This is a list of ruling political parties by country, in the form of a table with a link to an overview of political parties in each country and showing which party system is dominant in each country. A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around special issues with the aim to participate in power by participating in elections. Individual parties are properly listed in separate articles under each nation; the ruling party in a parliamentary system is the political party or coalition of the majority in parliament. It forms the central government. List of basic political science topics List of current heads of state and government List of democracy and elections-related topics List of election results List of frivolous parties List of national leaders Lists of political parties by United Nations geoscheme
Blood Law is the practice in traditional American Indian customary law where responsibility for seeing that homicide is punished falls on the clan of the victim. The responsibility for revenge fell to a close family member. In contrast to the Western notion of justice blood law was based on the belief that the soul/ghost of the victim would be forced to wander the earth, not allowed to go to the afterlife, unless harmony was restored; the death of the killer restored the balance. Since this was the accepted custom, blood revenge prevented feuding; the families and clans of victims and perpetrators were at peace. It was not uncommon for the clan of the killer to carry out the execution. There was motivation for this - if the offending party evaded retribution, any member of the offended clan could assess the penalty against any member of the offender's clan; the blood law worked without any government. Neither was there any formal trial. However, there were customary ways of getting a hearing. E.g.
Cherokees had four towns of refuge. An avenger could not touch an accused on a priest's property; the priest could call for a Council to examine evidence and witnesses. Blood revenge was a question of harmony, not of a vendetta. If a member from one clan killed the member of another balance must be restored. Blood revenge was considered sacred and was carried out under the utmost sincerity. If a member of the clan a) should kill a member of the clan b), the clan b) would be owed one life, the clan a) would pay with a life; the eldest brother or nearest male relative of a victim was expected to be the avenger of spilled blood. As far as the aggressor concerns, the entire clan was responsible for the crime of one of its members, there were no exceptions, it was a system that worked well for the Cherokees, because relatives themselves would bring the fugitive to justice to avoid like punishment. The United States discouraged the Blood Law, but left to the tribes the enforcement of the prohibition unless the murdered victim was non-Indian.
The government sometimes stepped in when blood law threatened to lead to war between two different tribes. In the United States, only state and federal governments or military courts can impose the death penalty. Justice under Blood Law would be considered revenge killing or summary murder, could be an additional aggravating circumstance requiring the death penalty for the crime; the term "blood law" is sometimes used in a looser sense, to mean any form of capital punishment, or any form of collective revenge without a formal trial. In this broader sense, blood law was common in Western societies, it was called outlawing, was practiced as a part of common law in England and Iceland. A person could be declared an outlaw for refusing to submit to a legal system. Thereafter, such a person had no recourse to the legal system, could be killed or robbed; the use of "blood law" to refer to outlawry may be considered ethnocentric. The term has been improperly used to refer to a law passed by the Cherokee General Council on October 24, 1829, which specified capital punishment for selling Cherokee lands to foreign governments, in particular the United States.
Whereas. Be it Further Resolved. Since this refers to Cherokee Government law rather than traditional clan enforced law, does not pertain to homicide, this is not blood law as understood by historians and Cherokee tradition. In fact, Cherokee blood law had been reformed in 1808 and abolished in 1810, with the introduction of the "lighthorse" police force; this and similar "blood laws" led to low-level civil war among several of the Five Civilized Tribes during and following their removal to the West. The most noted were the friction between the Lower Creeks and the Upper Creeks and the killings between the John Ross and Ridge factions of the Cherokee Nation. Among those who were executed under such laws were Major Ridge, John Ridge, Elias Boudinot. Blood money Vendetta Honour killing Kanun
USS Hoquiam, a Tacoma-class patrol frigate in commission from 1944 to 1945 and from 1950 to 1951, she is the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for Hoquiam, Washington. She served in the Soviet Navy as EK-13 and in the Republic of Korea Navy as ROKS Nae Tong. Hoquiam was laid down under MC hull No. 1423, by Permanente Metals Richmond Shipyard #4, California, on 10 April 1943. as a patrol gunboat, PG-113, was reclassified as a patrol frigate, PF-5, on 15 April 1943. Launched on 31 July 1943. Trimble, USCG, in command. After shakedown off the coast of Southern California, Hoquiam departed San Francisco, California, on 20 August 1944, called at Seattle and arrived at Kodiak, Territory of Alaska, on 27 August 1944 for duty with the Alaskan Sea Frontier, she patrolled island waters along the Alaskan coast until June 1945 when – having been selected for transfer to the Soviet Navy in Project Hula, a secret program for the transfer of U. S. Navy ships to the Soviet Navy at Cold Bay, Alaska, in anticipation of the Soviet Union joining the war against Japan – she returned to Seattle for an overhaul to prepare her for transfer.
