Tolkien fandom is an international, informal community of fans of the works of J. R. R. Tolkien of the Middle-earth legendarium which includes The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion; the concept of Tolkien fandom as a specific type of fan subculture sprang up in the United States in the 1960s, in the context of the hippie movement, to the dismay of the author, who talked of "my deplorable cultus". A Tolkienist is someone who studies the work of J. R. R. Tolkien: this involves the study of the Elvish languages and "Tolkienology". A Ringer is a fan of The Lord of the Rings in general, of Peter Jackson's live-action film trilogy in particular. Other terms for Tolkien fans include Tolkiendil. Tolkien's The Hobbit, a children's book, was first published in 1937, it proved popular. However, The Lord of the Rings, first published in 1954 through 1955, would give rise to the fandom as a cultural phenomenon from the early to mid-1960s. Serious admirers and fans of Tolkien came into existence within science fiction fandom soon after the publication of The Fellowship of the Ring.
Tolkien was soon being discussed in various science fiction fanzines and apazines, both as continuing threads of comment and as single pieces such as "No Monroe In Lothlorien!" in Eric Bentcliffe’s Triode. Tolkien-inspired costumes were worn at Worldcons as early as 1958; some enthusiastic Los Angeles fans had been discussing creating a Tolkien-specific society as early as 1959. An organized Tolkien fandom organization called "The Fellowship of the Ring" came together at a 49-minute meeting during Pittcon, the 18th World Science Fiction Convention in Pittsburgh on September 4, 1960; those people who provided accepted research papers to the group’s fanzine, I Palantir, would become "members." Non-members could purchase the magazine, of which Ted Johnstone was elected editor and Bruce Pelz publisher. Ken Cheslin, British agent of The Fellowship, wrote, "I would say that the Tolkien society wasn’t an offshoot… it consisted of fans who regarded JRR as, I think, a little something extra, a little area of interest in addition to the fandom, not an alternative or a replacement, etc."
England’s first Tolkien fanzine was Nazgul’s Bane, produced by Cheslin. It was a "newszine" for those British members of The Fellowship; as Worldcon art shows started, The Fellowship Ring provided prizes for Tolkien-inspired artwork. Since most of the contributors to fanzines at the time came out of science fiction fandom, speculative articles and articles of fiction took off in the direction of science fact; the drowning of Beleriand, the creation of the orcs, the evolution of the elves, the chemical composition of hithlain rope, or the make-up of the morgul-blade was all open to some scientific explanation. Attempts to add a flavor of lofty writing style in many pieces resulted in stilted phrasing. Major articles on Tolkien’s literary sources appeared through multiple issues of Xero. Lin Carter used this as a basis for his 1969 book, Tolkien: A Look Behind The Lord of the Rings; the Lord of the Rings had its detractors in fandom, including both those who found the books unreadable or the character development inferior to the worldbuilding, those who argued that Tolkien fans were taking things too far, with attempts to complete glossaries of Middle-earth underway.
A major defender and advocate of Tolkien in this era was Marion Zimmer Bradley, with such articles as her 1962 “Men and Hero Worship” in Astra’s Tower. She wrote two Tolkien pastiches and one crossover story with Aragorn entering her own created world of Darkover, she published what would be a single issue of Andúril. During this time, science fiction fandom produced many fanzines with little or no Tolkien content but Tolkien-inspired names: Ancalagon, Lefnui, Perian, Shadowfax, Silmé, undoubtedly others. Others had more meaningful Tolkien content. Ed Meskys’ apazine Niekas turned into a full-fledged fanzine during this era, with heavy Tolkien content as well as discussion of Gilbert & Sullivan, science fiction conventions and other topics. Pete Mansfield’s Sword & Sorcery fanzine, Eldritch Dream Quest, included many Tolkien items. Science fiction fandom produced many high quality examples of Tolkien writing in their fanzines during these years. Foster attributes the surge of Tolkien fandom in the United States of the mid-1960s to a combination of the hippie subculture and anti-war movement pursuing "mellow freedom like that of the Shire" and "America's cultural Anglophilia" of the time, fuelled by a bootleg paperback version of The Lord of the Rings published by Ace Books followed up by an authorised edition by Ballantine Books.
