Girolamo Savonarola was an Italian Dominican friar and preacher active in Renaissance Florence. He was known for his prophecies of civic glory, the destruction of secular art and culture, his calls for Christian renewal, he denounced despotic rule and the exploitation of the poor. He prophesied the coming of a biblical flood and a new Cyrus from the north who would reform the Church. In September 1494, when Charles VIII of France invaded Italy, threatened Florence, such prophecies seemed on the verge of fulfilment. While Savonarola intervened with the French king, the Florentines expelled the ruling Medici and, at the friar's urging, established a "popular" republic. Declaring that Florence would be the New Jerusalem, the world centre of Christianity and "richer, more powerful, more glorious than ever", he instituted an extreme puritanical campaign, enlisting the active help of Florentine youth. In 1495 when Florence refused to join Pope Alexander VI's Holy League against the French, the Vatican summoned Savonarola to Rome.
He disobeyed and further defied the pope by preaching under a ban, highlighting his campaign for reform with processions, bonfires of the vanities, pious theatricals. In retaliation, the pope excommunicated him in May 1497, threatened to place Florence under an interdict. A trial by fire proposed by a rival Florentine preacher in April 1498 to test Savonarola's divine mandate turned into a fiasco, popular opinion turned against him. Savonarola and two of his supporting friars were imprisoned. On 23 May 1498, Church and civil authorities condemned and burned the three friars in the main square of Florence. Savonarola's devotees, the Piagnoni, kept his cause of republican freedom and religious reform alive well into the following century, although the Medici—restored to power in 1512 with the help of the papacy—eventually broke the movement; some Protestants consider Savonarola to be a vital precursor of the Reformation. Savonarola was born on 21 September 1452, in Ferrara, his grandfather, Michele Savonarola, was a noted physician and polymath.
Savonarola's mother Elena claimed a lineage from the Bonacossi family of Mantua. She and her husband Niccolo' had seven children, his grandfather was a successful physician who oversaw his education. His family had amassed a great deal of wealth from his medical practice. After his grandfather's death in 1468, Savonarola may have attended the public school run by Battista Guarino, son of Guarino da Verona, where he would have received his introduction to the classics as well as to the poetry and writings of Petrarch, father of Renaissance humanism. Earning an arts degree at the University of Ferrara, he prepared to enter medical school, following in his grandfather's footsteps. At some point, however, he abandoned his career intentions. In his early poems, he expresses his preoccupation of the world, he began to write poetry of an apocalyptic bent, notably "On the Ruin of the World" and "On the Ruin of the Church", in which he singled out the papal court at Rome for special obloquy. About the same time, he seems to have been thinking about a life in religion.
As he told his biographer, a sermon he heard by a preacher in Faenza persuaded him to abandon the world. Most of his biographers reject or ignore the account of his younger brother and follower, that in his youth Girolamo had been spurned by a neighbour, Laudomia Strozzi, to whom he proposed marriage. True or not, in a letter he wrote to his father when he left home to join the Dominican Order he hints at being troubled by desires of the flesh. There is a story that on the eve of his departure he dreamed that he was cleansed of such thoughts by a shower of icy water which prepared him for the ascetic life. In the unfinished treatise he left behind called "De contemptu mundi", or "On Contempt for the World", he calls upon readers to fly from this world of adultery, sodomy and envy. On 25 April 1475, Girolamo Savonarola went to Bologna where he knocked on the door of the Convent of San Domenico, of the Order of Friars Preachers, asked to be admitted; as he told his father in his farewell letter, he wanted to become a knight of Christ.
