In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government, they are a territorial designation, the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. Civil parishes can trace their origin to the ancient system of ecclesiastical parishes which played a role in both civil and ecclesiastical administration; the unit rolled out across England in the 1860s. A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of about 75,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. Eight parishes have city status. A civil parish may be known as and confirmed as a town, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council, a right reserved not conferred on other units of English local government. 35% of the English population live in a civil parish. As of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England; the most populous is Weston super Mare and those with cathedral city status are Chichester, Hereford, Ripon, Salisbury and Wells.
On 1 April 2014, Queen's Park became the first civil parish in Greater London. Before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough. Wales was divided into civil parishes until 1974, when they were replaced by communities, which are similar to English parishes in the way they operate. Civil parishes in Scotland were abolished for local government purposes by the Local Government Act 1929, the Scottish equivalent of English civil parishes are community council areas, which were established by the Local Government Act 1973; the Parish system in Europe was established between the 8th and 12th centuries and in England was old by the time of the Conquest. These areas were based on the territory of one or more manors, areas which in some cases derived their bounds from Roman or Iron Age estates. Parish boundaries were conservative, changing little, after 1180'froze' so that boundaries could no longer be changed at all, despite changes to manorial landholdings - though there were some examples of sub-division.
The consistency of these boundaries, up until the 19th century is useful to historians, is of cultural significance in terms of shaping local identities, a factor reinforced by the adoption of parish boundaries unchanged, by successor local government units. There was huge variation in size between parishes, for instance Writtle in Essex was 13,568 acres while neighbouring Shellow Bowells was just 469 acres, Chignall Smealy 476 acres; until the break with Rome, parishes managed ecclesiastical matters, while the manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice. The church replaced the manor court as the rural administrative centre, levied a local tax on produce known as a tithe. In the medieval period, responsibilities such as relief of the poor passed from the Lord of the Manor to the parish's rector, who in practice would delegate tasks among his vestry or the monasteries. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the power to levy a rate to fund relief of the poor was conferred on the parish authorities by the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601.
Both before and after this optional social change, local charities are well-documented. The parish authorities were consisted of all the ratepayers of the parish; as the number of ratepayers of some parishes grew, it became difficult to convene meetings as an open vestry. In some built up, areas the select vestry took over responsibility from the entire body of ratepayers; this innovation allowed governance by a self-perpetuating elite. The administration of the parish system relied on the monopoly of the established English Church, which for a few years after Henry VIII alternated between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, before settling on the latter on the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. By the 18th century, religious membership was becoming more fractured in some places, due for instance to the progress of Methodism; the legitimacy of the parish vestry came into question and the perceived inefficiency and corruption inherent in the system became a source for concern in some places.
For this reason, during the early 19th century the parish progressively lost its powers to ad hoc boards and other organisations, for example the loss of responsibility for poor relief through the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. Sanitary districts covered England in Ireland three years later; the replacement boards were each entitled to levy their own rate in the parish. The church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and became voluntary from 1868; the ancient parishes diverged into two distinct, nearly overlapping, systems of parishes during the 19th century. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1866 declared all areas that levied a separate rate: C of E ecclesiastical parishes, extra-parochial areas and their analogue, chapelries, to be "civil parishes". To have collected rates this means these beforehand had their own vestries, boards or equivalent bodies; the Church of England parishes, which cover more than 99% of England, became termed "ecclesiastical parishes" and the boundaries of these soon diverged from those of the Ancient Parishes in order to reflect modern circumstances.
After 1921 each ecclesiastical parish has been the responsibility of the parochial church councils. In the late 19th century, most of the ancient irregularities inheri
Camborne is a town in Cornwall, England. The population at the 2011 Census was 20,845; the northern edge of the parish includes a section of the South West Coast Path, Hell's Mouth and Deadman's Cove. Camborne was one of the richest tin mining areas in the world and home to the Camborne School of Mines. Kammbronn is Cornish for'crooked hill'; the word'kamm', crooked, is the same in the Breton language, the Welsh and Irish Gaelic word is'kam'.'Hill' in Welsh is'Bryn'. Camborne is in the western part of the largest urban and industrial area in Cornwall with the town of Redruth 3 miles to the east, it has a town council. Camborne-Redruth is on the northern side of the Carn Brea/Carnmenellis granite upland which slopes northwards to the sea; the two towns are linked by the A3047 road, turnpiked in 1839 and the villages along the road were Roskear, Tuckingmill and Illogan. Running north-south are a number of small streams with narrow river valleys which have been deeply-cut following centuries of tin streaming and other industrial processes.