The "hippie" following latched onto the book, giving its own spin to the work's interpretation, such as the Dark Lord Sauron representing the United States military draft during the Vietnam War, to the chagrin of the author who talked of a "deplorable cultus" and stated that ""Many young Americans are involved in the stories in a way that I'm not" but who admitted that... the nose of a modest idol cannot remain untickled by the sweet smell of incense! Fan attention became so intense that Tolkien had to take his phone number out of the public directory and moved to Bournemouth on the south coast of England; this embracing of the work by American 1960s counter-culture made it an easy target for mockery, resulted in The Lord of the Rings acquiring a reputation of a dubious work of popular culture rather than "real literature", postponing the emer
Dieselpunk is a genre similar to steampunk that combines the Tier 2 Industrial technology and aesthetics of the diesel-based technology of the interwar period through to the 1950s with retro-futuristic technology and postmodern sensibilities. Coined in 2001 by game designer Lewis Pollak to describe his role-playing game Children of the Sun, the term has since been applied to a variety of visual art, motion pictures and engineering; the name "dieselpunk" is a derivative of the 1980s science fiction genre cyberpunk, is used to represent the time period – or "era" – from the interwar period until the 1950s, when diesel-based locomotion was the main technological focus of Western culture. The "-punk" suffix attached to the name is representative of the counterculture nature of the genre with regards to its opposition to contemporary aesthetics; the term refers to the tongue-in-cheek name given to a similar cyberpunk derivative, "steampunk," which focuses on science fiction based on industrial steam power and, set within the Victorian era.
Author Scott Westerfeld addresses the question of where to draw the line between steampunk and dieselpunk, arguing that his novel Leviathan qualifies as steampunk despite the fact that the technology it depicts includes diesel engines. I like the word "dieselpunk" if you are doing something like'Weird World War II'. I think, but to me, World War I is the dividing point where modernity goes from being optimistic to being pessimistic. Because when you put the words "machine" and "gun" together, they both change. At that point, war is no longer about a sense of adventure and chivalry and a way of testing your nation's level of manhood. So playing around with that border between optimistic steampunk and a much more pessimistic dieselpunk, more about Nazis, was kind of interesting to me because early in the war we were kind of on the steampunk side of that. Jennifer McStotts, another author, considers the two genres to be close cousins, she defines steampunk as concerned with the Victorian era, the shift in technology and energy generation that came with industrialisation.
The genre is concerned with steam power and sustainable energy, while she defines dieselpunk as the genre combining the aesthetic and genre influences of the period of both world wars. Academic Gary K. Wolfe defines the genres by their era of setting, he defines steampunk as the genre set in the Victorian era and dieselpunk as the genre set in the interwar period. Dieselpunk draws its inspiration from two related sources: the diesel era and a characteristic referred to by dieselpunks as "decodence." According to the web site The Gatehouse, decodence, "embraces the styles and technologies of the era. The interbellum era is central to one school of dieselpunk labeled "Ottensian." In addition to the interbellum period, World War II plays a major role in dieselpunk in the school of the genre referred to as "Piecraftian." The exact ending of the diesel era is in some dispute in the dieselpunk community. Depending on the source it ends either at the conclusion of World War II or continues until the early part of the 1950s with the advent of such cultural icons as the Golden Age of Television and the replacement of Big Band and Swing music with Rock and Roll in popularity.