In the convent, Savonarola took vows of poverty and obedience and after a year was ordained to the priesthood. He studied Scripture, Aristotelian philosophy and Thomistic theology in the Dominican studium, practised preaching to his fellow friars and engaged in disputations, he matriculated in the theological faculty to prepare for an advanced degree. As he continued to write devotional works and to deepen his spiritual life he was critical of what he perceived as the decline in convent austerity. In 1478 his studies were interrupted when he was sent to the Dominican priory of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Ferrara as assistant master of novices; the assignment might have been a normal, temporary break from the academic routine, but in Savonarola's case it was a turning point. One explanation is that he had alienated certain of his superiors fra Vincenzo Bandelli, or Bandello, a professor at the studium and future master general of the Dominicans, who resented the young friar's opposition to modifying the Order's rules against the ownership of property.
In 1482, instead of returning to Bologna to resume his studies, Savonarola was assigned as lector, or teacher, in the Convent of San Marco in Florence. In San Marco, fra Girolamo taught logic to the novices, wrote instructional manuals on ethics, logic and government, composed devotional works, prepared his sermons for local congregations. As
Welf VII was the only son of Welf VI, Duke of Spoleto and Margrave of Tuscany, Uta, daughter of Godfrey of Calw, count palatine of the Rhine. He was a member of the House of Welf, his father inherited the family's estates in Swabia, including the prominent counties of Altdorf and Ravensburg, which he gave to Welf. Welf, spent much of his time managing the Italian possessions while his father stayed in Swabia. Both Welfs supported Frederick Barbarossa as king of Germany and the younger Welf accompanied him on his Italian campaigns, starting in 1154. In 1160, he was made duke of Spoleto by the emperor. Between 1164 and 1166, he participated in the famous feud between his father and Hugh of Tübingen, which the emperor himself resolved, he was a participant in the campaign of 1167, in which malaria devastated the army and forced the emperor back over the Alps. Welf died at Siena, he was buried in Steingaden Abbey in Bavaria, where his father was later buried
Henry X, Duke of Bavaria
Henry the Proud, a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Bavaria from 1126 to 1138 and Duke of Saxony as well as Margrave of Tuscany and Duke of Spoleto from 1137 until his death. In 1138 he was a candidate for the election as King of the Romans but was defeated by Conrad of Hohenstaufen, he was the second son of daughter of Duke Magnus of Saxony. Henry came of age in 1123, in 1126 his father retired to Weingarten Abbey where he and his wife died shortly afterwards; as his elder brother Conrad had entered the Cistercian Order, Henry was enfeoffed with the Duchy of Bavaria. He shared the family possessions in Saxony and Swabia with his younger brother Welf VI. In 1127 he married the only child of King Lothair III of Germany. Henry's father had been promised her marriage and inheritance as reward for his changing to support Lothair in the royal election of 1125 against the Hohenstaufen rival Duke Frederick II of Swabia. Gertrude was heir of the properties of three Saxon dynasties: the House of Supplinburg, the Brunonids, the Counts of Northeim.
The marriage marked the expansion of power of the Welf dynasty, Bavarian dukes since 1070, to the northern parts of Germany. The couple had Henry the Lion. After the marriage, Henry remained a loyal supporter in the warfare between King Lothair and the Hohenstaufen brothers, Duke Frederick II and Conrad Duke in Franconia and proclaimed the German anti-king. While engaged in this struggle, Henry was occupied in suppressing a rising in Bavaria, led by Count Frederick of Bogen, during which both duke and count sought to establish their own candidates as Bishop of Regensburg. After a war of devastation, Count Frederick submitted in 1133, two years the Hohenstaufen brothers made their peace with Emperor Lothair. In 1136, Henry accompanied his father-in-law to Italy, taking command of a Bavarian division of the Imperial army marched into the south Italian Kingdom of Sicily up to Bari, devastating the land as he went. Having distinguished himself by his military abilities during this campaign, Henry was appointed as margrave of Tuscany, succeeding Engelbert III of Sponheim, as Lothair's successor in the Duchy of Saxony.
