Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams now play in the National League and American League, the NL and AL operated as separate legal entities from 1876 and 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining legally separate entities since 1903, the merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000. The organization also oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises about 240 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs, with the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament. Baseballs first professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869,30 years after Abner Doubleday supposedly invented the game of baseball, the first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who often jumped from one team or league to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era, Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal. The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, and survived potential downturns during the Great Depression, shortly after the war, baseballs color barrier was broken by Jackie Robinson. The 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL, then new stadiums, Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, and media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, today, MLB is composed of thirty teams, twenty-nine in the United States and one in Canada. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television, radio, and the Internet throughout North America, MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution and this document has undergone several incarnations since 1875, with the most recent revisions being made in 2012. Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sports umpiring crews, and negotiates marketing, labor, MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball. This ruling has been weakened only slightly in subsequent years, the weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates. There were several challenges to MLBs primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916, the last attempt at a new league was the aborted Continental League in 1960. The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner, Rob Manfred, the chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives, president, chief officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer. The multimedia branch of MLB, which is based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media and this branch oversees MLB. com and each of the 30 teams websites. Its charter states that MLB Advanced Media holds editorial independence from the league, MLB Productions is a similarly structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast media
Ken Griffey Jr.
George Kenneth Ken Griffey Jr. nicknamed Junior and The Kid, is an American former professional baseball outfielder who played 22 years in Major League Baseball. He spent most of his career with the Seattle Mariners and Cincinnati Reds, a 13-time All-Star, Griffey is one of the most prolific home run hitters in baseball history, his 630 home runs rank as the sixth-most in MLB history. Griffey was also a defender and won 10 Gold Glove Awards in center field. He is tied for the record of most consecutive games with a home run, although popular with fans around the league, Griffey was unable to shake reports of his petulant demeanor throughout his major league baseball career. Griffey is one of only 29 players in history to date to have appeared in Major League games in four different calendar decades. Following his playing career, Griffey joined the Mariners front office as a special consultant and he was inducted into both the Mariners Hall of Fame and the Reds Hall of Fame. In 2016, Griffey was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame, receiving a record 99. 32% of the vote and he is the son of former MLB player Ken Griffey Sr. Griffey was born in Donora, Pennsylvania, on November 21,1969. His family moved to Cincinnati, Ohio, where his father, Ken Griffey Sr. played for the Cincinnati Reds, Ken Jr. was in the clubhouse during his fathers back-to-back championships in the 1975 and 1976 World Series. As a young child, Ken Sr. would instill in his son the pride of a team accomplishment rather than the individual performance and my dad would have bopped me on the head when I was a kid if I came home bragging about what I did on the field. He only wanted to know what the team did and he attended Archbishop Moeller High School in Cincinnati, where he was the U. S high school baseball player of the year in 1987. Griffey was the number one selection by the Seattle Mariners during the Major League Baseball Amateur Draft held on June 2,1987. He received a bonus of $16,000 from the Mariners. On June 11,1987 he joined the Bellingham Mariners of the Northwest League and he made his professional debut on June 16th,1987. During the 54-game season he hit.313 and he led the team with 14 home runs,40 RBI, and 13 steals. Baseball America magazine named him the number one major league prospect. In 1988, Griffey joined the San Bernardino Spirit of the California League, during his 58 games with the Spirit, Griffey batted.338, hit 11 home runs, drove in 42 runs, and stole an astounding 32 bases. Late in the season, Griffey was promoted to the Vermont Mariners of the Class AA Eastern League and he played the final 17 games with the club, hitting.279 with 2 home runs and 10 RBI. In his eleven seasons with Seattle Griffey established himself as one of the most prolific and exciting players of the era, racking up 1,752 hits,398 home runs,1,152 RBIs, and 167 stolen bases
