
Saxe (-Weimar) -Eisenach
Ernest II the Pious Ernest I, duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg.jpg 25 December 1601 1605-1640 26 March 1675 Ernestine
Saxe-Weimar
Elisabeth Sophie of Saxe-Altenburg
24 October 1636
Altenburg
eighteen children
1640-1672 Ernestine
Saxe (-Weimar) -Gotha
John George I
(Johann Georg I)
Johann Georg I Saxony.jpg 5 March 1585 23 June 1611 - 8 October 1656 8 October 1656 Albertine
Electorate of Saxony
Sibylle Elisabeth of Württemberg
16 September 1604
Dresden
one child

Magdalene Sibylle of Prussia
19 July 1607
Torgau
ten children
Brother of Christian II, ruled during the Thirty Years' War, during which he was at times allied with the Emperor and at times with the King of Sweden.
Frederick William II Frederick Wilhelm II Saxe-Altenburg.jpg 12 February 1602 1639-1669 22 April 1669 Ernestine
Saxe (-Weimar) -Altenburg
Sophie Elisabeth of Brandenburg
18 September 1638
Altenburg
no children

Magdalene Sibylle of Saxony
11 October 1652
Dresden
three children
Brother of John Philip, Frederick and John William. Succeeded his childless brothers. Received part of Saxe-Weimar-Eiesnach in 1638.
John George II
(Johann Georg II)
Johan Georg II Johann Fink, vor 1675.jpg 31 May 1613 8 October 1656 - 22 August 1680 22 August 1680 Albertine
Electorate of Saxony
Magdalene Sibylle of Brandenburg-Bayreuth
13 November 1638
Dresden
three children
Augustus II August, Herzog von Sachsen-Weißenfels a.jpg 13 August 1614 1656-1680 4 June 1680 Albertine
Saxe-Weissenfels
Anna Maria of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
23 November 1647
Schwerin
twelve children

Johanna Walpurgis of Leiningen-Westerburg
29 January 1672
Halle
three children
Son of Elector John George I. Inherited Saxe-Weissenfels, after his death, Weissenfels was divided.
Christian III Christian I. von Sachsen-Merseburg 1.jpg 27 October 1615 1656-1691 18 October 1691 Albertine
Saxe-Merseburg
Christiana of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
19 November 1650
Dresden
eleven children
Son of Elector John George I. Inherited Saxe-Merseburg.
Maurice II Moritz, Herzog von Sachsen-Zeitz 1.jpg 28 March 1619 1662-1681 4 December 1681 Albertine
Saxe-Zeitz
Sophie Hedwig of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
19 November 1650
Dresden
two children

Dorothea Maria of Saxe-Weimar
3 July 1656
Weimar
ten children

Sophie Elisabeth of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Wiesenburg
14 June 1676
Wiesenburg
no children
Son of Elector John George I. Inherited Saxe-Merseburg.
John Ernest IV Arolsen Klebeband 01 177 1.jpg 11 September 1627 1662-1683 15 May 1683 Ernestine
Saxe-Weimar
Christine Elisabeth of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg
14 August 1656
Weimar
five children
Son of William I. Received the remaining Saxe-Weimar.
Bernard IV Bernhard II, Duke of Saxe-Jena.jpg 14 October 1638 1662-1678 3 May 1678 Ernestine
Saxe-Jena
Marie Charlotte de la Trémoille
10 June 1662
Paris
five children
Son of William I. Received Saxe-Jena.
Adolf William Adolph Wilhelm Sachen-Eisenach C. Richter@Weimar Schlossmuseum.JPG 15 May 1632 1662-1668 21 November 1668 Ernestine
Saxe-Eisenach
Marie Elisabeth of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
18 January 1663
Wolfenbüttel
five children
Son of William I. Received Saxe-Eisenach.
John George III John George I, Duke of Saxe-Eisenach.jpg 11 April 1598 1662-1671 17 May 1662 Ernestine
Saxe-Marksuhl
Johannetta of Sayn-Wittgenstein
29 May 1661
Wallau
nine children
Son of William I. Received Saxe-Marksuhl. Inherited Eisenach from his minor nephew in 1671, merging Marksuhl in Eisenach.
Saxe-Marksuhl was annexed by Saxe-Eisenach
John George III, Duke of Saxe-Marksuhl (regent) John George I, Duke of Saxe-Eisenach.jpg 12 July 1634 1668-1671 19 September 1686 Ernestine
Saxe-Eisenach
Johannetta of Sayn-Wittgenstein
29 May 1661
Wallau
nine children
Regent for his nephew.
William August 30 November 1668 23 February 1671 Saxe-Eisenach Unmarried Died as a minor. His uncle, as regent, inherited his domain.
John George II, Elector of Saxony (regent) Johan Georg II Johann Fink, vor 1675.jpg 31 May 1613 1669-1672 22 August 1680 Ernestine
Saxe (-Weimar) -Altenburg
Magdalene Sibylle of Brandenburg-Bayreuth
13 November 1638
Dresden
three children
Regent in mae of Frederick William III. The minor duke never reached adulthood.
Frederick William III Friedrich Wilhelm III, duke of Saxe-Altenburg (1657-1672), by German School of 1662.jpg 12 July 1657 14 April 1672 Ernestine
Saxe (-Weimar) -Altenburg
Unmarried Son of Frederick William II. Died as a minor, his lands were divided between Saxe-Gotha and Saxe-Weimar.
Saxe-Altenburg merged in Saxe-Gotha to form Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
John George III John George I, Duke of Saxe-Eisenach.jpg 12 July 1634 1671-1686 19 September 1686 Ernestine
Saxe-Eisenach
Johannetta of Sayn-Wittgenstein
29 May 1661
Wallau
nine children
Inherited Eisenach from his minor nephew in 1671, merging Marksuhl in Eisenach.
Ernest II the Pious Ernest I, duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg.jpg 25 December 1601 1672-1675 26 March 1675 Ernestine
Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Elisabeth Sophie of Saxe-Altenburg
24 October 1636
Altenburg
eighteen children
Reunited his domains and his wife's (as heiress of Saxe-Altenburg).
Frederick V Frederick I of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg.jpg 15 July 1646 1675-1691 2 August 1691 Ernestine
Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Magdalena Sibylle of Saxe-Weissenfels
14 November 1669
Halle
eight children