Although the term "dieselpunk" was not coined until 2001, a large body of art significant to the development of the genre was produced before that. Artwork created in the dieselpunk style are influenced by elements of the art movements most prevalent in Western culture during the diesel era such as: Arts – Abstract Expressionism, Art Deco, Raygun Gothic, Cubism, Dada, De Stijl, International Style, Surrealism Music – Blues, ragtime, Big Band, retro swing, bluegrass Literature – Symbolism, Stream of consciousness, Pulp, Hardboiled Detective, NoirAccording to Tome Wilson, owner of Dieselpunks website, the term was retroactively applied to an existing trend in literature. An alternative term was "low-brow pop surrealism". Writers of this trend blended traditional tropes and genres, such as Pulp Adventure, Film noir, Weird Horror, with a contemporary aesthetic. In his words: "They were creating a future fueled by the spirit of the Jazz Age." In their works, the reader could see Sam Spade in the era of smartphones and John Dillinger use a hovercar as his getaway vehicle.
They were writing cyberpunk stories about the era of The Great Gatsby. In discussing punk genres, Ted Stoltz defines dieselpunk as the quasifuture from the Art Deco era, he argues that cyberpunk, clockpunk and ribopunk are all defined by their connection to their respective technological element. He found this does not apply to other related genres such as elfpunk and splatterpunk where technology plays a minor role. Alternative history and World War II feature prominently in dieselpunk literature. Examples of other dieselpunk novels are Tales of the First Occult War by Kevin Cooney, Fiends of the Eastern Front by David Bishop, Hard Magic: Book 1 of the Grimnoir Chronicles by New York Times bestselling novelist Larry Correia. A feature, first identified by t
Harry Potter fandom
Harry Potter fandom refers to the community of fans of the Harry Potter books and movies who participate in entertainment activities that revolve around the series, such as reading and writing fan fiction and soliciting fan art, engaging in role-playing games, socializing on Harry Potter-based forums, more. The fandom interacts online as well as offline through activities such as fan conventions, participating in cosplay, tours of iconic landmarks relevant to the books and production of the films, parties held for the midnight release of each book and film. By the fourth Harry Potter book, the legions of fans had grown so large that considerable security measures were taken to ensure that no book was purchased before the official release date. Harry Potter is considered one of the few four-quadrant, multi-generation spanning franchises that exist today, despite Rowling's original marketing of the books to tweens and teens. Pottermania is an informal term first used around 1999 describing the craze Harry Potter fans have had over the series.
Fans held midnight parties to celebrate the release of the final four books at bookstores which stayed open on the night leading into the date of the release. In 2005, Entertainment Weekly listed the midnight release of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire as one of "Entertainment's Top Moments" of the previous 25 years. Diehard fans of the series are called "Potterheads"; some theme their weddings around Harry Potter. A Bridal Guide featured two real weddings soon before the release of the final movie, which spread through the fandom via Facebook and Tumblr; the craze over the series was referenced in Lauren Weisberger's 2003 novel The Devil Wears Prada as well as its 2006 film adaptation. In the story, the protagonist Andrea Sachs is ordered to retrieve two copies of the next instalment in the series for her boss's twins before they are published so that they can be flown to France, where the twins and their mother are on holiday; some celebrities who are fans of Harry Potter include Lily Allen, Guillermo del Toro, Stephen King, Keira Knightley, Jennifer Lawrence, Evanna Lynch, Liam Neeson, Barack Obama, Simon Pegg, Seth Rogen, Matt Smith.
There are many fan web sites about Harry Potter on the Internet, the oldest ones dating to about 1997 or 1998. J. K. Rowling has an open relationship with her fan base, since 2004 periodically hands out a "fan site award" on her official web site; the first site to receive the award was Immeritus, a fan site devoted to Sirius Black, about which Rowling wrote, "I am so proud of the fact that a character, whom I always liked much, though he never appeared as much more than a brooding presence in the books, has gained a passionate fan-club."In 2004, after Immeritus, Rowling bestowed the honour upon four sites. The first was Godric's Hollow; the next site was the Harry Potter Lexicon, an online encyclopedia Rowling has admitted to visiting while writing away from home rather than buying a copy of her books in a store. She called it "for the dangerously obsessive; the third site of 2004 was MuggleNet, a web site featuring the latest news in the Potter world, among editorials, a podcast. Rowling wrote when giving the award, "It's high time I paid homage to the mighty MuggleNet," and listed all the features she loved, including "the pretty-much-exhaustive information on all books and films."