The Cincinnati Reds are an American professional baseball team based in Cincinnati, Ohio. The Reds compete in Major League Baseball as a club of the National League Central division. They were a member of the American Association in 1882. The Reds played in the NL West division from 1969 to 1993 and they have won five World Series titles, nine NL pennants, one AA pennant, and 10 division titles. The team plays its games at Great American Ball Park. Bob Castellini has been executive officer since 2006. The origins of the modern Cincinnati Reds can be traced to the expulsion of a team bearing that name. Both were important activities to entice the citys large German population, while Hulbert made clear his distaste for both beer and Sunday baseball at the founding of the league, neither practice was actually against league rules in those early years. On October 6,1880, however, seven of the eight team owners pledged at a league meeting to formally ban both beer and Sunday baseball at the regular league meeting that December. Only Cincinnati president W. H. Kennett refused to sign the pledge, when these attempts failed, he formed a new independent ballclub known as the Red Stockings in the Spring of 1881, and brought the team to St. Louis for a weekend exhibition. The Reds first game was a 12–3 victory over the St. Louis club, upon arriving in the city, however, Caylor and Thorner discovered that no other owners had decided to accept the invitation, with even Phillips not bothering to attend his own meeting. By chance, the duo met a former pitcher named Al Pratt, the ploy worked, and the American Association was officially formed at the Hotel Gibson in Cincinnati with the new Reds a charter member with Thorner as president. The club never placed higher than second or lower than fifth for the rest of its tenure in the American Association, the National League was happy to accept the teams in part due to the emergence of the new Players League. This new league, a failed attempt to break the reserve clause in baseball. Because the National League decided to expand while the American Association was weakening and it was also at this time that the team first shortened their name from Red Stockings to Reds. The Reds wandered through the 1890s signing local stars and aging veterans, during this time, the team never finished above third place and never closer than 10½ games. At the start of the 20th century, the Reds had hitting stars Sam Crawford, seymours.377 average in 1905 was the first individual batting crown won by a Red. In 1911, Bob Bescher stole 81 bases, which is still a team record, like the previous decade, the 1900s were not kind to the Reds, as much of the decade was spent in the leagues second division
The Baltimore Orioles are an American professional baseball team based in Baltimore, Maryland. The Orioles compete in Major League Baseball as a member of the American League East division, Louis, Missouri to become the St. Louis Browns. After 52 often-beleaguered years in St. Louis, the franchise was purchased in November 1953 by Baltimore business interests led by Clarence Miles, the franchise officially moved to Baltimore for the 1954 season and adopted the historic Orioles name in honor of the official state bird of Maryland. The Orioles name had also used by several previous major and minor league baseball clubs in Baltimore. Nicknames for the team include the Os and the Birds, the Orioles experienced their greatest success from 1966 to 1983, when they made six World Series appearances, winning three of them. The franchise has won a total of nine division championships, six pennants. The Orioles are also known for their successful stadium, the trend-setting Oriole Park at Camden Yards. The modern Orioles franchise can trace its roots back to the original Milwaukee Brewers of the minor Western League, the Brewers were there when the WL renamed itself the American League in 1900. At the end of the 1900 season, the American League removed itself from baseballs National Agreement, two months later, the AL declared itself a competing major league. As a result of several shifts, the Brewers were one of only two Western League teams that didnt fold, move or get kicked out of the league. In its first game in the American League, the team lost to the Detroit Tigers 14–13 after blowing a lead in the 9th inning. To this day, it is a league record for the biggest deficit overcome that late in the game. During the first American League season in 1901, they finished last with a record of 48–89 and its lone Major League season, the team played at Lloyd Street Grounds, between 16th and 18th Streets in Milwaukee. The Miles-Krieger -Hoffberger group renamed their new team the Baltimore Orioles soon after taking control of the franchise, the name has a rich history in Baltimore, having been used by a National League team in the 1890s. In 1901, Baltimore and McGraw were awarded a franchise in the growing American League. After a battle with Ban Johnson, the Head of the American League in 1902, McGraw took many of the top players including Dan McGann, Roger Bresnahan and Joe McGinnity to the New York Giants. As an affront to Johnson, McGraw kept the black and orange colors of the New York Giants, which San Francisco wears to this day. In 1903, the rest of the team was transferred to New York where they were nicknamed the Highlanders until circa 1912, as a member of the high-minor league level International League, the Orioles competed at what is now known as the AAA level from 1903 to 1953