Christine of Baden-Durlach
14 August 1681
Ansbach
no children
Son of Ernest II. Received Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg.
Albert VII Albert V, Duke of Saxe-Coburg.jpg 24 May 1648 1675-1699 6 August 1699 Ernestine
Saxe-Coburg
Marie Elisabeth of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
18 July 1676
Gotha
one child

Susanne Elisabeth Kempinsky
24 May 1688
Coburg
morganatic
no children
Son of Ernest II. Received Saxe-Coburg. Left no male descendants, his lands were annexed by Saafeld.
Saxe-Coburg merged in Saxe-Saalfeld to form Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Bernard V BernhardIsamei.JPG 10 September 1649 1675-1706 27 April 1706 Ernestine
Saxe-Meiningen
Marie Hedwig of Hesse-Darmstadt
20 November 1671
Gotha
seven children

Elisabeth Eleonore of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
25 January 1681
Schöningen
five children
Son of Ernest II. Received Saxe-Meiningen.
Henry V Heinrich von Sachsen-Weißenfels-Barby b.jpg 19 November 1650 1675-1710 13 May 1710 Ernestine
Saxe-Römhild
Marie Elisabeth of Hesse-Darmstadt
1 March 1676
Darmstadt
no children
Son of Ernest II. Received Saxe-Römhild. Left no descendants and his lands were anexed to Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.
Saxe-Römhild was annexed by Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Christian IV 1653 Christian.jpg 6 January 1653 1675-1707 28 April 1707 Ernestine
Saxe-Eisenberg
Christiane of Saxe-Merseburg
13 February 1677
Merseburg
one child

Sophie Marie of Hesse-Darmstadt
9 February 1681
Darmstadt
no children
Son of Ernest II. Received Saxe-Eisenberg. Left no male descendants and his lands were anexed to Saxe-Hildburghausen.
Saxe-Eisenberg was annexed by Saxe-Hildburghausen
Ernest III Arolsen Klebeband 01 175 2.jpg 12 June 1655 1675-1715 17 October 1715 Ernestine
Saxe-Hildburghausen
Sophie of Waldeck
30 November 1680
Arolsen
eighteen children
Son of Ernest II. Received Saxe-Hildburghausen.
John Ernest V Johann Ernst of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.jpg 22 August 1658 1675-1699 17 February 1729 Ernestine
Saxe-Saalfeld
Sophie Hedwig of Saxe-Merseburg
18 February 1680
Merseburg
five children

Charlotte Johanna of Waldeck-Wildungen
2 December 1690
Maastricht
eight children
Son of Ernest II. Received Saxe-Saafeld; in 1699 reunified it with Saxe-Coburg, forming Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.
1699-1729 Ernestine
Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
John Ernest IV, Duke of Saxe-Weimar (regent) Arolsen Klebeband 01 177 1.jpg 11 September 1627 1678-1683 15 May 1683 Ernestine
Saxe-Jena
Christine Elisabeth of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg
14 August 1656
Weimar
five children
Regent for his nephew.
John George III, Duke of Saxe-Eisenach (regent) John George I, Duke of Saxe-Eisenach.jpg 12 July 1634 1683-1686 19 September 1686 Ernestine
Saxe-Jena
Johannetta of Sayn-Wittgenstein
29 May 1661
Wallau
nine children
Regent for his nephew.
William Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Weimar (regent) 1662 Wilhelm Ernst.jpg 19 October 1662 1686-1690 26 August 1728 Ernestine
Saxe-Jena
Charlotte Marie of Saxe-Jena
2 November 1683
Eisenach
no children
Regent for his cousin.
John William III 28 March 1675 1678-1690 4 November 1690 Ernestine
Saxe-Jena
Unmarried Son of Bernard IV. Died as a minor.
Saxe-Coburg-Eisenach divided between its neighbours Saxe-Eisenach and Saxe-Weimar
John George IV
(Johann Georg III)
1647 Johann Georg.JPG 20 June 1647 22 August 1680 - 12 September 1691 12 September 1691 Albertine
Electorate of Saxony
Anna Sophie of Denmark
9 October 1666
Copenhagen
two children
John Adolph I Johann Adolf I. von Sachsen-Weißenfels (a).jpg 2 November 1649 1680-1697 24 May 1697 Albertine
Saxe-Weissenfels-Querfurt
Johanna Magdalena of Saxe-Altenburg
25 October 1671
Altenburg
eleven children