An example is the Red River valley. To the north, the A30 forms a boundary between the urban area and the agricultural land on the other side; the first mention of the medieval Camborne churchtown is in 1181 although in 1931 the ruins of a probable Romano-British villa were found at Magor Farm, near Camborne, excavated that year under the guidance of the Royal Institution of Cornwall. It is the only Roman villa to be found in the whole of Cornwall. There are early Christian sites such as an inscribed altar stone, dated to the 10th or 11th centuries, which attests to the existence of a settlement then. Langdon records. By the late Middle Ages manorial holdings developed in the surrounding area, church-paths linked the churchtown to the outlying hamlets. Cornish medieval mystery plays were held in a playing place and the chuchyard is said to have had a pilgrimage chapel and holy well. John Norden visited in 1584 and described Camborne as ″A churche standinge among the barrayne hills'″. At this time there would have been moors and rough grazing as well as small fields in the surrounding countryside.
By 1708 Camborne had rights to hold markets and three fairs a year which may be an indication of tin mining in the area. Mining is first recorded locally in the 1400s with early exploitation of the small streams cutting through the mineralised area and from shallow mines following lodes. Adit mining was first recorded in the 16th century. A sign of increasing industrial activity and increasing industrial population is the first chapel built in 1806 and the development of a local Methodist community. In 1823 the population was around 2,000 and in 1841 it was 4,377, with 75 smiths recorded and over two-thirds of the working population employed in the mining industry. In the expanding town gasworks were opened in 1834, the Hayle Railway was built and Holmans opened a small foundry in 1839. Camborne is best known as a centre for the former Cornish tin and copper mining industry, having its working heyday during the 18th and early 19th centuries. Camborne was just a village until transformed by the mining boom which began in the late 18th century and saw the Camborne and Redruth district become the richest mining area in the world.
Although a considerable number of ruinous stacks and engine houses remain, they cannot begin to convey the scenes of 150 years ago when scores of mines transfigured the landscape. Dolcoath Mine, the'Queen of Cornish Mines' was, at a depth of 3,500 feet, for many years the deepest mine in the world, not to mention one of the oldest before its closure in 1921; the last working tin mine in Europe, South Crofty, which closed in 1998, is to be found in Camborne. Apart from the mines themselves, Camborne was home to many important related industries, including the once world-renowned foundry of Holman Bros Ltd. Holmans, a family business founded in 1801, was for generations, Camborne's, indeed Cornwall's largest manufacturer of industrial equipment making the famous Sten submachine gun for a stint during the Second World War; the Holman Projector was used by the Royal Navy. At its height Holmans was spread over three sites within Camborne, employing some three and half thousand men. Despite Britain's industrial decline, Compair Holmans Camborne factory closed in 2001.
On the afternoon of Tuesday 5 December 2006, a wall of the Holmans factory was leaning towards the railway line, as a result the line west of Truro was closed for the afternoon and night and disrupting railway services, as it was feared the wall could collapse onto the mainline, part of the derelict factory was demolished that night. A modest quantity of South Crofty tin was purchased by a local enterprise and this dwindling stock is used to make specialist tin jewellery, branded as the South Crofty Collection. Tin mined at South Crofty was used to form the bronze medals awarded in the 2012 London Olympics Because of the prior importance of metal mining to the Cornish economy, the Camborne School of Mines developed as the only specialist hard rock education establishment in the United Kingdom, until the Royal School of Mines was established in 1851. Plans for the school were laid out in 1829, leading to the current school in 1888, it now forms part of the University of Exeter. CSM
A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban or industrially developed area. In most cases, a conurbation is a polycentric urbanised area, in which transportation has developed to link areas to create a single urban labour market or travel to work area; the term "conurbation" was coined in 1915 by Patrick Geddes in his book Cities In Evolution. He drew attention to the ability of the new technology of electric power and motorised transport to allow cities to spread and agglomerate together, gave as examples "Midlandton" in England, the Ruhr in Germany, Randstad in the Netherlands and North Jersey in the United States; the term as described is used in Britain, whereas in the United States each polycentric "metropolitan area" may have its own common designation, such as San Francisco Bay Area or the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex. Conurbation consists of adjacent metropolitan areas that are connected with one another by urbanization Internationally, the term "urban agglomeration" is used to convey a similar meaning to "conurbation."