She proceeded to Cold Bay and began training her new Soviet crew. Following the completion of training for her Soviet crew, Hoquiam was decommissioned on 16 August 1945, at Cold Bay, transferred to the Soviet Union under Lend-Lease along with her sister ships Tacoma, Pasco and Everett. Commissioned into the Soviet Navy Hoquiam was designated as a storozhevoi korabl and renamed EK-13 in Soviet service, she soon departed Cold Bay bound for Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky in the Soviet Union, where she served as a patrol vessel in the Soviet Far East. In February 1946, the United States began negotiations for the return of ships loaned to the Soviet Union for use during World War II. On 8 May 1947, United States Secretary of the Navy James V. Forrestal informed the United States Department of State that the United States Department of the Navy wanted 480 of the 585 combatant ships it had transferred to the Soviet Union for World War II use returned, EK-13 among them. Negotiations for the return of the ships were protracted, but on 1 November 1949 the Soviet Union returned EK-13 to the U.
S. Navy at Yokosuka, Japan. Reverting to her former name, Hoquiam lay idle in the Pacific Reserve Fleet at Yokosuka until the outbreak of the Korean War on 25 June 1950 created a need for more U. S. Navy escorts, she recommissioned on 27 September 1950 with Lieutenant Commander B. A. Lane in command. Following a brief shakedown, she departed to join United Nations naval forces in off Korea. Arriving off Wonsan on 25 October 1950, she served as a harbor control and screening ship during amphibious landings. For the next two months she performed patrol, harbor control, communications duties along the northeastern coast of Korea. In late December 1950, Hoquiam assisted with harbor control operations during the evacuation at Hungnam before leaving for Japan. Arriving at Yokosuka on 30 December 1950, she underwent a brief overhaul served as a drone target ship off the coast of Japan from late January until early March 1951, she returned to Korean waters on 8 March 1951 and over the next six months operated along the east coast of Korea from Wonsan to Songjin.
She participated in interdiction and harassment patrols designed to destroy enemy coastal shipping, conducted antisubmarine warfare operations off Wonsan, bombarded enemy shore installations and coastal supply routes. While engaging enemy shore positions on 7 May 1951, Hoquiam was damaged by gunfire, she returned to Japan. Following repairs, she departed on 4 June 1951, called at Sasebo and proceeded to Wonsan, where she arrived on 10 June 1951 to resume bombardment and interdiction duty, she continued patrolling the eastern coast of Korea until September 1951. After returning to Yokosuka on 9 September 1951, she was decommissioned on 5 October 1951. Upon decommissioning, the ship was leased to the Republic of Korea, the U. S. Navy struck her name from the Naval Vessel Register on 1 August 1972, she served the Republic of Korea Navy as ROKS Nae Tong from 1951 until she was scrapped in 1973. The U. S. Navy awarded Hoquiam five battle stars for her Korean War service. Photo gallery of USS Hoquiam at NavSource Naval History hazegray.org: USS Hoquiam
China Machinery Engineering Corporation is a construction and engineering company, forming one part of the China National Machinery Industry Corporation group of companies. A specialization of CMEC is construction of power projects in generation and distribution; the company is present in Turkey with representative offices in Ankara. CMEC has operated in Turkey since the mid-1980s and operations in the country accounted for 5% of global revenue by 2013; the total value of projects in Turkey amounted to 3 billion US dollars as reported in mid-2013 by the company with another 1 billion US dollars in project revenue set to be added to the total by the end of 2013. The work it takes on in Turkey includes the construction of a 600 MW supercritical thermal power plant, a project signed in 2007. Moving into investment, the company announced in 2013 the creation of an investment fund, based on its own equity capital and lines of credit from Chinese financial institutions, for power projects in Turkey.