Christiane Wilhelmine of Bünau
3 February 1692
Querfurt
(morganatic)
eleven children
Inherited the remaining Saxe-Weissenfels.
Henry VI Heinrich von Sachsen-Römhild.jpg 29 September 1657 1680-1728 16 February 1728 Albertine
Saxe-Weissenfels-Barby
Elisabeth Albertine of Anhalt-Dessau
30 March 1686
Dessau
seven children
Inherited Saxe-Weissenfels-Barby.
Maurice William I Maurice Wilhelm Saxe-Zeitz.jpg 12 March 1664 1681-1718 15 November 1718 Albertine
Saxe-Zeitz
Marie Amalie of Brandenburg
25 June 1689
Potsdam
five children
Left no descendants. After his death Saxe-Zeitz merged in the Electorate.
Saxe-Zeitz merged in the Electorate of Saxony
William Ernest I 1662 Wilhelm Ernst.jpg 19 October 1662 1683-1728 26 August 1728 Ernestine
Saxe-Weimar
Charlotte Marie of Saxe-Jena
2 November 1683
Eisenach
no children
Ruled jointly. John Ernest was just a nominal ruler; William Ernest had full government.
John Ernest VI Johann Ernst III.jpg 22 June 1664 1683-1707 10 May 1707 Ernestine
Saxe-Weimar
Sophie Auguste of Anhalt-Zerbst
11 October 1685
Zerbst
five children

Charlotte of Hesse-Homburg
4 November 1694
Kassel
four children
Philip Philipp, Duke of Saxe-Merseburg-Lauchstädt.jpg 26 October 1657 1684-1690 1 July 1690 Albertine
Saxe-Merseburg-Lauchstädt
Eleonore Sophie of Saxe-Weimar
9 July 1684
Weimar
two children

Louise Elisabeth of Württemberg-Oels
17 August 1688
Bernstadt
one child
Son of Christian. Received from his father the town of Lauchstädt, and ruled it in his father's lifetime, after his death his land returned to is father.
John George V Zweidritteltaler-1690-Eisenach-av.jpg 24 July 1665 1686-1698 10 November 1698 Ernestine
Saxe-Eisenach
Sophie Charlotte of Württemberg
20 September 1688
Kirchheim unter Teck
no children
Left no descendants. He was succeeded by his brother.
John George VI
(Johann Georg IV)
Jan Jerzy IV 4.jpg 18 October 1668 12 September 1691 - 27 April 1694 27 April 1694 Albertine
Electorate of Saxony
Eleonore Erdmuthe of Saxe-Eisenach
17 April 1692
Leipzig
no children
Christian V 19 November 1653 1691-1694 20 October 1694 Albertine
Saxe-Merseburg
Erdmuthe Dorothea of Saxe-Zeitz
14 October 1679
Moritzburg
seven children
Augustus III 15 February 1655 1691-1715 27 March 1715 Albertine
Saxe-Merseburg-Zörbig
Hedwig of Mecklenburg-Güstrow
1 December 1686
Güstrow
eight children
Son of Christian. Received from his brother the town of Zörbig. Left no male descendants, his lands returned to Saxe-Merseburg.
Saxe-Merseburg-Zörbig merged in Saxe-Merseburg
Bernard V, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen (regent) BernhardIsamei.JPG 10 September 1649 1691-1693 27 April 1706 Ernestine
Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Marie Hedwig of Hesse-Darmstadt
20 November 1671
Gotha
seven children