A conurbation should be contrasted with a megalopolis, where the urban areas are close but not physically contiguous and where the merging of labour markets has not yet developed. The cities and towns of Port Louis, Beau Bassin-Rose Hill, Quatre Bornes, Vacoas-Phoenix and other urbanized villages form a large and central conurbation on the island of Mauritius. A large part of this conurbation is located in the district of Plaines Wilhems; this network of urban areas has a total population of 606,650 as of 2011. Rabat-Salé Lagos is a conurbation formed through the merged development of the initial Lagos city area with other cities and towns, such as Ikeja, along with various suburban communities like Agege, Ifako-Ijaiye, Mushin and Shomolu. Johannesburg and Tshwane are merging to form a region that has a population of 14.6 million. Greater Buenos Aires – Greater La Plata – Zárate / Campana The entire Rio–São Paulo area is sometimes considered a conurbation, plans are in the works to connect the cities with a high-speed rail.
Yet the government of Brazil does not consider this area a single unit for statistical purposes, population data may not be reliable. The "Golden Horseshoe" is a densely populated and industrialized region centred on the west end of Lake Ontario in Southern Ontario, Canada. Most of it is part of the Windsor-Quebec City corridor. With a population of 8.8 million people, the Golden Horseshoe makes up over a quarter of the population of Canada and contains 75% of Ontario's population, making it one of the largest population concentrations in North America. Although it is a geographically named sub-region of Southern Ontario, "Greater Golden Horseshoe" is more used today to describe the metropolitan regions that stretch across the area in totality; the largest cities in the region include Toronto, Oakville, Burlington, St. Catherines and Hamilton. Greater Montreal is Canada's 2nd largest conurbation, with Statistics Canada defining the Census Metropolitan Area as 4,258.31 square kilometres and a population of 3,824,221 as of 2011, which represents half of the population of the province of Quebec.
Smaller, there are 82 municipalities grouped under the Montreal Metropolitan Community to coordinate issues such as land planning and economic development. British Columbia's Lower Mainland is the most populated area in Western Canada, it consists of many mid-sized contiguous urban areas, including Vancouver, North Vancouver, Burnaby and Coquitlam. The Lower Mainland population is around 2.5 million and the area has one of the highest growth rates on the continent of up to 9.2 percent from the 2006 census. The National Capital Region is made up of the capital and neighbouring Gatineau, located across the Ottawa River; as Ottawa is in Ontario and Gatineau, this is a unique conurbation. Federal government buildings are located in both cities and many workers live in one city and work in the other; the National Capital Region consists of an area of 5,319 square kilometres that straddles the boundary between the provinces of Ontario and Quebec. The area of the National Capital Region is similar to that of the Ottawa-Gatineau Census Metropolitan Area, although the National Capital Region contains a number of small neighbouring communities that are not contained within the CMA.
When all the communities are added, the population is around 1,500,000. Ottawa-Gatineau is the only CMA in the nation to fall within two provinces; the Caribbean area, not considered to be part of a continent geographically speaking, has a conurbation in Puerto Rico consisting of San Juan, Bayamón, Carolina, Canóvanas, Trujillo Alto, Toa Alta, Toa Baja, Cataño, Caguas. This area is colloquially known as the "Área Metropolitana", houses around 1.4 million inhabitants spread over an area of 396.61 square kilometers. Thus, making it the largest city in the Caribbean by area. One example of a conurbation is the expansive concept of the New York metropolitan area centered on New York City, including 30 counties spread among New York State, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, with an estimated population of 21,961,994 in 2007. One-fifteenth of all U. S. residents live in the Greater New York City area. This conurbation is the result of se
See also: Battle of Stratton 1643Stratton is a small town situated near the coastal resort of Bude in north Cornwall, England, UK. It was the name of one of ten ancient administrative shires of Cornwall - see "Hundreds of Cornwall". A battle of the English civil war took place here on 16 May 1643. A local saying at Stratton is "Stratton was a market town when Bude was just a furzy down", meaning Stratton was long established when Bude was just gorse-covered downland; the earliest known references to Stratton are found in King Alfred’s Will of c. 880 and the Domesday survey of 1086. The earliest form of the name of Stratton is Strætneat, an Anglo-Saxon form derived from Old Cornish "strad" and "neth", meaning the flat-bottomed valley of the river Neth; this river is now known as the River Strat. At the time of the Domesday Survey the manor of Stratton had land for 30 ploughs. There were 20 smallholders and 20 slaves. There were 20 acres of woodland, 200 acres of pasture, 30 cattle and 300 sheep.