The last site was HPANA, the first fan site Rowling visited, "faster off the mark with Harry Potter news than any other site" Rowling knows, "fantastically user-friendly."In 2005, only The Leaky Cauldron was honored. In Rowling's words, "it is about the worst kept secret on this website that I am a huge fan of The Leaky Cauldron," which she calls a "wonderfully well designed mine of accurate information on all things Harry Potter." On another occasion, Rowling has called the Leaky Cauldron her "favourite fan site." In 2006, the Brazilian website Potterish was the only site honoured, in recognition of its "style, Potter-expertise and responsible reporting."In May 2007, Harry Potter Fan Zone received the award. Rowling recognized the insightful editorials as well as praised the site for its young and dedicated staff. In December 2007, the award went to The Harry Potter Alliance, a campaign that seeks to end discrimination, poverty, AIDS, global warming, other "real-world Dark Arts", relating these problems to the books.
Rowling called the project "extraordinary" and "most inspirational", paralleled its mission to "the values for which Dumbledore's Army fought in the books". In an article about her in Time, Rowling expressed her gratefulness at the site's successful work raising awareness and sign-up levels among anti-genocide coalitions. At one time, Warner Bros. which owns the rights to Harry Potter and its affiliates, tried to shut down the sites. The unsuccessful attempt led to their inviting the webmasters of the top sites to premieres of the films and tours of the film sets, because of their close connection with the fans. Warner Bros. executives have acknowledged that many fans are disappointed that certain elements of the books are left out, but not trying to avoid criticism, "bringing the fan sites into the process is what we feel is important."These fan sites contain news updates into the world of the books and film cast members through the use of forums, image galleries, or video galleries. They host user-submitted creations, such as fan art or fan fiction.
The Harry Potter fando
Historical fantasy is a sub-genre of fantasy that encompasses the Middle Ages as well as sometimes and represents fictitious versions of historic events. This sub-genre is common among high fantasy literature, it can include various elements of medieval European culture and society, including a monarchical government, feudal social structure, medieval warfare, mythical entities common in European folklore. Works of this genre may have plots set in classical antiquity, they have plots based loosely on mythology or legends of Greek-Roman history, or the surrounding cultures of the same era. Historical fantasy takes one of four common approaches: Magic, mythical creatures or other supernatural elements co-exist invisibly with the mundane world, with the majority of people being unaware of it. In this, it has a close similarity to contemporary fantasy; this overlaps with the secret history trope. Alternatively, the author's narrative shows or implies that by the present day, magic will have retreated from the world so as to allow history to revert to the familiar version we know.
An example of this can be found in Lord Dunsany's The Charwoman's Shadow, which takes place in Spain, but which ends with the magician in it removing himself, all creatures of romance, from the world, thereby ending the Golden Age. It can include an alternative history where the past or present has been changed when an actual historical event turned out differently; the story takes place in a secondary world with specific and recognizable parallels to a known place and a definite historical period, rather than taking the geographic and historical "mix and match" favoured by other works of secondary world fantasy. However, many, if not most, works by fantasy authors derive ideas and inspiration from real events, making the borders of this approach unclear. Historical Fantasy may be set in a fictional world which resembles a period from history but is not that actual history. All four approaches have overlapped in the sub-genre of steampunk associated with science fiction literature. However, not all steampunk fantasy belongs to the historical fantasy sub-genre.