Elisabeth Eleonore of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
25 January 1681
Schöningen
five children
Regents in name of their nephew, Frederick VI.
Henry V, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen (regent) Heinrich von Sachsen-Weißenfels-Barby b.jpg 19 November 1650 13 May 1710 Ernestine
Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Marie Elisabeth of Hesse-Darmstadt
1 March 1676
Darmstadt
no children
Frederick VI Christian Schilbach - Porträt des Herzogs Friedrich II. von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg.jpg 28 July 1676 1693-1732 23 March 1732 Ernestine
Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Magdalena Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst
7 June 1696
Gotha
nineteen children
Frederick Augustus I the Strong
(Friedrich August I)
Aŭgust Mocny. Аўгуст Моцны (H. Rodakowski, XIX).jpg 12 May 1670 27 April 1694 - 1 February 1733 1 February 1733 Albertine
Electorate of Saxony
Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth
20 January 1693
Bayreuth
one child
Brother of John George IV. Converted to Catholicism 1697 in order to compete for the crown of Poland. Took the Polish crown 1697, opposed by Stanisław Leszczyński, in 1704, forced to renounce the throne 1706, returned as monarch 1709 until his death.
Henry VII Heinrich von Sachsen-Merseburg 1.jpg 2 September 1661 1694-1731 28 July 1738 Albertine
Saxe-Merseburg-Spremberg
Elisabeth of Mecklenburg-Güstrow
29 March 1692
Güstrow
three children
Son of Christian. Received from his brother the town of Spremberg; in 1731 succeeded in Saxe-Merseburg, reuniting its original lands with those he unexpectedly inherited.
Saxe-Merseburg-Spremberg merged in Saxe-Merseburg
Frederick Augustus I, Elector of Saxony (regent) Aŭgust Mocny. Аўгуст Моцны (H. Rodakowski, XIX).jpg 12 May 1670 1694-1712 1 February 1733 Albertine
Saxe-Merseburg
Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth
20 January 1693
Bayreuth
one child
Regents on behalf of Christian Maurice, and then of Maurice Wilhelm.
Erdmuthe Dorothea of Saxe-Zeitz (regent) Erdmuthe Dorothea von Sachsen-Zeitz.jpg 13 November 1661 29 April 1720 Albertine
Saxe-Merseburg
Christian V
14 October 1679
Moritzburg
seven children
Christian VI Maurice 7 November 1680 1694 14 November 1694 Albertine
Saxe-Merseburg
Unmarried
Maurice William II Moritz Wilhelm, Herzog von Sachsen-Merseburg 2.JPG 5 February 1688 1712-1731 21 April 1731 Albertine
Saxe-Merseburg
Henriette Charlotte of Nassau-Idstein
4 November 1711
Istein
one child
Left no descendants. He was succeeded by his uncle, Henry.
John George VII Johann Georg Saxe-Weissenfels.jpg 13 July 1677 1697-1712 16 March 1712 Albertine
Saxe-Weissenfels-Querfurt
Fredericka Elisabeth of Saxe-Eisenach
7 January 1698
Jena
seven children
Left no male descendants. He was succeeded by his brother Christian.
John William IV Johann Wilhelm von Sachsen-Eisenach.jpg 17 October 1666 1698-1729 14 January 1729 Ernestine
Saxe-Eisenach
Amalie of Nassau-Dietz
28 November 1690
Oranjewoud
two children

Christine Juliane of Baden-Durlach
27 February 1697
Wolfenbüttel
seven children

Magdalene Sibylle of Saxe-Weissenfels
28 July 1708
Weissenfels
three children

Marie Christine Felizitas of Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg-Heidesheim
29 May 1727
Hanau
no children
Frederick Henry Friedrich Heinrich (Sachsen-Zeitz).jpg 21 July 1668 1699-1713 18 December 1713 Albertine
Saxe-Zeitz-Pegau-Neustadt
Sophie Angelika of Württemberg-Oels
23 April 1699
Oleśnica
no children

Anna Fredericka Philippine of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Wiesenburg
27 February 1702
Moritzburg
two children
Son of Maurice. Received from his brother the towns of Pegau and Neustadt. Left no male descendants, his lands returned to Saxe-Zeitz.
Saxe-Zeitz-Pegau-Neustadt merged in Saxe-Zeitz
Ernest Louis I ErnstludwigIsamei.JPG 7 October 1672 1706-1724 24 November 1724 Ernestine
Saxe-Meiningen
Dorothea Marie of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
19 September 1704
Gotha
five children

Elisabeth Sophie of Brandenburg
3 June 1714
Coburg
no children
Frederick VII Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels-Dahme.jpg 20 November 1673 1711-1715 16 April 1715 Albertine
Saxe-Weissenfels-Dahme
Emilie Agnes Reuss of Schleiz
13 February 1711
Dahme
no children
Son of Augustus. His brother John Adolph gave him in 1711 Saxe-Weissenfels-Dahme, after his death Dahme was reabsorbed by Saxe-Weissenfels-Querfurt.
Saxe-Weissenfels-Dahme merged in Saxe-Weissenfels-Querfurt
Christian VII Christian von Sachsen-Weißenfels portrait.jpg 23 February 1682 1712-1736 28 June 1736 Albertine
Saxe-Weissenfels-Querfurt
Louise Christine of Stolberg-Stolberg-Ortenberg
12 May 1712
Stolberg
no children
Left no male descendants. He was succeeded by his brother John Adolf.
Ernest Frederick I ErnstFriedrich1hibu.jpg 21 August 1681 1715-1724 9 March 1724 Ernestine
Saxe-Hildburghausen
Sophia Albertine of Erbach-Erbach
4 February 1704
Erbach im Odenwald
fourteen children
Sophia Albertine of Erbach-Erbach (regent) Sophie Albertine of Erbach-Erbach duchess of Saxe-Hildburghausen.JPG 30 July 1683 1724-1728 4 September 1742 Ernestine
Saxe-Hildburghausen
Ernest Frederick I
4 February 1704
Erbach im Odenwald
fourteen children
Regent on behalf of her son.
Ernest Frederick II ErnstFriedrich2hibu.jpg 17 December 1707 1728-1745 13 August 1745 Ernestine
Saxe-Hildburghausen
Caroline of Erbach-Fürstenau
19 June 1726
Fürstenau
four children
Ernest Louis II ErnstludwigIIsamei.JPG 8 August 1709 1724-1729 24 February 1729 Ernestine
Saxe-Meiningen
Unmarried Left no descendants. He was succeeded by his brother.
George Albert Georg Albrecht (Sachsen-Weißenfels-Barby).jpg 19 April 1695 1728-1739 12 June 1739 Albertine
Saxe-Weissenfels-Barby
Auguste Louise of Württemberg-Oels
18 February 1721
Forst
no children
Left no descendants, and his land merged in Saxe-Weissenfels.
Saxe-Weissenfels-Barby merged in Saxe-Weissenfels
William Henry William Heinrich, duke of Saxe-Eisenach.jpg 10 November 1691 1729-1741 26 July 1741 Ernestine
Saxe-Eisenach
Albertine Juliane of Nassau-Idstein
15 February 1713
Idstein
no children