It signed a deal with Argentina in 2010 to rehabilitate the Belgrano Cargas freight network, part a series of railways that cross the central and northern parts of the country. In 2013, financing was announced for the project with a loan of 2.47 billion US dollars from China Development Bank to finance the bulk of costs. A second deal was signed in September 2015. CMEC built and owns two power plants in Nigeria, Omotosho Power Plants in Ondo StateIn January 2016, the company signed 150 million euro deal with the Bosnian city, Tomislavgrad, to build a wind farm; the project will be finished in 2017
Brian Plummer was a Canadian rock musician born in Tisdale, Saskatchewan. He attended high school in North Battleford. Plummer started his musical career with Ottawa band Trina. After the band split, Plummer teamed up with lyricist Al Higbee; this collaboration proved successful in securing a recording contract. Plummer's first album, No Questions, was released in 1980 resulting in two hits: "Money Talks" and "Jacky Boy". Plummer spent the following years touring and recording six more albums. I'm As Guilty as No Questions. In 1984 Plummer recorded as “Brian Plummer & Suspects” two albums “ without a mark” Produced by Gene Martynec, with Jack Hazebroek on drums, Phil Rohr on bass and Bruce Fowler on keyboards and in 1986, Brian Plummer & The Suspects, he again toured extensively across Canada with this band. After touring for many years Plummer concentrated on writing TV jingles. Plummer released his fifth album Plums: a compilation CD which includes 8 brand new songs, his final album was Perfect World Brian died of cancer April 30, 2008. as Brian Plummer 1980 Money Talks CH-45028 1980 Jacky Boy 1980 Wizards Have Come/ 1981 Lisa/The King of The Jungle 45-006as Brian Plummer and the Suspects 1984 Dull Razor/Looking Glass Street DSR-71003 1984 Dream Research/A Good Lie DSR-81002 1985 Stop Running/Might Makes Right DSR-71012 1985 All Day, All Night/Anxiety DSR-81012 as Brian Plummer 1980 No Questions CLP-8010 1981 I'm As Guilty As You SEF-1002 1981 No Questions SEF-1005 1999 Plums ABCD 32848-1 2007 Perfect Worldas Brian Plummer and the Suspects 1984 Without A Mark DSR-31002 1985 Brian Plummer And The Suspects DSR-31012 BrianPlummer.com alexgitlin.com cvnet.net cdbaby.com jamcanoe.ca v3.ca newworldcds.com home.interlog.com aor-melodicrock.com Imusic.com
Streptophyta, informally the streptophytes, is a clade of plants. The composition of the clade varies between authors, but the definition employed here includes land plants and all green algae except the Chlorophyta and the more basal Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae, Spirotaenia; the composition of the Streptophyta and similar groups varies in each classification. Some authors are more restrictive, including only the Charales and Embryophyta, others include more groups; these earlier classifications have not taken into account that the Coleochaetophyceae and the Zygnemophyceae appear to have emerged in the Charophyceae + Embryophyta clade, resulting in the synonymy of the Phragmoplastophyta and Streptophytina/Streptophyta sensu stricto nomenclature. Streptophyta Charales Embryophyta Division Charophyta Class Mesostigmatophyceae Class Chlorokybophyceae Class Klebsormidiophyceae Class Zygnemophyceae Order Zygnematales Order Desmidiales Class Coleochaetophyceae Order Coleochaetales Subdivision Streptophytina Class Charophyceae Order Charales Class Embryophyceae Streptophyta charophytes Mesostigmatophyceae Chlorokybophyceae Klebsormidiophyceae Charophyceae Zygnematophyceae Coleochaetophyceae Embryophyta Archaeplastida Adl et al. 2005 Chloroplastida Adl et al. 2005 Chlorophyta Pascher 1914, emend.
Lewis & McCourt 2004 Charophyta Migula 1897, emend. Karol et al. 2009 Chlorokybus Geitler 1942 Mesostigma Lauterborn 1894 Klebsormidiophyceae van den Hoek et al. 1995 Phragmoplastophyta Lecointre & Guyander 2006 Zygnematophyceae van den Hoek et al. 1995, emend. Hall et al. 2009 Coleochaetophyceae Jeffrey 1982 Streptophyta Jeffrey 1967 Charophyceae Smith 1938, emend. Karol et al. 2009 Embryophyta Engler 1886, emend. Lewis & McCourt 2004 Archaeplastida Adl et al. 2005 Chloroplastida Adl et al. 2005 Phylum Streptophyta Chlorokybus atmophyticus Mesostigma viridae Family Klebsomidiophyceae Class Phragmoplastophyta Family Zygnemataceae Order Coleochaetophyceae Family Characeae Kingdom EmbryophytaPlease note the taxonomic name system inconsistency of the Kingdom in Class classification. Bremer, K. Summary of green plant phylogeny and classification. Cladistics 1:369-385. Lewis L. A.. M.. "Green algae and the origin of land plants". American Journal of Botany. 91: 1535–1556. Doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1535. PMID 21652308.
Adl, S. M.. G. B.. E.. S.. W.. H.. A. D.. E.. W.. L.. W. "The Revised Classification of Eukaryotes", Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 59: 429–514, doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2012.00644.x, PMC 3483872, PMID 23020233 The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view The closest land plants relatives