After Antoine Galland's translation of One Thousand and One Nights became enormously popular in Europe, many writers wrote fantasy based on Galland's romantic image of the Middle East and North Africa. Early examples included the satirical tales of Anthony Hamilton, Zadig by Voltaire. English-language work in the Arabian fantasy genre includes Rasselas by Samuel Johnson, The Tales of the Genii by James Ridley, Vathek by William Thomas Beckford, George Meredith's The Shaving of Shagpat, Khaled by F. Marion Crawford, James Elroy Flecker's Hassan. In the late 1970s, interest in the sub-genre revived with Hasan by Piers Anthony; this was followed by several other novels reworking Arabian legend: the metafictional The Arabian Nightmare by Robert Irwin, Diana Wynne Jones' children's novel Castle in the Air, Tom Holt's humorous Djinn Rummy and Hilari Bell's Fall of a Kingdom. Celtic fantasy has links to Celtic historical fiction. Celtic historical fantasy includes such works as Katharine Kerr's Deverry series, or Teresa Edgerton's Green Lion trilogy.
These works are based on ancient Celtic cultures. The separate folklore of Ireland and Scotland has sometimes been used indiscriminately, sometimes with great effect,as in Paul Hazel's Finnbranch trilogy, Yearwood and Winterking. Notable works inspired by Irish mythology included James Stephens' The Crock of Gold, Lord Dunsany's The Curse of the Wise Woman, Flann O'Brien's humorous At Swim-Two-Birds, Pat O'Shea's The Hounds of the Morrigan and novels by Peter Tremayne, Morgan Llywelyn and Gregory Frost; the Welsh tradition has been influential, which has its connection to King Arthur and its collection in a single work, the epic Mabinogion. One influential retelling of this was the fantasy work of Evangeline Walton: The Island of the Mighty, The Children of Llyr, The Song of Rhiannon, Prince of Annwn. A notable amount of fiction has been written in the Welsh area of Celtic fantasy. Scottish Celtic fantasy is less common, but James Hogg, John Francis Campbell, Fiona MacLeod, William Sharp, George Mackay Brown and Deborah Turner Harris all wrote material based on Scottish myths and legends.
Fantasy based on the Breton folklore branch of Celtic mythology does not appear in the English language. However, several noted writers have utilized such material. Merritt in Creep, Shadow! both drew on the Breton legend of the lost city of Ys, while "The Lay of Aotrou and Itroun" by J. R. R. Tolkien is a narrative poem based on the Breton legend of the Corrigan. Classical fantasy is a sub-genre fantasy based on the Greek and Roman myths. Symbolism from classical mythology is enormously influential on Western culture, but it was not until the 19th century that it was used in the context of literary fantasy. Richard Garnett and John Kendrick Bangs used the Greek myths for satirical purposes.20th century writers who made extensive use of the sub-genre included John Erksine, who continued the satirical tradition of classical fantasy in such works as The Private Life of Helen of Troy and Venus, the Lon
A legendary and mythological creature traditionally called a fabulous beast and fabulous creature, is a fictitious and supernatural animal a hybrid, sometimes part human, whose existence has not or cannot be proved and, described in folklore or fiction but in historical accounts before history became a science. In the classical era, monstrous creatures such as the cyclops and the Minotaur appear in heroic tales for the protagonist to destroy. Other creatures, such as the unicorn, were claimed in accounts of natural history by various scholars of antiquity; some legendary creatures have their origin in traditional mythology and were believed to be real creatures, for example dragons and unicorns. Others were based on real encounters, originating in garbled accounts of travelers' tales, such as the Vegetable Lamb of Tartary, which grew tethered to the earth. A variety of mythical animals appear in the art and stories of the Classical era. For example, in the Odyssey, monstrous creatures include the Cyclops and Charybdis for the hero Odysseus to confront.