Anna Sophie Charlotte of Brandenburg-Schwedt
3 June 1723
Berlin
no children
Left no descendants: Saxe-Eisenach merged with Saxe-Weimar.
Saxe-Eisenach merged in Saxe-Weimar to form Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
Ernest Augustus I Ernst August of Saxe-Weimar.jpg 19 April 1688 1728-1741 19 January 1748 Ernestine
Saxe-Weimar
Eleonore Wilhelmine of Anhalt-Köthen
2 November 1683
Nienburg
eight children

Sophie Charlotte of Brandenburg-Bayreuth
7 April 1734
Bayreuth
four children
Son of John Ernest VI. Reunited under his rule the duchies of Saxe-Weimar and Eisenach.
1741-1748 Ernestine
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
Christian Ernest Christianernscoburgsaalfeld.jpg 18 August 1683 1729-1745 4 September 1745 Ernestine
Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Christiane Fredericka of Koss
18 August 1724
Naitschau
(morganatic)
no children
Left no descendants. He was succeeded by his brother.
Charles Frederick I Karlfriedrichsamei.JPG 18 July 1712 1729-1743 28 March 1743 Ernestine
Saxe-Meiningen
Unmarried Brother of Ernest Louis II. Left no descendants, he was succeeded by his uncle.
Henry VII Heinrich von Sachsen-Merseburg 1.jpg 2 September 1661 1731-1738 28 July 1738 Albertine
Saxe-Merseburg
Elisabeth of Mecklenburg-Güstrow
29 March 1692
Güstrow
three children
In 1731 succeeded in Saxe-Merseburg, reuniting its original lands with those he unexpectedly inherited. Left no descendants and Saxe-Merseburg merged in the Electorate of Saxony.
Saxe-Merseburg merged in the Electorate of Saxony
Frederick VIII FriedrichIIISaGoAlt.JPG 14 April 1699 1732-1772 10 March 1772 Ernestine
Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Luise Dorothea of Saxe-Meiningen
17 September 1729
Gotha
eight children
Frederick Augustus II the Fat'
(Friedrich August II)
August III the Saxon.PNG 17 October 1696 1 February 1733 - 5 October 1763 5 October 1763 Albertine
Electorate of Saxony
Maria Josepha of Austria
20 August 1719
Dresden
sixteen children
Son of Frederick Augustus I. Converted to Catholicism 1712. King of Poland 1734–1763.
John Adolph II Johann Adolf II Saxe-Weissenfels.jpg 4 September 1685 1736-1746 16 May 1746 Albertine
Saxe-Weissenfels-Querfurt
Johannette Antoinette Juliane of Saxe-Eisenach
9 May 1721
Eisenach
one child

Fredericka of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
27 November 1734
Altenburg
five children
Left no male descendants. After his death the Duchy was reannexed by the Electorate of Saxony.
Saxe-Weissenfels-Querfurt merged in the Electorate of Saxony
Frederick William IV Friedrichwilhelmsamei.JPG 16 February 1679 1743-1746 10 March 1746 Ernestine
Saxe-Meiningen
Unmarried Brother of Ernest Louis I. Left no descendants, he was succeeded by his half-brother.
Caroline of Erbach-Fürstenau (regent) Caroline of Erbach-Fürstenau duchess of Saxe-Hildburghausen.JPG 29 September 1700 1745-1748 7 May 1758 Ernestine
Saxe-Hildburghausen
Ernest Frederick II
19 June 1726
Fürstenau
four children
Regent on behalf of her son.
Ernest Frederick III Ernest Frederick III of Saxe-Hildburghausen.JPG 10 June 1727 1748-1780 23 September 1780 Ernestine
Saxe-Hildburghausen
Louise of Denmark
1 October 1749
Copenhagen
one child