He was given the private properties of late Margravine Matilda of Tuscany from the hands of Pope Innocent II. When Emperor Lothair died on his way back from Italy in December 1137, Henry's wealth and position made him a formidable candidate for the German crown. According to the contemporary chronicler Otto of Freising, after his appointment as Duke of Saxony he boasted of a realm stretching "from sea to sea, from Denmark to Sicily". However, the same qualities which earned him the cognomen of "the Proud" aroused the jealousy of the princes and so prevented his election; the new king, Conrad III, demanded the Imperial Regalia which Henry had received from Lothair, the duke in return asked for his investiture with the Saxon duchy. But Conrad, who feared his power, refused to assent to this on the pretext that it was unlawful for two duchies to be in one hand. Attempts at a settlement failed, when in July 1138 Henry refused to take the oath of allegiance, he was banned and deprived of both his duchies.
Bavaria was given to the Babenberg margrave Leopold IV of Austria, a half-brother of the new king Conrad. Saxony, which he had attempted to hold but was not invested with, was given to the Ascanian count Albert the Bear, son of Eilika of Saxony, a younger daughter of the last Billung duke Magnus. In 1139 Henry succeeded in expelling his enemies from Saxony and was preparing to attack Bavaria when he died in Quedlinburg. Henry is buried in the Imperial Cathedral of Königslutter next to his parents-in-law Emperor Lothair and Richenza of Northeim, his death left his son Henry the Lion underage who would be given Saxony, while Henry II, Duke of Austria received Bavaria. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Henry "The Proud"". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of Tuscany was the last Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1859 to 1860. The House of Habsburg-Lorraine continued to hold the title as pretenders until the end of World War I. Born at Florence, he was the son of Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Princess Maria Antonia of the Two Sicilies, he and his family were forced to flee Florence on 27 April 1859, with the outbreak of a revolution inspired by the outbreak of a war by France and Sardinia-Piedmont against Austria as part of the unification of Italy. The family took refuge in Austria. After the end of the war, Leopold II abdicated on 21 July and Ferdinand succeeded him as Grand Duke. Ferdinand proved unable to return to Florence to claim his throne, an elected Tuscan National Assembly formally deposed him only a month on 16 August. Ferdinand still hoped to recover his throne, as both France and Austria had promised to recognize his rights to it in the Armistice of Villafranca. However, neither power was willing to take any steps to bring about his restoration.
The Kingdom of Sardinia annexed Tuscany on 22 March 1860, ending Ferdinand's hopes to reclaim the throne. Ferdinand spent the rest of his life in exile in Austria, he died there, in Salzburg, in 1908. He married twice and had issue: From his first marriage in Dresden on 24 November 1856 to Princess Anna of Saxony, daughter of King John I of Saxony, was born: Archduchess Maria Antonietta, she became abbess of the Theresia Convent in the Hradschin in Prague. From his second marriage in Frohsdorf on 11 January 1868 to Princess Alice "Alix" of Parma, daughter of Charles III of Parma: Archduke Leopold Ferdinand, he took the name Leopold Wölfling. He married thrice, without issue. Archduchess Luise. Married first King Frederick Augustus III of Saxony and after divorcing him married second Enrico Toselli and had issue by both marriages. Archduke Josef Ferdinand, he married, Rosa Kaltenbrunner and, after divorcing her married, secondly Gertrud Tomanek, by whom he had issue. Both marriages were morganatic.