Before the conquest the manor had been held by Alfred the Marshal. The town has given its name to a traditional folk ballad "The Stratton Carol". One of the most prominent buildings in Stratton is the 12th century Norman church dedicated to Saint Andrew which holds a central and elevated position within the town, it is listed Grade I. The church contains a brass to Sir John Arundell of Trerice, 1561; as well as the main church, there were other chapels around the village. This is supported by the existence of the large, old tithe barn; the area around Cot Hill was an important sanctuary for pilgrims travelling the pilgrimage route to Hartland during Medieval times. However, many of the chapels are derelict or have now been converted, suggesting the population decline has been so great as to leave only enough people to use the church and one remaining chapel; the town once had a jail, a police station and a courthouse, but the police station has now been moved to Bude, the jail demolished and the courthouse converted into two dwellings.
The door of the jail, marked "CLINK", is still visible in the church porch. The following quotation indicates Stratton's importance as a centre of justice "As Stratton Town and the surrounding villages grew, the need to administer civil and criminal law from an appropriate location was necessary." The name Stratton was given to the unit of government for taxation during Saxon times, known as a ‘Hundred’. Stratton was the head of its hundred due to its importance in comparison to that of the local towns and villages, including Kilkhampton, Boyton, Whitstone, Stratton itself, Bridgerule, Week St Mary, North Tamerton and Morwenstow. Other than the loss of Bridgerule, the Stratton Hundred remained undisturbed until the demise of the Stratton Rural District in the 1970s; the Hundred is an indicator of Stratton’s importance not only for these reasons, but because in the whole of Cornwall, there were only nine Hundreds and all of them had their own courts, this suggests that not only did Stratton have a courthouse, it was the only one in the Stratton Hundred.
Trade and industry affected Stratton’s popularity. During medieval times it dealt in leather, evidence of this is the road named after the trade. There is evidence of farming in the milking parlours and stalls that are made from cob, a traditional building material, the Old Malt House shows where ale was produced in the church owned brewery. During medieval times herbs and spices were considered important, for medicinal purposes as well as others, Stratton was famous for having an abundance of wild garlic. Trade events such as markets and fairs were a regular occurrence in Stratton and people would come from all around to attend. Lots of the evidence for events and trades in Stratton is subtle, for example street names like Market Street and Poundfield Lane. Stratton had up to 14 pubs. Many have now been knocked down or converted, however some, for example the Tree Inn, are still running, despite fewer customers than they would have expected before Bude became the main town. Although many of the shops that once lined the streets have now been converted into homes, the large front windows still hint at the lives led by the inhabitants when Stratton was the most important town in the area.
Trade directories allow us to compare the two towns, for example, in 1844, when Stratton had six shoemakers, Bude had only one, although Slater’s Trade Directory 1852-1853 shows the period in which Bude was beginning to catch up, although Stratton was still thriving. One of the main factors which led to the demise of Stratton’s influence was New Road which directed traffic away from the centre of Stratton in the early 20th century; the bypass was built in 1950 when Stratton was well and defeated. Following the 1960s rail closures Stratton and Bude became the two towns most remote from the rail network in England. Despite the downfall of Stratton, it still managed to keep the hospita
Bodmin is a civil parish and historic town in Cornwall, United Kingdom. It is situated south-west of Bodmin Moor; the extent of the civil parish corresponds closely to that of the town so is urban in character. It is bordered to the east by Cardinham parish, to the southeast by Lanhydrock parish, to the southwest and west by Lanivet parish, to the north by Helland parish. Bodmin had a population of 14,736 as of the 2011 Census, it was the county town of Cornwall until the Crown Courts moved to Truro, the administrative centre. Bodmin was in the administrative North Cornwall District until local government reorganisation in 2009 abolished the District; the town is part of the North Cornwall parliamentary constituency, represented by Scott Mann MP. Bodmin Town Council is made up of sixteen councillors; each year, the Council elects one of its number as Mayor to serve as the town's civic leader and to chair council meetings. Bodmin lies in the east of south-west of Bodmin Moor, it has been suggested that the town's name comes from an archaic word in the Cornish language "bod" and a contraction of "menegh".