Christiane Sophie Charlotte of Brandenburg-Bayreuth
20 January 1757
Copenhagen
one child

Ernestine of Saxe-Weimar
1 July 1758
Bayreuth
three children
Francis Josias Francis Josias, duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.jpg 25 September 1697 1745-1764 16 September 1764 Ernestine
Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Anna Sophie of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
2 January 1723
Rudolstadtbr>eight children
Brother of Christian Ernest.
Anthony Ulrich Antonulrichsamei.JPG 22 October 1687 1746-1763 27 January 1763 Ernestine
Saxe-Meiningen
Philippine Elisabeth Caesar
January 1711
morganatic
ten children

Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Philippsthal
26 September 1750
Bad Homburg vor der Höhe
eight children
Francis Josias, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (regent) Francis Josias, duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.jpg 25 September 1697 1748-1755 16 September 1764 Ernestine
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
Anna Sophie of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
2 January 1723
Rudolstadtbr>eight children
Regents in name of Ernest Augstus I's son, Ernest Augustus II.
Frederick VIII, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (regent) FriedrichIIISaGoAlt.JPG 14 April 1699 10 March 1772 Ernestine
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
Luise Dorothea of Saxe-Meiningen
17 September 1729
Gotha
eight children
Ernest Augustus II Ernst August II. (Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach)@Schloss Tiefurt.JPG 2 June 1737 1755-1758 28 May 1758 Ernestine
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
Anna Amalia of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
16 March 1756
Brunswick
two children
Anna Amalia of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (regent) Weimar Anna Amalia Bibliothek@Anna Amalie von Sachsen-Weimar (1).JPG 24 October 1739 1758-1775 10 April 1807 Ernestine
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
Ernest Augustus II
16 March 1756
Brunswick
two children
Charles Augustus Carl August Sachsen-Weimar G.M.Kraus@ Goethe Nationalmuseum 01.jpg 3 September 1757 1775-1828 14 June 1828 Ernestine
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt
3 October 1775
Karlsruhe
seven children
In 1815 his rank of Duke was elevated to Grand Duke; from 1815 Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach becomes a Grand Duchy.
Frederick Christian
(Friedrich Christian)
Friedrich-Christian.jpg 5 September 1722 5 October 1763 - 17 December 1763 17 December 1763 Albertine
Electorate of Saxony
Maria Antonia of Bavaria
13 June 1747
Munich
(by proxy)
20 June 1747
Dresden
(in person)
nine children
Son of Frederick Augustus II, raised Catholic.
Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Philippsthal (regent) Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Philippsthal.JPG 11 August 1730 1763-1779 7 September 1801 Ernestine
Saxe-Meiningen
Anthony Ulrich
26 September 1750
Bad Homburg vor der Höhe
eight children
Charles William Carlsamei.JPG 19 November 1754 1779-1782 21 January 1782 Ernestine
Saxe-Meiningen
Louise of Stolberg-Gedern
5 June 1780
Gedern
no children
Left no descendants. He was succeeded by his brother.
Maria Antonia of Bavaria (regent) Maria Antonia Walpurgis von Bayern, Mengs, 1752.jpg 18 July 1724 17 December 1763 - c.1768 23 April 1780 Albertine
Electorate of Saxony
Frederick Christian
13 June 1747
Munich
(by proxy)
20 June 1747
Dresden
(in person)
nine children
Regent on behalf of her son and heir, Frederick Augustus.
Frederick Augustus III the Just
(Friedrich August III)
Fryderyk August I.jpg 23 December 1750 c.1768 - 20 December 1806 5 May 1827 Albertine
Electorate of Saxony
Amalie of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld
17 January 1769
Mannheim
(by proxy)
29 January 1769
Dresden
(in person)
four children
Son of Frederick Christian. His Electorate ceased with the fall of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, and he became King of Saxony.
In 1806 The Elector of Saxony became King of an independent Kingdom of Saxony. For the Kings that followed the electors, see below the Kingdom of Saxony. To continue the list of the multiple duchies that were contemporaries of this kingdom, follow this table.
Ernest Frederick IV Ernesto Federico de Wettin Saalfeld.jpg 8 March 1724 1764-1800 8 September 1800 Ernestine
Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Sophie Antoinette of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
23 April 1749
Wolfenbüttelbr>seven children
Ernest IV Ernst-II 1775.jpg 30 January 1745 1772-1804 20 April 1804 Ernestine
Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Charlotte of Saxe-Meiningen
21 March 1769
Meiningen
four children
Prince Joseph of Saxe-Hildburghausen (regent) Prinz-von-Sachsen-Hildburghausen.jpg 5 October 1702 1780-1787 4 January 1787 Ernestine
Saxe-Hildburghausen
Maria Anna Victoria of Savoy
17 April 1738
Paris
(annulled 1757)
no children
Son of Ernest III. Regent on behalf of Frederick VIII.
Frederick IX FriedrichHibuAltenburg.jpg 29 April 1763 1787-1826 29 September 1834 Ernestine
Saxe-Hildburghausen
Charlotte Georgine of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
3 September 1785
Hildburghausen
twelve children
Inherited Altenburg from Frederick X. The duchy changed its name to Saxe-Altenburg.
George II GeorgIsamei.JPG 4 February 1761 1782-1803 24 December 1803 Ernestine
Saxe-Meiningen
Louise Eleonore of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
27 November 1782
Langenburg
four children
Francis FranzFriedrich AntonSaCoSa.jpg 15 July 1750 1800-1806 9 December 1806 Ernestine
Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Sophie of Saxe-Hildburghausen
6 March 1776
Hildburghausen
no children