In other tales there appear the Medusa to be defeated by Perseus, the Minotaur to be destroyed by Theseus, the Hydra to be killed by Heracles, while Aeneas battles with the harpies. These monsters thus have the basic function of emphasizing the greatness of the heroes involved; some classical era creatures, such as the centaur, chimaera and the flying horse, are found in Indian art. Sphinxes appear as winged lions in Indian art and the Piasa Bird of North America. In medieval art, both real and mythical, played important roles; these included decorative forms as in medieval jewellery, sometimes with their limbs intricately interlaced. Animal forms were used to add majesty to objects. In Christian art, animals carried symbolic meanings, where for example the lamb symbolized Christ, a dove indicated the Holy Spirit, the classical griffin represented a guardian of the dead. Medieval bestiaries included animals regardless of biological reality. One function of mythical animals in the Middle Ages was allegory.
Unicorns, for example, were described as extraordinarily swift and uncatchable by traditional methods. It was believed; the unicorn was supposed to leap into her lap and go to sleep, at which point a hunter could capture it. In terms of symbolism, the unicorn was a metaphor for Christ. Unicorns represented the idea of purity. In the King James Bible, Psalm 92:10 states, "My horn shalt thou exalt like the horn of an unicorn." This is because the translators of the King James erroneously translated the Hebrew word re'em as unicorn. Versions translate this as wild ox; the unicorn's small size signifies the humility of Christ. Another common legendary creature which served allegorical functions within the Middle Ages was the dragon. Dragons were identified with serpents, though their attributes were intensified; the dragon was supposed to have been larger than all other animals. It was believed that the dragon had no harmful poison but was able to slay anything it embraced without any need for venom. Biblical scriptures speak of the dragon in reference to the devil, they were used to denote sin in general during the Middle Ages.
Dragons were said to have dwelled in places like Ethiopia and India, based on the idea that there was always heat present in these locations. Physical detail was not the central focus of the artists depicting such animals, medieval bestiaries were not conceived as biological categorizations. Creatures like the unicorn and griffin were not categorized in a separate "mythological" section in medieval bestiaries, as the symbolic implications were of primary importance. Animals we know to have existed were still presented with a fantastical approach, it seems the religious and moral implications of animals were far more significant than matching a physical likeness in these renderings. Nona C. Flores explains, "By the tenth century, artists were bound by allegorical interpretation, abandoned naturalistic depictions." The historian Richard Kieckhefer explains, "Magic is not meant to work but to express wishes, or to encode in symbols a perception of how things do or should work." Cryptozoology Lists of legendary creatures List of legendary creatures by type Mythical creature in the New World Encyclopedia
Steampunk is a subgenre of science fiction or science fantasy that incorporates technology and aesthetic designs inspired by 19th-century industrial steam-powered machinery. Although its literary origins are sometimes associated with the cyberpunk genre, steampunk works are set in an alternative history of the 19th century's British Victorian era or American "Wild West", in a future during which steam power has maintained mainstream usage, or in a fantasy world that employs steam power; however and Neo-Victorian are different in that the Neo-Victorian movement does not extrapolate on technology while technology is a key aspect of steampunk. Steampunk most recognizably features anachronistic technologies or retrofuturistic inventions as people in the 19th century might have envisioned them, is rooted in the era's perspective on fashion, architectural style, art; such technology may include fictional machines like those found in the works of H. G. Wells and Jules Verne, or of the modern authors Philip Pullman, Scott Westerfeld, Stephen Hunt, China Miéville.
Other examples of steampunk contain alternative-history-style presentations of such technology as steam cannons, lighter-than-air airships, analogue computers, or such digital mechanical computers as Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine. Steampunk may incorporate additional elements from the genres of fantasy, historical fiction, alternate history, or other branches of speculative fiction, making it a hybrid genre; the first known appearance of the term steampunk was in 1987, though it now retroactively refers to many works of fiction created as far back as the 1950s or 1960s. Steampunk refers to any of the artistic styles, clothing fashions, or subcultures that have developed from the aesthetics of steampunk fiction, Victorian-era fiction, art nouveau design, films from the mid-20th century. Various modern utilitarian objects have been modded by individual artisans into a pseudo-Victorian mechanical "steampunk" style, a number of visual and musical artists have been described as steampunk.