The "monks' dwelling" may refer to an early monastic settlement instituted by St. Guron, which St. Petroc took as his site. Guron is said to have departed to St Goran on the arrival of Petroc; the hamlets of Cooksland and Turfdown are in the parish. St. Petroc founded a monastery in Bodmin in the 6th century and gave the town its alternative name of Petrockstow; the monastery was deprived of some of its lands at the Norman conquest but at the time of Domesday still held eighteen manors, including Bodmin and Rialton. Bodmin is one of the oldest towns in Cornwall, the only large Cornish settlement recorded in the Domesday Book in 1086. In the 15th century the Norman church of St Petroc was rebuilt and stands as one of the largest churches in Cornwall. Built at that time was an abbey of canons regular, now ruined. For most of Bodmin's history, the tin industry was a mainstay of the economy; the name of the town derives from the Cornish "Bod-meneghy", meaning "dwelling of or by the sanctuary of monks".
Variant spellings recorded include Botmenei in 1100, Bodmen in 1253, Bodman in 1377 and Bodmyn in 1522. The Bodman spelling appears in sources and maps from the 16th and 17th centuries, most notably in the celebrated map of Cornwall produced by John Speed but engraved by the Dutch cartographer Jodocus Hondius the Elder in Amsterdam in 1610, it is unclear whether the Bodman spelling signifies any historical or monastic connection with the ancient settlement of Bodman at the western end of the Bodensee in the German province of Baden. An inscription on a stone built into the wall of a summer house in Lancarffe furnishes proof of a settlement in Bodmin in the early Middle Ages, it has been dated from the 6th to 8th centuries. Arthur Langdon records three Cornish crosses at Bodmin. There is Carminow Cross at a road junction southeast of the town; the Black Death killed half of Bodmin's population in the mid 14th century. Bodmin was the centre of three Cornish uprisings; the first was the Cornish Rebellion of 1497 when a Cornish army, led by Michael An Gof, a blacksmith from St. Keverne and Thomas Flamank, a lawyer from Bodmin, marched to Blackheath in London where they were defeated by 10,000 men of the King's army under Baron Daubeny.
In the autumn of 1497, Perkin Warbeck tried to usurp the throne from Henry VII. Warbeck was proclaimed King Richard IV in Bodmin but Henry had little difficulty crushing the uprising. In 1549, allied with other rebels in neighbouring Devon, rose once again in rebellion when the staunchly Protestant Edward VI tried to impose a new Prayer Book; the lower classes of Cornwall and Devon were still attached to the Roman Catholic religion and again a Cornish army was formed in Bodmin which marched across the border into Devon to lay siege to Exeter. This became known as the Prayer Book Rebellion. Proposals to translate the Prayer Book into Cornish were suppressed and in total 4,000 people were killed in the rebellion; the Borough of Bodmin was one of the 178 municipal boroughs which under the auspices of the Municipal Corporations Act 1835 was mandated to create an electable council and a Police Watch Committee responsible for overseeing a police force in the town. The new system directly replaced the Parish Constables that had policed the borough since time immemorial and brought paid and accountable law enforcement for the first time.
Bodmin Borough Police was the municipal police force for the Borough of Bodmin from 1836 to 1866. The creation of the Cornwall Constabulary in 1857 put pressure on smaller municipal police forces to merge with the county; the two-man force of Bodmin came under threat immediately, but it would take until 1866 for the Mayor of Bodmin and the Chairman of the Police Watch Committee to agree on the terms of amalgamation. After a public enquiry, the force was disbanded in January 1866 and policing of the borough was deferred to the county from thereon; the song "Bodmin Town" was collected from the Cornishman William Nichols at Whitchurch, Devon, in 1891 by Sabine Baring-Gould who published a version in his A Garland of Country Song. The existing church building is
Callington is a civil parish and town in south-east Cornwall, United Kingdom about 7 miles north of Saltash and 9 miles south of Launceston. Callington parish had a population of 4,783 according to the 2001 census; this had increased to 5,786 in the 2011 census. The town is situated in east Cornwall between Dartmoor to the east and Bodmin Moor to the west. A former agricultural market town, it lies at the intersection of the south-north A388 Saltash to Launceston road and the east-west A390 Tavistock to Liskeard road. Kit Hill is a mile north-east of the town and rises to 333 metres with views of Dartmoor, Bodmin Moor and the River Tamar; the hamlets of Bowling Green, Kelly Bray and Downgate are in the parish. Callington railway station was the terminus of a branch line from Bere Alston, the junction with the Southern Railway's Tavistock to Plymouth line; the railway line beyond Gunnislake to the Callington terminus was closed in the 1960s, due to low usage and difficult operating conditions on the final sections of the line due to several severe gradients and speed restrictions.