Augusta Reuss of Ebersdorf
13 June 1777
Ebersdorf
ten children
Louise Eleonore of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (regent) LouiseEleonoreSaMei.JPG 11 August 1763 1803-1821 30 April 1837 Ernestine
Saxe-Meiningen
George I
27 November 1782
Langenburg
four children
Regent on behalf of her son.
Bernard VI Bernhardiihosenbandorden.JPG 17 December 1800 1821-1882 3 December 1882 Ernestine
Saxe-Meiningen
Marie Frederica of Hesse-Kassel
23 March 1825
Kassel
two children
Augustus IV Ludwig Doell - Porträt des Herzogs August von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg.jpg 23 November 1772 1804-1822 17 May 1822 Ernestine
Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Louise Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
21 October 1797
Ludwigslust
one child

Karoline Amalie of Hesse-Kassel
24 April 1802
Kassel
no children
Left no male descendants. The land was inherited by his brother Frederick
Ernest V Ernst I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha - Dawe 1818-19.jpg 2 January 1784 1806-1844 29 January 1844 Ernestine
Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (1800-1826)

Ernestine
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1826-1844)
Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
3 July 1817
Gotha
two children

Marie of Württemberg
23 December 1832
Coburg
no children
Inherited Gotha from Frederick IX, but had to cede Saafeld to Saxe-Meiningen. The duchy changed its name to Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Frederick X Friedrich IV von Sachsen-Gotha, by Carl Christian Vogel von Vogelstein.jpg 28 November 1774 1822-1825 11 February 1825 Ernestine
Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Unmarried Brother of Augustus. Left no male descendants, the land was divided between Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and Saxe-Hildburghausen.
Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg divided between its neighbours Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and Saxe-Hildburghausen
Frederick IX FriedrichHibuAltenburg.jpg 29 April 1763 1826-1834 29 September 1834 Ernestine
Saxe (-Hildburghausen)-Altenburg
Charlotte Georgine of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
3 September 1785
Hildburghausen
twelve children
Inherited Altenburg from Frederick X. The duchy of Saxe-Hildburghausen changed its name to Saxe-Altenburg.
Charles Frederick II Karl Friedrich of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.jpg 2 February 1783 1828-1853 8 July 1853 Ernestine
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
Maria Pavlovna of Russia
3 August 1804
St. Petersburg
four children
Joseph Herzog Joseph von Sachsen-Altenburg.jpg 27 August 1789 1834-1848 25 November 1868 Ernestine
Saxe (-Hildburghausen)-Altenburg
Amelia of Württemberg
24 April 1817
Kirchheim unter Teck
six children
He implemented several buildings in Altenburg, but his government was considered conservative and resistant to reform; for this, he was forced to abdicate during the civil revolution of 1848. Left no male descendants, he was succeeded by his brother George.
Ernest VI Ernest II, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.jpg 21 June 1818 1844-1893 22 August 1893 Ernestine
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Alexandrine of Baden
3 May 1842
Karlsruhe
no children
Left no descendants. He was succeeded by his nephews.
George III GeorgPrinceofSaxe-Altenburgportrait.jpg 24 July 1796 1848-1853 3 August 1853 Ernestine
Saxe (-Hildburghausen)-Altenburg
Marie Louise of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
7 October 1825
Ludwigslust
three children
Brother of Joseph.
Charles Alexander 1818 Carl Alexander.JPG 24 June 1818 1853-1901 5 January 1901 Ernestine
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
Sophie of the Netherlands
8 October 1842
The Hague
four children
Ernest VII DukeErnstIsaxealtenburg.jpg 16 February 1826 1853-1908 7 February 1908 Ernestine
Saxe (-Hildburghausen)-Altenburg
Agnes of Anhalt-Dessau
28 April 1853
Ludwigslust
two children
Left no male descendants. He was succeeded by his nephew.
George IV Herzog Georg II von-Sachsen-Meiningen 02.jpg 2 April 1826 1882-1914 25 June 1914 Ernestine
Saxe-Meiningen
Charlotte of Prussia
18 May 1850
Berlin
four children

Feodora of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
23 October 1858
Langenburg
three children