Steampunk is influenced by and adopts the style of the 19th-century scientific romances of Jules Verne, H. G. Wells, Mary Shelley, Edward S. Ellis's The Steam Man of the Prairies. Several more modern works of art and fiction significant to the development of the genre were produced before the genre had a name. Titus Alone, by Mervyn Peake, is regarded by scholars as the first novel in the genre proper, while others point to Michael Moorcock's 1971 novel The Warlord of the Air, influenced by Peake's work; the film Brazil was an important early cinematic influence that helped codify the aesthetics of the genre. The Adventures of Luther Arkwright was an early comic version of the Moorcock-style mover between timestreams. In fine art, Remedios Varo's paintings combine elements of Victorian dress and technofantasy imagery. In television, one of the earliest manifestations of the steampunk ethos in the mainstream media was the CBS television series The Wild Wild West, which inspired the film. Although many works now considered seminal to the genre were published in the 1960s and 1970s, the term steampunk originated in the late 1980s as a tongue-in-cheek variant of cyberpunk.
It was coined by science fiction author K. W. Jeter, trying to find a general term for works by Tim Powers, James Blaylock, himself —all of which took place in a 19th-century setting and imitated conventions of such actual Victorian speculative fiction as H. G. Wells' The Time Machine. In a letter to science fiction magazine Locus, printed in the April 1987 issue, Jeter wrote: Dear Locus, Enclosed is a copy of my 1979 novel Morlock Night. Though of course, I did find her review in the March Locus to be quite flattering. I think Victorian fantasies are going to be the next big thing, as long as we can come up with a fitting collective term for Powers and myself. Something based on the appropriate technology of the era. While Jeter's Morlock Night and Infernal Devices, Powers' The Anubis Gates, Blaylock's Lord Kelvin's Machine were the first novels to which Jeter's neologism would be applied, the three authors gave the term little thought at the time, they were far from the first modern science fiction writers to speculate on the development of steam-based technology or alternative histories.
Keith Laumer's Worlds of the Imperium and Ronald W. Clark's Queen Victoria's Bomb apply modern speculation to past-age technology and society. Michael Moorcock's Warlord of the Air is another early example. Harry Harrison's novel A Transatlantic Tunnel, Hurrah! Portrays a British Empire of an alternative year 1973, full of atomic locomotives, coal-powered flying boats, ornate submarines, Victorian dialogue; the Adventures of Luther Arkwright was the first steampunk comic. In February 1980, Richard A. Lupoff and Steve Stiles published the first "chapter" of their 10-part comic strip The Adventures of Professor Thintwhistle and His Incredible Aether Flyer; the first use of the word in a title was in Paul Di Filippo's 1995 Steampunk Trilogy, consisting of three short novels: "Victoria", "Hottentots", "Walt and Emily", which imagine the replacement of Queen Victoria by a human/newt clone, an invasion of Massachusetts by Lovecraftian monsters, a love affair between
Tokusatsu is a Japanese term for live-action film or television drama that makes heavy use of special effects. Tokusatsu entertainment deals with science fiction, fantasy or horror, but films and television shows in other genres can sometimes count as tokusatsu as well; the most popular types of tokusatsu include kaiju monster films like the Godzilla and Gamera film series. Some tokusatsu television programs combine several of these subgenres, for example the Ultraman and Super Sentai series. Tokusatsu is one of the most popular forms of Japanese entertainment, but despite the popularity of films and television programs based on tokusatsu properties such as Godzilla or Super Sentai, most tokusatsu films and television programs are not known outside Asia. Tokusatsu has origins in early Japanese theater in kabuki and in bunraku, which utilized some of the earliest forms of special effects puppetry. Modern tokusatsu, did not begin to take shape until the early 1950s, with the conceptual and creative birth of Godzilla, one of the most famous monsters of all time.