Archduke Peter Ferdinand, Prince of Tuscany. Married Princess Maria Cristina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, had issue. Archduke Heinrich Ferdinand. A major general in the Austrian army, morganatically married Maria Karoline Ludescher, had issue. Count Heinrich von Habsburg married Helvig Schutte on 13 May 1939 Count Ulrich von Habsburg married Friedericke von Klinkowstrom on 29 October 1964 Count Eugen von Habsburg married Gabriele Wetsching on 27 May 1995 Countess Julia von Habsburg Countess Sara von Habsburg Count Clemens von Habsburg married Gislinde Angerer on 12 October 1996 Countess Anna-Lea von Habsburg Count Benedikt von Habsburg Count Philip von Habsburg married Bettina Drescher Countess Zoe von Habsburg Countess Ava von Habsburg Countess Helvig von Habsburg married Baron Hans Jordis von Lohausen Count Christoph von Habsburg married Ebba von Mohrenschildt on 19 May 1973 Count Dominik von Habsburg married Pia Rittinghausen on 17 February 2007 Count Pius von Habsburg Count Hubertus von Habsburg Countess Maximiliana von Habsburg Count Maximilian von Habsburg married Michaela Bobner on 4 May 2001 Count Tino von Habsburg Count Matheo von Habsburg Count Konstantin von Habsburg married Maria Antonia Gall on 7 May 2005 Count Ferdinand von Habsburg Count Felix von Habsburg Count Ferdinand von Habsburg married Lisa Winter in 2015 Count Elmerice von Habsburg married Alexander Fairfax in May 2015 Count Othmar von Habsburg married Helen Moster on 19 December 1944 Countess Ulrike von Habsburg married Prince Lutipold of Liechtenstein on 22 November 1969 and has issue Countess Elisabeth von Habsburg married Stephen Schencker on 10 July 1971 and has issue Count Albrecht von Habsburg married Birgit Guttenberg on 18 July 1997 Count Clemens von Habsburg Countess Veronika von Habsburg Archduchess Anna Maria Theresia.
She married Prince of Hohenlohe-Bartenstein. Archduchess Margareta Archduchess Germana Archduke Robert Salvator Archduchess Agnes Maria Belgium: Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold in 1856. Risorgimento Genealogy of Ferdinand IV Grand Ducal House of Tuscany Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of Tuscany, ThePeerage.com
House of Medici
The House of Medici was an Italian banking family and political dynasty that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the first half of the 15th century. The family originated in the Mugello region of Tuscany, prospered until it was able to fund the Medici Bank; this bank was the largest in Europe during the 15th century, it facilitated the Medicis' rise to political power in Florence, although they remained citizens rather than monarchs until the 16th century. The Medici produced four Popes of the Catholic Church—Pope Leo X, Pope Clement VII, Pope Pius IV and Pope Leo XI —and two queens of France—Catherine de' Medici and Marie de' Medici. In 1532, the family acquired the hereditary title Duke of Florence. In 1569, the duchy was elevated to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany after territorial expansion; the Medicis ruled the Grand Duchy from its inception until 1737, with the death of Gian Gastone de' Medici. The grand duchy witnessed degrees of economic growth under the early grand dukes, but was bankrupt by the time of Cosimo III de' Medici.
The Medicis' wealth and influence was derived from the textile trade guided by the wool guild of Florence, the Arte della Lana. Like other families ruling in Italian signorie, the Medicis dominated their city's government, were able to bring Florence under their family's power, created an environment in which art and humanism flourished, they and other families of Italy inspired the Italian Renaissance, such as the Visconti and Sforza in Milan, the Este in Ferrara, the Gonzaga in Mantua. The Medici Bank, from when it was created in 1397 to its fall in 1494, was one of the most prosperous and respected institutions in Europe, the Medici family was considered the wealthiest in Europe for a time. From this base, they acquired political power in Florence and in wider Italy and Europe, they were among the earliest businesses to use the general ledger system of accounting through the development of the double-entry bookkeeping system for tracking credits and debits. The Medici family bankrolled the invention of the piano and opera, funded the construction of Saint Peter Basilica and Santa Maria del Fiore, patronized Leonardo, Michelangelo and Galileo.