Ellen Franz
18 March 1873
Liebenstein
(morganatic)
no children
Alfred Alfred-sachsen-coburg-gotha.jpg 6 August 1844 1893-1900 30 July 1900 Ernestine
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Maria Alexandrovna of Russia
23 January 1874
St Petersburg
six children
Son of Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Queen Victoria.
Charles Edward Carl Eduard Sachsen Coburg und Gotha.jpg 19 July 1884 1900-1918 6 March 1954 Ernestine
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Victoria Adelaide of Schleswig-Holstein
11 October 1905
Schleswig
five children
Son of Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany; Nephew of Alfred. Monarchy abolished in 1918.
William Ernest II GuillemErnestdeSaxònia-Weimar-Eisenach.jpg 10 June 1876 1901-1918 24 April 1923 Ernestine
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
Caroline Reuss of Greiz
30 April 1903
Bückeburg
no children

Feodora of Saxe-Meiningen
14 January 1910
Meiningen
four children
Grandson of Charles Alexander, as son of Charles Augustus, Hereditary Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. Monarchy abolished in 1918.
Ernest VIII Ernst II. von Sachsen-Altenburg 1915.jpg 31 August 1871 1908-1918 22 March 1955 Ernestine
Saxe (-Hildburghausen)-Altenburg
Adelaide of Schaumburg-Lippe
17 February 1898
Bückeburg
(annulled 1920)
four children

Maria Triebel
15 July 1934
Trockenborn-Wolfersdorf
(morganatic)
no children
Grandson of George III, as son of Prince Moritz of Saxe-Altenburg. Monarchy abolished in 1918.
Bernard VII Bernhard III (Saxe-Meiningen).jpg 1 April 1851 1914-1918 16 January 1928 Ernestine
Saxe-Meiningen
Charlotte of Prussia
18 February 1878
Berlin
two children
Monarchy abolished in 1918.

Kingdom of Saxony[edit]

The Holy Roman Empire came to an end in 1806, the Elector of Saxony, allied to Napoleon I, anticipated its dissolution by becoming the ruler of an independent Kingdom of Saxony in 1806.

Ruler Born Reign Death Ruling part Consort Notes
Frederick Augustus I the Just
(Friedrich August I)
Fryderyk August I.jpg 23 December 1750 20 December 1806 - 5 May 1827 5 May 1827 Kingdom of Saxony Amalie of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld
17 January 1769
Mannheim
(by proxy)
29 January 1769
Dresden
(in person)
four children
In 1806 became King of the newly-independent Kingdom of Saxony. Also Duke of Warsaw 1807–1813. Left no male descendants, he was succeeded by his brother. (The numbering resets in this point).
Anthony the Kind
(Anton der Gütige)
Anton-sachsen.jpg 27 December 1755 5 May 1827 - 6 June 1836 6 June 1836 Kingdom of Saxony Maria Carolina of Savoy
29 September 1781
Stupinigi
(by proxy)
24 October 1781
Dresden
(in person)
no children

Maria Theresa of Austria
8 September 1787
Florence
(by proxy)
18 October 1787
Dresden
(in person)
four children
Left no male descendants. He was succeeded by his nephew.
Frederick Augustus II
(Friedrich August II)
Friedrich August II of Saxony.jpg 18 May 1797 6 June 1836 - 9 August 1854 9 August 1854 Kingdom of Saxony Maria Carolina of Austria
26 September 1819
Vienna
(by proxy)
7 October 1819
Dresden
(by person)
no children

Maria Anna of Bavaria
24 April 1833
Dresden
no children
Son of Prince Maximilian of Saxony. Left no descendants, he was succeeded by his brother.
John
(Johann I)
Louis Ferdinand von Rayski - König Johann von Sachsen, 1870.jpg 12 December 1801 9 August 1854 - 29 October 1873 29 October 1873 Kingdom of Saxony Amalie Auguste of Bavaria
10 November 1822
Munich
(by proxy)
21 November 1822
Dresden
(in person)
nine children
Became a subordinate ruler in the German Empire after the Unification of Germany in 1871.
Albert the Good
(Albrecht I)
Albert of Saxony by Nicola Perscheid c1900cr.jpg 23 April 1828 29 October 1873 - 19 June 1902 19 June 1902 Kingdom of Saxony Carola of Sweden
18 June 1853
Dresden
no children
George
(Georg)
Georg von Sachsen 1895.jpg 8 August 1832 19 June 1902 - 15 October 1904 15 October 1904 Kingdom of Saxony Maria Anna of Portugal
11 May 1859
Lisbon
eight children
Frederick Augustus III
(Friedrich August III)
Friedrich August III von Sachsen.jpg 25 May 1865 15 October 1904 - 13 November 1918 18 February 1932 Kingdom of Saxony Louise of Austria
21 November 1891
Vienna
(annulled by royal decree in 1903, after her escape from court)
seven children
The last King of Saxony. Abdicated voluntarily in the German Revolution of 1918–19.[1]

Heads of the House of Wettin since 1918[edit]

The legal line of succession of the house of Wettin has continued to the present, although the house no longer plays any political role, for heads of republican Saxony, see List of Ministers-President of Saxony.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Information in English language - Saxony during the Weimar Republic 1918-1933". www.sachsen.de. Archived from the original on 6 April 2016. Retrieved 7 May 2018. 

External links[edit]