The special-effects artist Eiji Tsuburaya and the director Ishirō Honda became the driving forces behind 1954's Godzilla. Tsuburaya, inspired by the American film King Kong, formulated many of the techniques that would become staples of the genre, such as so-called suitmation—the use of a human actor in a costume to play a giant monster—combined with the use of miniatures and scaled-down city sets. Godzilla forever changed the landscape of Japanese science fiction and cinema by creating a uniquely Japanese vision in a genre dominated by American cinema. In 1954, Godzilla kickstarted the kaiju genre in Japan called the "Monster Boom", which remained popular for several decades, with characters such as the aforementioned Godzilla and King Ghidorah leading the market. However, in 1957 Shintoho produced the first film serial featuring the superhero character Super Giant, signaling a shift in popularity that favored masked heroes over giant monsters called the "Henshin Boom" started by Kamen Rider.
Along with the anime Astro Boy, the Super Giant serials had a profound effect on the world of tokusatsu. The following year, Moonlight Mask premiered, the first of numerous televised superhero dramas that would make up one of the most popular tokusatsu subgenres. Created by Kōhan Kawauchi, he followed-up its success with the tokusatsu superhero shows Seven Color Mask and Messenger of Allah, both starring a young Sonny Chiba; these original productions preceded the first color-television tokusatsu series, Ambassador Magma and Ultraman, which heralded the Kyodai Hero genre, wherein a regular-sized protagonist grows to larger proportions to fight large monsters. Popular tokusatsu superhero shows in the 1970s included Kamen Rider, Warrior of Love Rainbowman, Super Sentai and Spider-Man. Suitmation in Japanese identifies the process in tokusatsu movies and television programs used to portray a monster using suit acting; the exact origin of the term remains unknown. At the least, it was used to promote the Godzilla suit from The Return of Godzilla.
The many productions of tokusatsu series have general themes common throughout different groups. Kaiju productions feature monsters, or giant monsters; such series include Ultra Q, the Godzilla film series, the Gamera series, the Daimajin series, films such as Frankenstein Conquers the World, War of the Gargantuas, The X from Outer Space. Kaijin productions feature supervillains as their central character; this includes films such as The Secret of the Telegian, The Human Vapor, The H-Man, Half Human, Tomei Ningen. Since about 1960, several long-running television-series have combined various other themes. Tsuburaya Productions has had the Ultra Series starting with Ultra Q and Ultraman in 1966. P Productions began their foray into tokusatsu in 1966 with the series Ambassador Magma, they had involvement in the Lion-Maru series which concluded in November 2006. Toei Company has several series that fall under their Toei Superheroes category of programming, starting in 1961 with the single series, Moonlight Mask.
They produced several other long running series, starting with Shotaro Ishinomori's Kamen Rider Series in 1971, the Super Sentai series in 1975, the Metal Hero Series in 1982, the Toei Fushigi Comedy Series in 1981. Toei produced several other television series based on Ishinomori's works, including Android Kikaider and Kikaider 01, Robot Detective and Inazuman Flash, Kaiketsu Zubat. Toei was involved in the Spider-Man television series, which influenced their subsequent Super Sentai series. In 2003, TV Asahi began broadcasting the Super Sentai and Kamen Rider series in a weekly one-hour block known as Super Hero Time. Toho, the creators of Godzilla had their hands in creating the Chouseishin Series of programs from 2003 to 2006. In 2006, Keita Amemiya's Garo, a mature late-night tokusatsu drama was released, starting a franchise composed of several television series and films. Other mature late-night series followed, including a revival of Lion-Maru in Lion-Maru G, the Daimajin Kanon television series, Shougeki Gouraigan!!.
Various movies classified as tokusatsu work like generalized science fiction films. These include Warning from Space (宇宙人東京に現わる, Uchūjin Tokyo ni arawaru, Spacemen Appear in Toky