One can still travel by rail on the Tamar Valley Line from Plymouth as far as Gunnislake via Bere Alston, where trains reverse. For most of its journey the line follows the River Tamar. Gunnislake is the nearest railway station to Callington, although the nearest mainline station is at Saltash. Food manufacturers Ginsters and The Cornwall Bakery are the largest employers in the town. Ginsters uses local produce in many of its products, buying potatoes and other vegetables from local farmers and suppliers. Historic listed building The Old Clink on Tillie St, built in 1851 as a lock-up for drunks and vagrants, is now used as the offices for a local driving school. There is a Tesco supermarket, opened in 2010, which employs 200 local people. Callington has been postulated as one of the possible locations of the ancient site of Celliwig, associated with King Arthur. Nearby ancient monuments include Castlewitch Henge with a diameter of 96m and Cadsonbury Iron Age hillfort, as well as Dupath Well built in 1510 on the site of an ancient sacred spring.
Callington was recorded in the Domesday Book. The lord had land for three ploughs with eleven serfs. Twenty-four villeins and fourteen smallholders had land for fifteen ploughs. There were one and a half square leagues of pasture and a small amount of woodland; the income of the manor was £6 sterling. In 1601 Robert Rolle purchased the manor of Callington, thereby gaining the pocket borough seat of Callington in Parliament, which in future served to promote the careers of many Rolles, he nominated to this seat his brother William Rolle in 1604 and 1614, his son Sir Henry Rolle, of Shapwick, in 1620 and 1624, his son-in-law Thomas Wise of Sydenham in Devon, in 1625, another son John Rolle, In the 19th-century, Callington was one of the most important mining areas in Great Britain. Deposits of silver were found nearby in Silver Valley. Today, the area is marked by mining remains. Granite is still quarried on Hingston Down; the former Callington constituency, a rotten borough, elected two members to the unreformed House of Commons but was abolished by the Reform Act 1832.
The town is now in the South East Cornwall constituency. St Mary's Church was a chapel of ease to South Hill. Unusually for Cornwall there is a clerestory; the parish church contains the fine brass of Nicholas Assheton and his wife, 1466. In the churchyard there is a Gothic lantern cross, it was first mentioned by the historian William Borlase in 1752. Each of the four faces of the cross head features a carved figure beneath an ogee arch; the heads of these figures have been chiselled off, no doubt in the Commonwealth period. Callington is one of a small number of towns to continue to appoint a Portreeve. Callington Town Council covers the civil parish of Callington. At the Council elections in 2013 only ten candidates stood, eight Independents and two Mebyon Kernow Councillors. In recent years, the town has seen much residential development with more, including social housing, planned for the next few years; the neighbouring village of Kelly Bray has doubled in size in recent years with houses still being built in the area.