They were protagonists of the counter-reformation, from the beginning of the reformation through the Council of Trent and the French wars of religion. The Medici family came from the agricultural Mugello region north of Florence, they are first mentioned in a document of 1230; the origin of the name is uncertain. Medici is the plural of medico, meaning "medical doctor"; the dynasty began with the founding of the Medici Bank in Florence in 1397. For most of the 13th century, the leading banking center in Italy was Siena, but in 1298, one of the leading banking families of Europe, the Bonsignoris, went bankrupt, the city of Siena lost its status as the banking center of Italy to Florence. Until the late 14th century, prior to the Medici, the leading family of Florence was the House of Albizzi. In 1293, the Ordinances of Justice were enacted; the city's numerous luxurious palazzi were becoming surrounded by townhouses built by the prospering merchant class. The main challengers to the Albizzi family were the Medicis, first under Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici under his son Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici and great-grandson, Lorenzo de' Medici.
The Medici controlled the Medici Bank—then Europe's largest bank—and an array of other enterprises in Florence and elsewhere. In 1433, the Albizzi managed to have Cosimo exiled; the next year, however, a pro-Medici Signoria led by Tommaso Soderini, Oddo Altoviti and Lucca Pitti was elected and Cosimo returned. The Medici became the city's leading family, a position they would hold for the next three centuries. Florence remained a republic until 1537, traditionally marking the end of the High Renaissance in Florence, but the instruments of republican government were under the control of the Medici and their allies, save during intervals after 1494 and 1527. Cosimo and Lorenzo held official posts but were the unquestioned leaders; the Medici family was connected to most other elite families of the time through marriages of convenience, partnerships, or employment, so the family had a central position in the social network: several families had systematic access to the rest of the elite families only through the Medici similar to banking relationships.
Some examples of these families include the Bardi, Ridolfi and the Tornabuoni. This has been suggested as a reason for the rise of the Medici family. Members of the family rose to some prominence in the early 14th century in the wool trade with France and Spain. Despite the presence of some Medici in the city's government institutions, they were still far less notable than other outstanding families such as the Albizzi or the Strozzi. One Salvestro de' Medici was speaker of the woolmakers' guild during the Ciompi revolt of 1378-82, one Antonio de' Medici was exiled from Florence in 1396. Involvement in another plot in 1400 caused all branches of the family to be banned from Florentine politics for twenty years, with the exception of two. Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, son of Averardo de' Medici, increased the wealth of the family through his creation of the Medici Bank, became one of the richest men in the city of Florence. Although he never held any political office, he gained strong popular support for the family through his supp
Republic of Florence
The Republic of Florence known as the Florentine Republic, was a medieval and early modern state, centered on the Italian city of Florence in Tuscany. The republic originated in 1115, when the Florentine people rebelled against the Margraviate of Tuscany upon the death of Matilda of Tuscany, a woman who controlled vast territories that included Florence; the Florentines formed a commune in her successors' place. The republic was ruled by a council known as the Signoria of Florence; the signoria was chosen by the gonfaloniere, elected every two months by Florentine guild members. The republic had a checkered history of counter-coups against various factions; the Medici faction gained governance of the city in 1434 under Cosimo de' Medici. The Medici kept control of Florence until 1494. Giovanni de' Medici re-conquered the republic in 1512. Florence repudiated Medici authority for a second time in 1527, during the War of the League of Cognac; the Medici re-assumed their rule in 1531 after an 11-month siege of the city.
The republican government was disestablished in 1532, when Pope Clement VII appointed Alessandro de' Medici "Duke of the Florentine Republic", making the "republic" a hereditary monarchy. The city of Florence was established in 59 B. C. by Julius Caesar. Before the death of Matilda of Tuscany in 1115, the city had been part of the Marquisate of Tuscany founded in 846 A. D; the city did not submit to her successor Rabodo, killed in a dispute with the city. It is not known when the city formed its own government independent of the marquisate; the first official mention of the Florentine republic was in 1138, when several cities around Tuscany formed a league against Henry X of Bavaria. The country was nominally part of the Holy Roman Empire. According to a study carried out by Enrico Faini of the University of Florence, there were about fifteen old aristocratic families who moved to Florence between 1000 and 1100: Amidei. Florence prospered in the 12th century through extensive trade with foreign countries.