Prince Semien Fielder is an American professional baseball first baseman and designated hitter for the Texas Rangers of Major League Baseball. He has also played for the Milwaukee Brewers and Detroit Tigers, in November 2013, he was traded to the Rangers, where he ended his playing career due to injury. Fielder is a six-time All-Star and was previously the iron man leader for games played with 547 consecutive games. The streak ended in May 2014 when Fielder underwent season-ending neck surgery and he holds the Brewers team record for home runs in a season, and is the leagues youngest player to hit 50 home runs in a season. He became the first Brewer to win the Home Run Derby, on August 10,2016, Fielder announced that he would be unable to continue his playing career after undergoing a second neck surgery in three years. Although Fielder is not officially retired, he spend the remaining four years of his contract on the 60-day disabled list. He ended his career with 319 home runs, the number as his father. Prince and Cecil Fielder are also the only combination to each hit 50 MLB home runs in a season. Fielder was born right-handed, but at a young age was converted to being a left-handed hitter by his father. Fielder was a fixture around his fathers teams clubhouses growing up and he appeared with his father on MTV Rock N Jock Softball. When his father played for Detroit, Prince would sometimes come along for batting practice, Fielder hit a home run into the upper deck of Tiger Stadium as a 12-year-old. Fielder attended Saint Edwards School in Vero Beach, Florida, for two years, where he played varsity baseball. Fielder spent his first three years of school playing at Florida Air Academy in Melbourne, Florida. He then transferred to Eau Gallie High School, located in the Eau Gallie neighborhood of Melbourne and he hit.524 with 13 doubles,10 home runs,41 RBIs, and 47 runs in his senior year. He was named by Florida Today as the All-Space Coast Player of the Year in 2002, the Milwaukee Brewers drafted Fielder in the first round, with the seventh overall selection, of the 2002 Major League Baseball draft. He signed with the Brewers, and began his career in minor league baseball with the Ogden Raptors of the Rookie-level Pioneer League. He was promoted to the Beloit Snappers of the Class A Midwest League that season, Fielder spent the 2003 season with Beloit, and was promoted to the Huntsville Stars of the Class AA Southern League for the 2004 season. Fielder began the 2005 season with the Nashville Sounds of the Class AAA Pacific Coast League, Fielder earned his first call-up to Major League Baseball on June 13,2005
Cornelius Alexander McGillicuddy, better known as Connie Mack, was an American professional baseball player, manager, and team owner. The longest-serving manager in Major League Baseball history, he records for wins, losses. Mack managed the Philadelphia Athletics for the clubs first 50 seasons of play, starting in 1901, before retiring at age 87 following the 1950 season, however, constant financial struggles forced repeated rebuilding of the roster, and Macks teams also finished in last place 17 times. Mack was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1937, Mack was born Cornelius McGillicuddy in East Brookfield, Massachusetts on December 22,1862. As with many Irish immigrants whose names began with Mc, the McGullicuddys were often referred to as Mack and his parents, Michael McGillicuddy and Mary McKillop, were both immigrants from Ireland. Michael McGillicuddys father was named Cornelius McGillicuddy, and by tradition, Connie is a common nickname for Cornelius, so Cornelius McGillicuddy was called Connie Mack from an early age. Connie Mack never legally changed his name, on the occasion of his marriage at age 48. His nickname on the field was Slats, for his height of 6 feet 2 inches. During the American Civil War, he served with the 51st Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment, Michael McGillicuddy suffered from several ailments as the result of his military service, he was able to work only infrequently, and drew a disability pension. Mack was educated in East Brookfield, and began working summers in local cotton mills at age 9 to help support his family. He quit school after completing the eighth grade at age 14, intending to work full-time to contribute to the familys support and he clerked at a store, worked on local farms, and worked on the production lines of the shoe factories in nearby towns. Mack was also an athlete, and frequently played baseball. In 1879 his skills landed him a place on East Brookfields town team, though younger than his teammates by several years, Mack was the teams catcher and de facto captain. Beginning in 1886, Mack played 10 seasons in the National League and one in the Players League, for a total of 11 seasons in the major leagues, almost entirely as a catcher. Beginning in 1884, he played on minor league teams in the Connecticut cities of Meriden, in the winter of 1889, he jumped to the Buffalo team of the new Players League, the Bisons, investing his entire life savings of $500 in shares in that club. But the Players League went out of business only a year. In December 1890 Mack signed a contract with the Pittsburgh Pirates of the National League, as a player, Mack was a light-hitting catcher with a reputation as a smart player, but didnt do anything particularly well as a player. Mack was one of the first catchers to position himself directly behind home plate instead of in front of the backstop, according to Wilbert Robinson, Mack never was mean