Callington is twinned with Guipavas in Brittany and Barsbüttel near Hamburg in Germany. It has unofficial friendship links with Keila in Estonia and a suburb of Malaga, Spain. Callington has both cricket teams. Callington Town Football Club has four adult teams playing in the South West Peninsula League, East Cornwall League, Duchy League and South West Regional Women's Football League, they all play at Marshfield Parc. Callington Cricket Club has three teams playing in the Cornwall Cricket League and play their games at Moores Park. People from Callington Dupath Well East Cornwall Mineral Railway Callington Community College Callington Town Council website Online Catalogue for Callington at the Cornwall Record Office Callington at Curlie
Newquay is a town in the south west of England, in the United Kingdom. It is a civil parish, seaside resort, regional centre for aerospace industries, future spaceport and a fishing port on the North Atlantic coast of Cornwall 12 miles north of Truro and 20 miles west of Bodmin; the town is bounded to the south by the River Gannel and its associated salt marsh, to the north-east by the Porth Valley. The western edge of the town meets the Atlantic at Fistral Bay; the town has been expanding inland since the former fishing village of New Quay began to grow in the second half of the nineteenth century. In 2001, the census recorded a permanent population of 19,562, increasing to 20,342 at the 2011 census. Recent estimates suggest that the total for the wider Newquay area would rise to 27,862 by 2018 and 30,341 in 2019. There are some pre-historic burial mounds and an embankment on the area now known as The Barrowfields, 400 m from Trevelgue. There were once up to fifteen barrows. Excavations here have revealed charred cooking pots and a coarse pottery burial urn containing remains of a Bronze Age chieftain, buried here up to 3,500 years ago.
In 1987, evidence of a Bronze Age village was found at Trethellan Farm, a site that overlooks the River Gannel. The first signs of settlement in the Newquay region consist of a late Iron Age hill fort/industrial centre which exploited the nearby abundant resources and the superior natural defences provided by Trevelgue Head, it is claimed that occupation of the site was continuous from the 3rd century BC to the 5th or 6th century AD. The curve of the headland around what is now Newquay Harbour provided natural protection from bad weather and a small fishing village grew up in the area; when the village was first occupied is unknown but it is not mentioned in the Domesday Book, although a parcel of land was recorded at Treninnick, now part of suburban Newquay. Treninnick was part of the manor of Coswarth and consisted of one virgate with five sheep. Crantock is the only other recognisable name in the Newquay area recorded in Domesday. By the 15th century, a village referred to as “Keye” existed around the present harbour, near “Tewynblustri”.
"Towan" means dune or sand hill in Cornish. Some sources have suggested in the past that it meant boats, but this claim is not supported by modern authorities and is dismissed by Padel in his dictionary of Cornish place names; the name Towan Blystra, although quoted as the Cornish equivalent of Newquay, was the name of a separate settlement some 200m away from the harbour. There is no record of ‘Newquay’ as a name being rendered in Cornish; the anchorage was exposed to winds from the north east and in 1439 the local burgesses applied to Edmund Lacey, Bishop of Exeter for leave and funds raised through the mechanism of an indulgence, to build a "New quay" from which the town derives its name. The new quay itself did not appear until the early 17th century; the first national British census of 1801 recorded around 1,300 inhabitants in the settlement. The construction of the current harbour started in 1832.. A mansion called the Tower was built for the Molesworth family in 1835: it included a castellated tower and a private chapel as they were practising Roman Catholics and no church for that denomination existed in the area.
The Tower became the golf club house. After the arrival of passenger trains in 1876, the village around the port of Newquay started to grow more quickly. Several major hotels were built around the turn of the 19th century, including the Victoria in East Street, the Atlantic and the Headland, while many others were created around this period by converting former large houses, built by wealthy visitors as holiday homes along Narrowcliff; until the end of the 19th century, the port was famous for pilchards and there is a "Huer's Hut" above the harbour from which a huer would cry "Hevva!" to call out the fishing fleet when pilchard shoals were spotted. The town's present insignia includes four pilchards, while its motto Ro An Mor is Cornish for'from the sea'; the real pilchards now only survive in limited stocks, but a small fleet still catches the local edible crabs and lobsters. The arms of the former urban district council of Newquay were Or on a saltire Azure four herrings respectant Argent.
Three churches were built early in the twentieth century, including the present day parish church of St Michael the Archangel, consecrated in 1911. Growth of the town eastwards soon reached the area around the railway station: Station Road became Cliff Road around 1930, the houses beyond, along Narrowcliff, were converted into hotels. Narrowcliff was known for a while as Narrowcliff Promenade, Narrowcliff Road. On some pre-war maps it is spelt Narrowcliffe. At the time of the First World War the last buildings at the edge of the town were a little further along present-day Narrowcliff, including the Hotel Edgcumbe. Post-war development saw new houses and streets built in the Chester Road area, accompanied by ribbon development along the country lane which led to St Columb Minor, some 2 miles away; this thoroughfare was modernised and named Henver Road some time in the 1930s. Development continued in this direction until the Second World War, by which time much of Henver Road had houses on both sides, with considerable infilling taki