This, in turn, provided a platform for the demographic growth of the city, which mirrored the rate of construction of churches and palazzi. This prosperity was shattered when Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa invaded the Italian peninsula in 1185; as a result, the margraves of Tuscany re-acquired its townlands. The Florentines re-asserted their independence when Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI died in 1197. Florence's population continued to grow into the 13th century, reaching a level of 30,000 inhabitants; as has been said, the extra inhabitants supported the city's vice versa. Several new bridges and churches were built, most prominently the cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore, begun in 1294; the buildings from this era serve as Florence's best examples of Gothic Architecture. Politically, Florence was able to maintain peace between its competing factions; the precarious peace that existed at the beginning of the century was destroyed in 1216 when two factions, known as the Guelphs and the Ghibellines, began to war.
The Ghibellines were supporters of the noble rulers of Florence. The Ghibellines, who had ruled the city under Frederick of Antioch since 1244, were deposed in 1250 by the Guelphs; the Guelphs led Florence to prosper further. Their mercantile orientation soon became evident in one of their earliest achievements: the introduction of a new coin, the florin, in 1252, it was used beyond Florence's borders due to its reliable, fixed gold content and soon became one of the common currencies of Europe and the Near East. The same year saw the creation of the Palazzo del Popolo; the Guelphs lost the reins of power after Florence suffered a catastrophic defeat at the Battle of Montaperti against Siena in 1260. The Ghibellines resumed power and undid many of the advances of the Guelphs, for example the demolition of hundreds of towers and palaces; the fragility of their rule caused the Ghibellines to seek out an arbitrator in the form of Pope Clement IV, who favoured the Guelphs, restored them to power. The Florentine economy reached a zenith in the latter half of the 13th century, its success was reflected by the building of the famed Palazzo della Signoria, designed by Arnolfo di Cambio.
The Florentine townlands were divided into administrative districts in 1292. In 1293, the Ordinances of Justice were enacted, which became the constitution of the republic of Florence throughout the Italian Renaissance; the city's numerous luxurious palazzi were becoming surrounded by townhouses built by the prospering merchant class. In 1298, the Bonsignori family of Siena, one of the leading banking families of Europe, went bankrupt, the city of Siena lost its status as the most prominent banking center of Europe to Florence. In 1304, the war between the Ghibellines and the Guelphs led to a great fire which destroyed much of the city. Napier gives the following account: The golden florin of the Republic of Florence was the first European gold coin struck in sufficient quantities to play a significant commercial role since the 7th century; as many Florentine banks were international companies with branches across Europe, the florin became the dominant trade coin of Western Europe for large scale transactions, replacing silver bars in multiples of the mark.
In fact, with the collapse of the Bonsignori family, several new banking families sprang up in Fl
Rainald of Dassel
Rainald of Dassel was Archbishop of Cologne and Archchancellor of Italy from 1159 until his death. A close advisor to the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick Barbarossa, he had an important influence on Imperial politics in the Italian conflict of Guelphs and Ghibellines. Rainald was a scion of the Counts of Dassel, who had inherited large estates in the Suilbergau of Saxony upon the extinction of the ducal Billung dynasty in 1106. A younger son of the affluent count Reinold I of Dassel, he was destined as such to be an ecclesiastic, while his elder brother Ludolf succeeded in the Dassel county. Rainald's father sent him to the Hildesheim Cathedral school and at a date he went to Paris in France, where he studied with Adam of Balsham; as early as 1130 he is said to have had a high reputation for classical learning, to have been a member of the Hildesheim cathedral chapter. He started working as a subdeacon under Bishop Bernard about 1146 and accompanied Abbot Wibald of Stavelot to the Roman Curia.
According to documentary evidence he was appointed provost in 1148. Rainald became one of the most important dignitaries in Hildesheim, where had the first stone bridge built above the Innerste river, he represented the diocese at the 1148 Council of Reims, presided over by Pope Eugene III opposing a canon concerned with clerical dress. Particular attention was paid to his statements by John of Salisbury, who mentioned him in his Historia Pontificalis. In 1153 Rainald received the provostship of the St Maurice monastery in Hildesheim and St Peter's Abbey in Goslar. Soon after, he was appointed provost of the Münster Cathedral chapter, of the Maastricht Basilica of Saint Servatius, of Xanten Cathedral. However, when a new Bishop of Hildesheim was elected in 1153, he declined. Frederick Barbarossa, elected King of the Romans in 1152, soon noticed Rainald's talents; as a member of the legation sent to Pope Eugene III at Rome he first revealed his political ability. After Frederick had been crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Adrian IV in 1155, he appointed Rainald his chancellor.
In the rising conflict between emperor and papacy, the Diet of Besançon in October 1157 left no doubt as to the drift of Rainald's policies. He issued a directive which insisted upon the rights and the power of the Emperor in the Kingdom of Italy, the strengthening of the autonomus German Catholic clergy, the reduction of the influence of the papacy. Full of life, at times rough and blunt and again careful and calculating, who, in spite of his ecclesiastical dignities, knew how to wield the sword, henceforth influenced the policy of his Imperial master; the struggle with the Curia escalated at the Diet of Besançon, where Rainald entered into a fierce controversy with the papal legate Roland of Siena, vigorously rejecting Pope Adrian's use of the word beneficium, which might mean fief as well as benefit. In the expression used, that the pope would have been glad to grant the emperor greater beneficia, it was thought that the old desire of the Curia for the mastery of the world was to be found.
Though Rainald did not wish to separate Germany from Rome and still held the medieval respect for the Church, his temperament carried Barbarossa much further than the latter desired, or was advantageous in the circumstances. When Frederick submitted, it was Rainald who prevented him from making concessions which might have proved of advantage. In 1158 he and Duke Otto I of Bavaria undertook a diplomatic journey into Italy to prepare the way for the emperor's campaign. In January 1159 the imperial envoy Rainald entered the city of Milan, peacefully conquered in 1158, however, he was expelled and murdered by the inhabitants. While still staying in an Imperial army camp, he was appointed Archbishop of Cologne and Archchancellor of Italy in absence, as successor of the late Frederick II of Berg; when Pope Adrian died in 1159, the double election of Pope Alexander III and Victor IV led to a schism, during which Rainald aimed at strengthening the Imperial antipope Victor. At the 1160 Council of Pavia, he served as the emperor's ambassador and was employed in diplomatic negotiations with Genoa, Pisa, as well as the courts of King Louis VII of France and King Henry II of England, whom he endeavoured to win to the side of the antipope but did not succeed.
In 1162 Emperor Barbarossa began a second siege of Milan, which would end with the destruction of the city. In 1163 Alexander III excommunicated Rainald, who had loudly proclaimed in these negotiations the right of the emperor to dispose of the papal see. Basing his action on the Roncalian decrees issued at the Diet of Roncaglia, near Piacenza, in 1158, Rainald was once more employed in Italy in the affairs of the emperor; when Victor IV died, Rainald, of his own volition and without waiting for the consent of the emperor, elected at Lucca a new antipope, Paschal III. Frederick would hardly have continued the schism. Rainald knew this and therefore wished to force the emperor to continue the struggle for imperial supremacy. Back in Germany in 1164, he brought the bones of the Three Magi with him to Cologne as loot from Milan and as a gift of emperor Frederick Barbarossa. In the meantime the number of the adherents against the lawful pope increased in Germany. Rainald won the consent of the English king to common ecclesiastico-political action in behalf of Paschal III and once more took up arms in defence of his one ambition, which he hoped the proposed canonization of Charlemagne at Aachen in 1165 would advance.
The new alliance was sealed by the engagement of King Henry's daughter Matilda with the Saxon duke Henry the Lio